Isaiah Chapter 28-33 Star Charts: Clockwise from 703 to 701 B.C. is implied by "let the feasts (of another year) go round" [Maurer]; or "Let the feasts run their round" [Kay, Cheyne, Delitzsch]; i.e. let there be one more round of the annual festival-times, and then let the enemy march in and commence the siege. That is, after the completion of a year "I will distress Ariel" at the end of which Jerusalem should be besieged by the army of Sennacherib in 701 B.C. The discourse was probably delivered at the leading festival, the Feast of Tabernacles, which was the “turn of the year” (Exodus 34:22) in ancient Israel. The intention is to date the commencement of the siege 540° days after the alliance with Egypt.

Sennacherib of Assyria finally crushed the Ethiopian-Egyptian forces at El Tekeh in 701 B.C. (brown lunar bruise). The alliance with Egypt is mentioned in 2 Kings 18:21: "thou trustest upon the (red radius lines) STAFF of this BRUISED (brown lunar bruise and yellow solar bruise radius line) REED" which is mistranslated as occurring in "the fourteenth year of Hezekiah" (2 Ki. 18:13). The fall of Samaria is dated 721-718 B.C. That was the fourth to sixth year of Hezekiah, according to 2 Kings 18:9-10. His fourteenth year, therefore, would be 711 B.C. But Sennacherib’s own monuments fix the date of the expedition against Judah and Egypt at 701 B.C. This divergence is remarkable. It must be borne in mind that the Assyrian documents are strictly contemporary, whereas the Books of Kings were compiled long after the events they record, and have only reached us after innumerable transcriptions; while the former, so far as they are unbroken, are in exactly the same state now as when they first left the hands of the Assyrian scribes. Clearly, 2 Kings 18:13 is mistranslated and should read "in the 24th year of Hezekiah" (701 B.C.).

Hezekiah anticipated the Assyrian invasion of 701 B.C., and made two major preparations for Sennacherib's siege. While he was unable to stop Sennacherib's capture of the walled cities outside the capital, which are symbolically described as "thy ropes (which) are loosed; they could not well strengthen their (radius line) MAST (Jerusalem), they could not spread the (Milky Way) SAIL " (33:23), he did dig a TUNNEL that was 533 meters long (Milky Way with sun hole in one side and moon hole out the other side) in order to provide Jerusalem underground access to the waters of the Spring of Gihon, which lay outside the city (29:4). The work is described in the Siloam Inscription. At the same time, a WALL (Milky Way) was built around the Pool of Siloam, into which the waters from the spring flowed (Isaiah 22:11). An impressive vestige of this structure is the broad WALL in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

With Stammering Lips and Another Tongue
Will He Speak to This People

28:1 Woe to the crown of pride (gold sun), to the drunkards of Ephraim (Gemini), whose glorious beauty is a fading flower (gold sun turns into brown moon), which are on the head of the fat valleys (Milky Way valley) of them that are overcome with wine!

In Isa 29:1 the Prophet declares that the city of Jerusalem should be shut in. He can only mean that isolation of the city in regard to which Sennacherib states in his inscriptions (comp. SCHRADER, pp. 176 and 187), that he had enclosed Hezekiah “as a bird in a cage.” This event, according to 2 Ki. 18:13, happened in the year 714 (incorrect), while according to the Assyrian monuments (comp. SCHRADER, Cuneiform Inscriptions, p. 299, and our Introduction to chaps, 36–39), it took place in the year 700 (correct). As this difference, as we will attempt to show in the introduction to chaps, 36–39, was occasioned by a misunderstanding of later writers, there being originally no disagreement between the biblical and Assyrian chronology, but both originally agreeing in referring the expedition of Sennacherib against Phenicia, Egypt and Judah to the 28th year of Hezekiah, i. e., the year 700 B.C., the speech contained in chapter 29 would consequently have been delivered about the year 702. We have an aid to fixing the date in the words Isa 28:1: “Add year to year, let the festivals complete their round.” According to our exposition the Prophet intimates by these words that after the expiration of the current year another year should complete its revolution, and then the hour of decision should arrive. That at this time the Egyptian alliance had been already, as is hinted in Isa 28:15, arranged to a considerable extent in secret consultations, is extremely probable. And when we find, 30:2 sqq., the Jewish Ambassadors already on the way to Egypt, and hear, 31:1 sqq., the futility of Egyptian help again emphatically asserted, and then read 32:10 that, after an indefinite number of days above a year had expired, Jerusalem should be cut off from its fields and vineyards by the enemy, we may draw from all this the conclusion, that chaps, 30–32 were produced not long after chap. 29. But when we read, 33:7 sqq., that the ambassadors of peace sent by Hezekiah return in sorrow, because the Assyrian king in addition to the great ransom (2 Kings 18:14 sqq.) demands the surrender of the city itself; when that passage describes the occupation of the surrounding country by the enemy, in consequence of which Judah (33:23) is compared with a ship whose ropes no longer keep the mast firm, when at last the LORD, 33:10, exclaims “Now will I rise; now will I be exalted; now will I lift up myself,” we shall not err in assuming that this prophecy belongs to the time immediately after the return of those ambassadors of peace, and was therefore uttered shortly before the summons given to Hezekiah by Rabshakeh. Each of the five speeches of our prophetic cycle begins with. From the absence of at the beginning of chap. 32, as well as from the tenor of this chapter, we see that it forms with chap. 31 one whole. is found once, 29:15, even in the middle of the discourse.

before the expedition of Sennacherib -- The negotiations with Egypt which preceded the revolt of 701 form the historical thread on which the prophecies are strung, the whole situation presupposed is such as never emerged, so far as is known, prior to the years 704–701. What we have to do with is evidently no mere series of covert and underhand intrigues with Egypt; but a formal alliance with that empire involving an open revolt against Assyria. The nation has resolved to stake everything on a single desperate venture. Of negotiations with Egypt in the years 725–722 we have no record whatever; and if any took place they must, like those of 711, have been checked before leading to a declared rupture with the Assyrians. In these circumstances it would be extremely hazardous to abandon the assured historical ground supplied by the events of 704–701 in favour of any hypothetical rebellion at an earlier time.

To the crown of pride - This is a Hebrew mode of expression, denoting the proud or haughty crown. There can be no doubt that it refers to the capital of the kingdom of Ephraim; that is, to Samaria. This city was built by Omri, who purchased 'the hill Samaria' of Shemer, for two talents of silver, equal in value to 792 British pounds, 11 shillings, 8d., and built the city on the hill, and called it, after the name of Shemer, Samaria 1 Kings 16:24. Omri was king of Israel (925 b.c.), and he made this city the capital of his kingdom. The city was built on a pleasant and fertile hill, and surrounded with a rich valley, with a circle of hills beyond; and the beauty of the hill on which the city was built suggested the idea of a wreath or chaplet of flowers, or a "crown."

Fading flower -- it shall soon be destroyed, as a flower soon withers and fades away. This was fulfilled in the destruction that came upon Samaria under the Assyrians when the ten tribes were carried into captivity 2 Kings 17:3-6.

A man's reason, conscience, moral feelings, and physical strength are all overcome by indulgence in wine, and the entire man is prostrate by it. This passage is a proof of what has been often denied, but which further examination has abundantly confirmed, that the inhabitants of wine countries are as certainly intemperate as those which make rise of ardent spirits.

2 Behold, the Lord hath a mighty and strong one (Sennacherib -- King of Assyria; Ophiuchus), which as a tempest of hail (rotating stars) and a destroying storm, as a flood of mighty waters overflowing (Milky Way flood), shall cast down to the earth with the hand (full moon under Ophiuchus's hand).

the obvious interpretation is to refer it to the Assyrian king, as the agent by which Yahweh would destroy Samaria 2 Kings 17:3-6. This power was entirely under the direction of Yahweh, and would be employed by him in accomplishing his purpose on that guilty people (compare the notes at Isaiah 10:5-6).

As a tempest of hail - A storm of hail is a most striking representation of the desolation that is produced by the ravages of an invading army (compare Job 27:21; the note at Isaiah 30:30; also Hosea 13:15).

A flood of mighty waters - This is also a striking description of the devastating effects of an invading army (compare Psalm 90:5; Jeremiah 46:7-8)

3 The crown of pride, the drunkards of Ephraim, shall be trodden under feet (the golden sun is under the feet of Gemini and Auriga while the brown moon is under the feet of Ophiuchus):

4 And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower (turn from gold sun to brown full moon), and as the hasty fruit before the summer (brown fig); which when he that looketh upon it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up.

The word rendered 'hasty fruit' (bikrh); in Arabic, bokkore; in Spanish, albacore), denotes the "early fig." this ripens in June; the common fig does not ripen until August. Shaw, in his "Travels," p. 370, says: 'No sooner does the "boccore" (the early fig) draw near to perfection in the middle or latter end of June, than the "kermez" or summer fig begins to be formed, though it rarely ripens before August, about which time the same tree frequently throws out a third crop, or the winter fig, as we may call it. This is usually of a much longer shape and darker complexion than the kermez, hanging and ripening on the tree after the leaves are shed; and provided the winter be mild and temperate it is gathered as a delicious morsel in the spring.' Robinson (George), ("Travels in Palestine and Syria," vol. i. p. 354), says, 'The fig tree, which delights in a rocky and parched soil, and is therefore often found in barren spots where nothing else will grow, is very common in Palestine and the East. The fruit is of two kinds, the "boccore" and the "kermouse." The black and white boccore, or early fig, is produced in May; but the kermouse, or the fig properly so called, which is preserved and exported to Europe, is rarely ripe before September.' Compare Hosea 9:10. The phrase 'before the summer' means before the heat of the summer, when the common fig was usually ripe. The idea here is this, the early fig would be plucked and eaten with great greediness. So the city of Samaria would be seized upon and destroyed by its enemies.

as soon as he sees it he plucks it, and eats it at once. He does not lay it up for future use, but as soon as he has it in his hand he devours it. So soon as the Assyrian should see Samaria he would rush upon it, and destroy it. It was usual for conquerors to preserve the cities which they took in war for future use, and to make them a part of the strength or ornament of their kingdom. But Samaria was to be at once destroyed. Its inhabitants were to be carried away, and it would be demolished as greedily as a hungry man plucks and eats the first fig that ripens on the tree.

5 In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory (sun), and for a diadem of beauty (moon), unto the residue of his people (Gemini, Auriga, Orion, Ophiuchus, etc.),

while the kingdom of Israel should be destroyed, the kingdom of Judah would be preserved, and restored (compare Isaiah 7-9)

6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment (sun in Gemini), and for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate (Auriga's chariot wheel and Orion's torch).

those who sat upon the bench of justice; that is, the magistracy in general.

That is, to the very gate of their enemies; who not only repel their foes from their own city, but who drive them even to the gates of their own cities, and besiege them there. Thus 2 Samuel 11:23 : 'And we were upon them even unto the entering of the gate;' that is, we drove them back unto their own gates.

7 But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment (the whole Zodiac walking in circles exhibiting strange behavior).

The word rendered 'have erred' (shg) refers usually to the fact that people "stagger" or "reel" through wine, and is applied commonly to those who are intoxicated Proverbs 20:1. The subsequent part of this verse shows, however, that it does not refer merely to the fact that they stagger and reel as intemperate people do, but that it had an effect on their 'vision' and 'judgment;' that is, it disqualified them for the discharge of their duties as priests and as prophets.

8 For all (sun and moon) tables are full of vomit and filthiness (sun -- yellow vomit; full moon -- brown defecated manure), so that there is no place clean.

9 Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? them (entire Zodiac) that are weaned from the milk (Milky Way), and drawn from the breasts (sun and moon breasts).

That sin was contempt for the manner in which God instructed them by the prophets, and a disregard for his communications as if they were suited to children and not to adults. That "scoffing" was the principal sin aimed at in these verses, is apparent from Isaiah 28:14. Vitringa supposes that these words Isaiah 28:9-10 are designed to describe the manner of teaching by the priests and the prophets as being puerile and silly, and adapted to children. Michaelis supposes that the prophet means to signify that it would be a vain and fruitless labor to attempt to instruct these persons who were given to wine, because they were unaccustomed to sound and true doctrine. Others have supposed that he means that these persons who were thus given to wine and strong drink were disqualified to instruct others, since their teachings were senseless and incoherent, and resembled the talk of children. But the true sense of the passage has undoubtedly been suggested by Lowth. According to this interpretation, the prophet speaks of them as deriders of the manner in which God had spoken to them by his messengers. 'What!' say they, 'does God treat us as children? Does he deal with us as we deal with infants just weaned, perpetually repeating and inculcating the same elementary lessons, and teaching the mere rudiments of knowledge?' The expression, therefore, 'whom shall he teach knowledge?' or, 'whom does he teach?' is an expression of contempt supposed to be spoken by the intemperate priests and prophets - the leaders of the people. 'whom does God take us to be? Does he regard us as mere children? Why are we treated as children with an endless repetition of the same elementary instruction?'
To understand doctrine - Hebrew as Margin, 'Hearing,' or 'report' Isaiah 53:1. The sense is, For whom is that instruction intended? whom does he wish to be taught by it?

Them that are weaned from the milk ... - Does he regard and treat us as mere babes?

10 For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:

For precept must be upon precept - This is probably designed to ridicule the concise and sententious manner of the prophets, and especially the fact that they dwelt much upon the same elementary truths of religion. In teaching children we are obliged to do it by often repeating the same simple lesson. So the profane and scoffing teachers of the people said it had been with the prophets of God. It had been precept upon precept, and line upon line, in the same way as children had been instructed. The meaning is, 'there is a constant repetition of the command, without ornament, imagery, or illustration; without an appeal to our understanding, or respect for our reason; it is simply one mandate after another, just as lessons are inculcated upon children.'
Line upon line - This word (?? qav), properly means "a cord, a line;" particularly a measuring cord or line (2 Kings 21:13; Ezekiel 47:13; see the note at Isaiah 18:2). Here it seems to be used in the sense of "a rule," "law," or "precept." Grotius thinks that the idea is taken from schoolmasters who instruct their pupils by making lines or marks for them which they are to trace or imitate. There is a repetition of similar sounds in the Hebrew in this verse which cannot be conveyed in a translation, and which shows their contempt in a much more striking manner than any version could do - tsav ltsv tsav ltsv qav lqv qev lqv.

Here a little and there a little - In the manner of instructing children, inculcating elementary lessons constantly. It may be observed here that God's method of imparting religious truth has often appeared to a scoffing world to be undignified and foolish. Sinners suppose that he does not sufficiently respect their understanding, and pay a tribute to the dignity of their nature. The truths of God, and his modes of inculcating them, are said to be adapted to the understandings of childhood and of age; to imbecility of years, or to times when the mind is enfeebled by disease.

11 For with stammering lips (Milky Way lips form a grinning mouth) and another tongue (an astronomical unintelligible tongue; instead of a human tongue, he will use a solar or a lunar tongue) will he speak to this people (an astronomical tongue requires a Zodiac translator).

For - This verse is to be understood as a response to what the complaining and dissatisfied people had said, as expressed in the previous verse. God says that he will teach them, but it should be by another tongue - a foreign language in a distant land. Since they refused to hearken to the messages which he sent to them, and which they regarded as adapted only to children, he would teach them in a manner that should be "much more" humiliating; he would make use of the barbarous language of foreigners to bring them to the true knowledge of God.
With stammering lips - The word which is used here is derived from a verb (lg), which means to speak unintelligibly: especially to speak in a foreign language, or to stammer; and then to mock, deride, laugh at, scorn (compare Isaiah 33:19; Proverbs 1:26; Proverbs 17:5; Psalm 2:4; Psalm 59:9; Job 22:19). Here it means in a foreign or barbarous tongue; and the sense is, that the lessons which God wished to teach would be conveyed to them through the language of foreigners - the Chaldeans. They should be removed to a distant land, and there, in hearing a strange speech, in living long among foreigners, they should learn the lesson which they refused to do when addressed by the prophets in their own land.

12 To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest; and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear.

This is the rest - That is, this is the true way of happiness, to wit, by keeping the commands of God which had been so often repeated as to become to them objects of satiety and disgust.

This is the refreshing - This is the way in which the mind may be comforted.

13 But the word of the Lord was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken (God speaks a Zodiac astronomical language that sounds like disjointed thoughts and separate ideas to people -- until they look at a Zodiac star chart).

14 Wherefore hear the word of the Lord, ye scornful men, that rule this people which is in Jerusalem.

Ye scornful men - Ye who despise and reproach God and his message; who fancy yourselves to be secure, and mock at the threatened judgments of the Almighty.

15 Because ye have said, We have made a covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement (sheol -- subterranean retreat; pit; tunnel); when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come unto us: for we have made lies our refuge (pretend to be dead in a grave), and under falsehood have we hid ourselves (tunnels to hide in):

We have made a covenant with death - We are not to suppose that they had formally said this, but that their conduct was as if they had said it; they lived as securely as if they had entered into a compact with death not to destroy them, and with hell not to devour them. The figure is a very bold one, and is designed to express the extraordinary stupidity of the nation. It is most strikingly descriptive of the great mass of people. They are as little anxious about death and hell as if they had made a compact with the king of terrors and the prince of darkness not to destroy them. They are as little moved by the appeals of the gospel, by the alarms of God's providence, by the preaching of his word, and by all the demonstrations that they are exposed to eternal death, as though they had proved that there was no hell, or had entered into a solemn covenant that they should be unmolested. A figure similar to this occurs in Job 5:23 : For thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field; And the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee. Compare Hosea 2:18.

16 Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation (gold sun stone or gold moon stone): he that believeth shall not make haste (flee to safety as Ophiuchus does).

A tried stone - The word which is used here is applied commonly to "metals" which are tried in the fire to test their quality (see Job 23:10; Psalm 66:10; Jeremiah 9:6; Zechariah 13:9). The idea is, that God would lay for a foundation not a stone whose qualities are unknown, and whose stability might be doubtful, but one whose firmness and solidity were so fully known, that the foundation and the superstructure would be secure.

A precious cornerstone - The word 'precious' (Septuagint, and 1 Peter 2:6, μτιμον entimon) refers to the fact that the most solid stone would be used to sustain the corner of the edifice. The principal weight of the superstructure rests on the corners, and hence, in building, the largest and firmest blocks are selected and placed there.

He that believeth - He that confides in that; he that believes that that foundation is firm, and that he is secure in trusting in that, shall not make haste. The great doctrine of faith in the Messiah as a ground of security and salvation, on which so much stress is laid in the New Testament, is here distinctly adverted to. The sense is, that confidence in him should keep the mind firm, and preserve him that believes in safety.

Shall not make haste - The Septuagint renders it, Ου ? μη` καταισχυνθη? Ou me kataischunthe - 'Shall not be ashamed.' So Peter, 1 Peter 2:6; and Paul, Romans 9:33. The Hebrew word yachiysh, from chsh, means properly "to make haste;" and then to urge on; and then to be afraid, to flee. The idea is derived from one who is alarmed, and flees to a place of safety. The specific thought here is that of a man on whose house the tempest beats, and who apprehends that the foundation is insecure, and leaves it to seek a more safe position. The prophet says here, that the foundation on which Zion was reared would be so firm that if a man trusted to that he would have no cause of alarm, however, much the storms should beat around it. The same idea essentially is conveyed in the version of the Septuagint, and by Paul and Peter, where it is rendered 'shall not be ashamed,' or 'confounded.' That is, he shall have no reason to be ashamed of his confidence in the firm foundation; he shall not flee from it as a man does who puts his trust in that which fails him in the day of trial.

17 Judgment also will I lay to the line, and righteousness to the plummet (solar and lunar plumb bob): and the hail (rotating stars) shall sweep away the refuge of lies (Milky Way wall), and the waters shall overflow the hiding place (full moon tunnel entrance flooded).

18 And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with hell (sheol -- subterranean retreat; pit; tunnel); shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through (Milky Way flood -- Assyrian army), then ye shall be trodden down by it (Ophiuchus treads down the lunar tunnel entrance; Gemini and Auriga tread down the solar tunnel entrance).

19 From the time that it goeth forth it shall take you: for morning by morning shall it pass over, by day and by night: and it shall be a vexation only to understand the report.

For morning by morning - Continually; without intermission. It shall be like floods and tempests that have no intermission; that are repeated every day, and continued every night, until everything is swept before them.

20 For the (solar pit) bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it: and the (lunar pit) covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it.

This is evidently a proverbial saying, and means that they would find all their places of defense insufficient to secure them. They seek repose and security - as a man lies down to rest at night. But they find neither. His bed furnishes no rest; his scanty covering furnishes no security from the chills of the night. So it would be with those who sought protection in idols, in the promises of false prophets, and in the aid which might be obtained from Egypt. So it is with sinners. Their vain refuges shall not shield them. The bed on which they seek rest shall give them no repose; the covering with which they seek to clothe themselves shall not defend them from the wrath of God.

21 For the Lord shall rise up as in mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as in the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act.

As in mount Perazim - There is reference here, doubtless, to the event recorded in 2 Samuel 5:20-21, and 1 Chronicles 14:11, where David is said to have defeated the Philistines at Baal-Perazim. This place was near to the valley of Rephaim 2 Samuel 5:19, and not far from Jerusalem. The word 'Perazim' is from prats, to tear, or break forth, as waters do that have been confined; and is indicative of sudden judgment, and of a complete overthrow. It was on that account given to the place where David obtained a signal and complete victory 2 Samuel 5:20; and it is here referred to, to denote that God would come forth in a sudden manner to destroy Jerusalem and Judea. He would come upon them like bursting waters, and sweep them away to a distant land.

As in the valley of Gibeon - In 1 Chronicles 14:16, it is said that after the victory of Baal-Perazim, 'David smote the host of the Philistines from Gibeon even to Gaza.' This victory is doubtless referred to here, and not the victory of Joshua over the Gibeonites Joshua 10:10, as Vitringa and others suppose.

That he may do his work, his strange work - This is called his strange work because it would be inflicted on his people. He had destroyed their enemies often, but now he was about to engage in the unusual work of coming forth against his own people, and sweeping them away to a distant land. The work of judgment and punishment may be called the "strange" work of God always, inasmuch as it is not that in which he delights to engage, and is foreign to the benevolence of his heart. It is especially so when his own people are the objects of his displeasure, and when their sins are such as to demand that he should visit them with the tokens of his wrath.

22 Now therefore be ye not mockers, lest your bands be made strong: for I have heard from the Lord God of hosts a consumption, even determined upon the whole earth.

Lest your bands be made strong - Lest your confinement should be more severe and protracted. God would punish them according to their sins, and if they now ceased to mock and deride him it would greatly mitigate the severity of their punishment (compare Isaiah 24:22).

Upon the whole earth - The whole land of Judea (see the note at Isaiah 24:1).

23 Give ye (solar and lunar) ear, and hear my voice; hearken, and hear my (Milky Way lips) speech.

24 Doth the plowman (Ophiuchus) plow all day to sow? doth he open (Milky way furrow) and break the (brown lunar) clods of his (ecliptic) ground?

Is this the only thing which is necessary to be done in order to obtain a harvest? The idea which the prophet intends to convey here is this. A farmer does not suppose that he can obtain a harvest by doing nothing else but plow. There is much else to be done. So it would be just as absurd to suppose that God would deal with his people always in the same manner, as it would be for the farmer to be engaged in nothing else but plowing.

Doth he open ... - That is, is he always engaged in opening, and breaking the clods of his field? There is much else to be done besides this. The word 'open' here refers to the furrows that are made by the plow. The earth is laid open as it were to the sunbeams, and to the showers of rain, and to the reception of seed. The word rendered 'break' (yshaded) properly means "to harrow," that is, to break up the clods by harrowing Job 39:10; Hosea 10:11.

25 When he hath made plain the (smiling) face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat and the appointed barley and the rie in their place (lunar brown seeds)?

The word 'fitch' denotes a small species of pea. The Hebrew word, however, which occurs nowhere else but here, probably denotes fennel, or dill, an herb whose seed the ancients mixed with their bread in order to give it a more agreeable relish.

26 For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him.

27 For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a (brown lunar) cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod (radius line).

28 Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the (brown lunar) wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his (Sagittarius; Centaurus) horsemen.

29 This also cometh forth from the Lord of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working.

A. The reason of afflictions. It is for the same cause which induces the farmer to employ various methods on his farm.

B. We are not to expect the same unvarying course in God's dealings with us. It would be as unreasonable as to expect that the farmer would be always plowing, or always threshing.

C. We are not to expect always the same kind of afflictions. The farmer uses different machines and modes of threshing, and adapts them to the nature of the grain. So God uses different modes, and adapts them to the nature, character, and disposition of his people. One man requires one mode of discipline, and another another. At one time we need one mode of correction to call us from sin and temptation; at another another. We may lay it down as a general rule, that "the divine judgments are usually in the line of our offences;" and by the nature of the judgment we may usually ascertain the nature of the sin. If a man's besetting sin is "pride," the judgment will usually be something that is suited to humble his pride; if it be covetousness, his property may be removed, or it may be made a curse; if it be undue attachment to children or friends, they may be removed.

D. God will not crush or destroy his people. The farmer does not crush or destroy his grain. In all the various methods which he uses, he takes care not to pursue it too far, and not to injure the grain. So with God's dealings with his people. His object is not to destroy them, but it is to separate the chaff from the wheat; and he will afflict them only so much as may be necessary to accomplish this. He will not be always bruising his people, but will in due time remit his strokes - just as the thresher does.

E. We should, therefore, bear afflictions and chastisements with patience. God deals with us in mercy - and the design of all his dispensations toward us in prosperity and adversity; in sickness and in health; in success and in disappointment, is to produce the richest and most abundant fruits of righteousness, and to prepare us to enter into his kingdom above.

29:1Woe to Ariel, to Ariel, the city where David dwelt! add ye year to year; let them kill sacrifices.

2Yet I will distress Ariel, and there shall be heaviness and sorrow: and it shall be unto me as Ariel.

3And I will camp against thee round about, and will lay siege against thee with a mount, and I will raise forts against thee (Hezekiah shut in "as a caged bird" -- 701 B.C.).

4And thou shalt be brought down, and shalt speak out of the ground, and thy speech shall be low out of the dust, and thy voice shall be, as of one that hath a familiar spirit, out of the ground, and thy speech shall whisper out of the dust (Hezekiah's Tunnel).

5Moreover the multitude of thy strangers shall be like small dust, and the multitude of the terrible ones shall be as chaff that passeth away: yea, it shall be at an instant suddenly.

6Thou shalt be visited of the LORD of hosts with thunder, and with earthquake (brown moon), and great noise, with storm and tempest, and the flame of devouring fire (yellow sun).

7And the multitude of all the nations that fight against Ariel, even all that fight against her and her munition, and that distress her, shall be as a dream of a night vision.

8It shall even be as when an hungry man dreameth, and, behold, he eateth; but he awaketh, and his soul is empty: or as when a thirsty man dreameth, and, behold, he drinketh; but he awaketh, and, behold, he is faint, and his soul hath appetite: so shall the multitude of all the nations be, that fight against mount Zion. (They won't succeed in taking it)

9Stay yourselves, and wonder; cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink (rotating in a Zodiac circle).

10For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes (one yellow solar set of eyelids and one brown lunar set of eyelids): the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered.

11And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed (Milky Way scroll), which men deliver to one that is learned (Castor), saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed (sun and moon seals):

12And the book (Milky Way scroll) is delivered to him that is not learned (Pollux), saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned.

13Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people (Gemini) draw near me with their mouth (Milky Way mouth), and with their lips do honour me (Milky Way lips), but have removed their heart far from me (yellow sun opposite to Ophiuchus), and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men:

14Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid.

15Woe unto them that seek deep to hide their counsel from the LORD, and their works are in the dark, and they say, Who seeth us? and who knoweth us?

16Surely your turning of things upside down shall be esteemed as the potter's clay: for shall the work say of him that made it, He made me not? or shall the thing framed say of him that framed it, He had no understanding?

Sanctification to the Godly

17Is it not yet a very little while, and Lebanon shall be turned into a fruitful field, and the fruitful field shall be esteemed as a forest?

18And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book (with their lunar and solar ears), and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity (with lunar and solar eyes), and out of darkness (black Zodiac).

19The meek also shall increase their joy in the LORD, and the poor among men shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.

20For the terrible one is brought to nought, and the scorner is consumed, and all that watch for iniquity are cut off:

21That make a man an offender for a word, and lay a (lunar brown) snare for him that reproveth in the gate, and turn aside the just for a thing of nought (gold sun coin).

22Therefore thus saith the LORD, who redeemed Abraham, concerning the house of Jacob, Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale (black Zodiac face).

23But when he seeth his children, the work of mine hands, in the midst of him, they shall sanctify my name, and sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall fear the God of Israel.

24They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding, and they that murmured shall learn doctrine.

30:1Woe to the rebellious children (Gemini), saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of my spirit, that they may add sin to sin:

2That walk to go down into Egypt (Ophiuchus, Auriga, Gemini), and have not asked at my mouth; to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh (bruised reed radius line), and to trust in the (brown lunar) shadow of Egypt!

3Therefore shall the strength of Pharaoh (bruised reed radius line) be your shame (brown manure), and the trust in the (brown lunar) shadow of Egypt your confusion.

4For his (Gemini) princes were at Zoan, and his (Gemini) ambassadors came to Hanes.

5They were all ashamed of a people that could not profit them, nor be an help nor profit, but a shame, and also a reproach.

6The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion (Leo and Ursa Major), the viper (Hydra) and fiery flying serpent (Serpens), they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.

7For the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose: therefore have I cried concerning this, Their strength is to sit still.

A Warning to a Rebellious People
8Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever:

9That this is a rebellious people, lying children, children that will not hear the law of the LORD (Gemini walks all over this valuable treasure of gold):

10Which say to the seers, See not (lunar and solar eyelids closed); and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits (smiling Milky Way lips):

11Get you out of the way (ecliptic), turn aside out of the path (ecliptic), cause the Holy One of Israel (gold sun) to cease from before us (Gemini).

12Wherefore thus saith the Holy One of Israel, Because ye despise this word, and trust in oppression and perverseness, and stay thereon:

13Therefore this iniquity shall be to you as a breach ready to fall (sun in Milky Way), swelling out in a high wall (Milky Way wall), whose breaking cometh suddenly at an instant.

14And he shall break it as the breaking of the potters' vessel that is broken in pieces (brown lunar potter's vessel will break into a crescent); he shall not spare: so that there shall not be found in the bursting of it a sherd to take fire from the hearth, or to take water withal out of the pit (black astronomical new moon).

15For thus saith the Lord GOD, the Holy One of Israel; In returning and rest shall ye be saved; in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength: and ye would not.

16But ye said, No; for we will flee upon horses; therefore shall ye flee: and, We will ride upon the swift; therefore shall they that pursue you be swift.

17One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one; at the rebuke of five shall ye flee: till ye be left as a beacon upon the top of a mountain, and as an ensign on an hill (sun in Orion on Milky Way hump).

God's Mercies
18And therefore will the LORD wait, that he may be gracious unto you, and therefore will he be exalted, that he may have mercy upon you: for the LORD is a God of judgment: blessed are all they that wait for him.

19For the people shall dwell in Zion at Jerusalem: thou shalt weep no more: he will be very gracious unto thee at the voice of thy cry; when he shall hear it, he will answer thee.

20And though the Lord give you the bread of adversity (brown full moon loaf -- feces? -- 36:12), and the water of affliction (yellow sun -- urine? -- 36:12), yet shall not thy teachers be removed into a corner any more, but thine eyes (solar and lunar) shall see thy teachers:

21And thine ears (solar and lunar) shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, walk ye in it, when ye turn to the right hand, and when ye turn to the left.

22Ye shall defile also the covering of thy graven images of silver (silvery moon covered with brown haze), and the ornament of thy molten images of gold (gold sun): thou shalt cast them away as a menstruous cloth (Milky Way); thou shalt say unto it, Get thee hence.

23Then shall he give the rain of thy seed (rotating stars), that thou shalt sow the ground withal; and (brown full moon) bread of the increase of the earth, and it shall be fat and plenteous: in that day shall thy cattle feed in large pastures (Taurus in heavenly Zodiac).

24The oxen likewise and the young asses that ear the ground shall eat clean provender (yellow sun hay), which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with the fan (of Orion).

25And there shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every high hill (Zodiac hump), rivers and streams of waters in the day of the great slaughter (red radius line is blood on the ground)(Milky Way), when the (Milky Way) towers fall.

26Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that the LORD bindeth up the breach of his people, and healeth the stroke of their wound.

27Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy: his (Milky Way) lips are full of indignation, and his (golden sun) tongue as a devouring fire:

28And his breath, as an overflowing (Milky Way) stream, shall reach to the midst of the (brown full moon) neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a (solar & lunar bridle connected by red radius lines) bridle in the (Milky Way) jaws of the people, causing them to err.

29Ye shall have a (yellow sun) song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a (brown full moon) pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel.

30And the LORD shall cause his glorious voice to be heard (gold sun), and shall shew the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.

31For through the voice of the LORD (gold sun) shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which smote with a rod (Orion's club smitten by sun).

32And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass (red radius line of Ophiuchus and Auriga), which the LORD shall lay upon him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it.

33For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood (fiery sun); the breath of the LORD, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it.

31:1Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help (Ophiuchus); and stay on horses (Sagittarius), and trust in chariots (Auriga), because they are many; and in horsemen (Centaur), because they are very strong; but they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, neither seek the LORD!

2Yet he also is wise, and will bring evil, and will not call back his words: but will arise against the house of the evildoers, and against the help of them that work iniquity.

3Now the Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses flesh, and not spirit. When the LORD shall stretch out his hand, both he that helpeth shall fall, and he that is holpen shall fall down, and they all shall fail together.

4For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion (Leo) and the young lion roaring on his prey (Ursa Major), when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, he will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof.

5As birds flying (Cygnus, Aquila, Lyra), so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending also he will deliver it; and passing over he will preserve it.

6Turn ye unto him from whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted.

7For in that day every man shall cast away his idols of silver (full moon), and his idols of gold (gold sun), which your own hands have made unto you for a sin.

8Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not of a mighty man; and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him (Orion defeated by sun): but he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be discomfited.

9And he shall pass over to his strong hold for fear, and his princes shall be afraid of the ensign, saith the LORD, whose (solar) fire is in Zion, and his (solar) furnace in Jerusalem.

32:1Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in judgment.

2And a man shall be as an hiding place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land (brown full moon).

3And the (solar & lunar) eyes of them that see shall not be dim, and the (solar and lunar) ears of them that hear shall hearken.

4The heart also of the rash shall understand knowledge, and the (solar or lunar) tongue of the stammerers shall be ready to speak plainly (with Milky Way lips).

5The vile person shall be no more called liberal, nor the churl said to be bountiful.

6For the vile person will speak villany, and his heart will work iniquity, to practise hypocrisy, and to utter error against the LORD, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail.

7The instruments also of the churl are evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.

8But the liberal deviseth liberal things; and by liberal things shall he stand.

The Women of Jerusalem
9Rise up, ye women that are at ease (Virgo, Coma, Andromeda, Cassiopeia); hear my voice, ye careless daughters; give (lunar and solar) ear unto my speech.

10Many days and years shall ye be troubled, ye careless women: for the vintage shall fail, the gathering shall not come.

11Tremble, ye women that are at ease; be troubled, ye careless ones: strip you, and make you bare (topless), and gird (black Zodiac) sackcloth upon your loins.

12They shall lament for the (solar and lunar) teats, for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine.

13Upon the land of my people shall come up thorns and briers; yea, upon all the houses of joy in the joyous city:

14Because the palaces shall be forsaken; the multitude of the city shall be left; the forts and towers shall be for dens for ever, a joy of wild asses, a pasture of flocks;

15Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high (Milky Way poured), and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest.

16Then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field.

17And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness quietness and assurance for ever.

18And my people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places;

19When it shall hail, coming down on the forest; and the city shall be low in a low place.

20Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth thither the feet of the (Taurus) ox and the ass.

33:1Woe to thee that spoilest, and thou wast not spoiled; and dealest treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! when thou shalt cease to spoil, thou shalt be spoiled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall deal treacherously with thee.

2O LORD, be gracious unto us; we have waited for thee: be thou their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble.

3At the noise of the tumult the people fled; at the lifting up of thyself the nations were scattered.

4And your spoil shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpiller: as the running to and fro of locusts shall he run upon them.

5The LORD is exalted; for he dwelleth on high: he hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness.

6And wisdom and knowledge shall be the stability of thy times, and strength of salvation: the fear of the LORD is his treasure.

7Behold, their valiant ones shall cry without: the ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly.

8The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.

9The earth mourneth and languisheth: Lebanon is ashamed and hewn down: Sharon is like a wilderness; and Bashan and Carmel shake off their fruits.

10Now will I rise, saith the LORD; now will I be exalted; now will I lift up myself.

11Ye shall conceive chaff, ye shall bring forth stubble: your (Milky Way) breath, as fire, shall devour you (sun fire).

12And the people shall be as the burnings of lime: as thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire.

13Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; and, ye that are near, acknowledge my might.

14The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites (Gemini with sun fire). Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?

15He that walketh righteously (Ophiuchus), and speaketh uprightly (golden sun words from Milky Way lips); he that despiseth the gain of oppressions (gold coin walked on by Gemini and Auriga), that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes (Gemini, Auriga and Ophiuchus), that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood (Red radius lines go through solar and lunar ears like earplugs), and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil (fully closed solar and lunar eyelids since the red radius lines divide both circles in eyelid halves);

16He shall dwell on high: his place of defence shall be the munitions of rocks: (full moon brown) bread shall be given him; his waters shall be sure.

17Thine eyes shall see the king in his beauty: they shall behold the land that is very far off.

18Thine heart shall meditate terror. Where is the scribe? where is the receiver? where is he that counted the towers?

19Thou shalt not see a fierce people, a people of a deeper speech than thou canst perceive; of a stammering (solar or lunar) tongue, that thou canst not understand.

20Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities: thine (solar & lunar) eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a (Milky Way) tabernacle that shall not be taken down; not one of the (360 or 36) stakes thereof shall ever be removed, neither shall any of the (two radius line) cords thereof be broken.

21But there the glorious LORD will be unto us a place of broad (Milky Way) rivers and streams; wherein shall go no galley with oars, neither shall gallant ship pass thereby (Argo).

22For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us.

23Thy tacklings (ropes) are loosed (cities of Judah taken); they could not well strengthen their mast (Jerusalem radius line), they could not spread the sail (Milky Way): then is the prey of a great spoil divided; the lame take the prey.

24And the inhabitant shall not say, I am sick: the people that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity.

Isaiah 33:13-18
1 Attend, ye tribes that dwell remote, ye tribes at hand, give ear ;
The upright in heart alone have hope, the false in heart have fear.
2 The man who walks with God in truth, and ev'ry guile disdains ;
Who hates to lift oppression's rod, and scorns its shameful gains ;
3 Whose soul abhors the impious bribe that tempts from truth to stray.
And from th' enticing snares of vice who turns his eyes away :
4 His dwelling, 'midst the strength of rocks,
shall ever stand secure ; His Father will provide his bread, his water shall be sure.
5 For him the kingdom of the just afar doth glorious shine ;
And he the King of kings shall see in majesty divine.

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