Acts Chapter 15 Star Chart: Counting backwards from the time that Paul was brought before Gallio (18:11-12) 1 1/2 years (which was the amount of time previously spent in Corinth) we come to the winter of 49/50 A.D. as the time of Paul's arrival at Corinth. In Acts 18:2, it says that when he arrived at Corinth, Paul "found a Jew named Aquila, a native of Pontus, lately come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to leave Rome." Orossius says that this was the expulsion referred to by Seutonius in Claudius 25, "since the Jews constantly made disturbances at the instigation of a certain Chrestus (Christ?), he expelled them from Rome." Orossius also says that this expulsion occurred in the 9th year of Claudius' reign. If we consider the first year of his reign to be the reckoning point, (since he started on Jan. 25) then the ninth year would have been A.D.49. Thus, it could truly be said that Aquila had "lately come" when he met Paul in the winter 49/50.

Allowing a period of from eight to ten months for the events that occurred from the beginning of the second journey until the arrival at Corinth seems reasonable. The actual time units given are short (usually stays of days or weeks in each city), and there are several unknown units of time as well. Subtracting this figure then from the date of his arrival in Corinth (winter 49/50) would bring us to the spring of 49 A.D. as the start of his 2nd Missionary Journey.

This would indicate that the Jerusalem Council occurred in the winter of 48/49 A.D. (possibly Jan.- Feb. of 49 A.D.). Paul would have spent only a short time in Jerusalem, and then would have returned to Antioch with the news of the Council's decisions.

The First Missionary Journey would need to have been finished and Paul returned to Antioch by the fall of 48 A.D. in order to leave time for the council and related events. The length of his 1st Missionary Journey would have been anywhere from 4 to 10 months. This would put his departure for the 1st Missionary Journey no sooner than early spring 48 A.D.

Herod died c. 44 A.D. (Acts 12)

We know from Acts 11:26 that Paul was in Antioch at least 1 year prior to this trip, which would place his coming to Antioch in 46 A.D. if not earlier.

From Paul's conversion on the Road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-9) in 34 AD till Paul goes up to the Jerusalem Council with Barnabas (Acts 15:1-29; Galatians 2:1) is "fourteen years" (Galatians 2:1-5) making it 48 AD. From Peter's vision in Acts 10 cleansing Gentiles in 33 AD till the Jerusalem Council in 48 AD is therefore 15 years. Clockwise from when "Simeon hath declared how (Shekinah Glory) God at the first did visit the (Gemini) Gentiles (in Acts 10), to take out of them a (Gemini) people for his name" (15:14) (33 AD) till "Now therefore why tempt ye (Shekinah Glory) God, to put a (lunar crescent) YOKE upon the neck of the (Gemini) disciples, which neither our (Gemini) fathers nor we were able to bear?" (15:10) (48 AD) is 15° years. In other words, clockwise from when "I will return, and will (Big Dog) build again the (red radius) tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: That the residue of (Gemini) men might seek after the Lord, and all the (Gemini) Gentiles, upon whom my name is (red radius) called, saith the (Shekinah Glory) Lord, who doeth all these things" (15:16-17) is 15° years.

Shammai's Circumcision Or Hillel's Baptism
-- Which Is the Convert's Initiatory Rite?

 

15:1 And certain (Gemini) men which came down from Judaea taught the (Gemini) brethren, and said, Except ye be (lunar crescent) circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved.

2 When therefore (Gemini) Paul and Barnabas had no small (red radius) dissension and disputation with them, they determined that (Gemini) Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the (Gemini) apostles and (Gemini) elders about this question.

From Paul's conversion on the Road to Damascus (Acts 9:1-9) in 34 AD till Paul goes up to the Jerusalem Council with Barnabas (Acts 15:1-29; Galatians 2:1) is "fourteen years" (Galatians 2:1-5) making 48 AD.

3 And being brought on their way by the church, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles: and they caused great joy unto all the (Gemini) brethren.

4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the (Gemini) apostles and (Gemini) elders, and they (red radius) declared all things that God had done with them.

5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to (lunar crescent) circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses.

6 And the (Gemini) apostles and (Gemini) elders came together for to consider of this matter.

7 And when there had been much disputing (questioning, discussion, debate), Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. (33 AD)

8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the (Milky Way) Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us;

9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.

10 Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a (lunar crescent) yoke upon the neck of the (Gemini) disciples, which neither our (Gemini) fathers nor we were able to bear?

It is common with the Jews to call the law a YOKE; frequent mention is made of and "the YOKE of the commandments" (Targum in Cant. i. 10. & in Lamentations 3.27. Misn. Beracot, c. 2. sect. 2.) and, "the YOKE of the law" (Echa Rabbati, fol. 56. 3. Pirke Abot, c. 3. sect. 5. Tzeror Hammor, fol. 39. 3) and by it here is meant, not circumcision only and barely, for that the Jewish fathers had been able to bear, and had bore it; but the whole ceremonial law also, which consisted of a multitude of commands and ordinances very heavy and hard; see Galatians 5:3, which neither the apostles, nor their fathers, were ever able to do, nor any mere man whatever; and therefore this YOKE was intolerable and insupportable, and not to be put upon the necks of the Gentile believers; who here are called disciples, being taught the doctrine of the Gospel, and the way of salvation; which was not by circumcision, nor by any works of the law, but by the grace of Christ, as in the following verse.

11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

12 Then all the (Gemini) multitude kept silence, and gave audience to (Gemini) Barnabas and Paul, (red radius) declaring what (solar golden) miracles and wonders God had wrought among the (Gemini) Gentiles by them.

13 And after they had held their peace, (Argo) James answered, saying, (Gemini) Men and (Gemini) brethren, hearken unto me:

14 Simeon hath declared how (Shekinah Glory) God at the first did visit the (Gemini) Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name (Acts 10 -- 33 AD).

15 And to this agree the words of the (Gemini) prophets; as it is written,

16 After this I will return, and will (Big Dog) build again the (red radius) tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up:

17 That the residue of (Gemini) men might seek after the Lord, and all the (Gemini) Gentiles, upon whom my name is (red radius) called, saith the (Shekinah Glory) Lord, who doeth all these things.

18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.

19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the (Gemini) Gentiles are turned to God:

20 But that we (red radius pen) write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from (Gemini) fornication, and from (solar neck) things (red radius) strangled, and from (red radius) blood.

Blood carries both infections and toxins that might circulate in the animal's body. Therefore, by eating an animal's blood, one exposes himself needlessly to potential toxins and infections. The harmful effects of eating blood can be illustrated by tribes in Africa who consume large amounts of blood in their pagan culture. These people have developed the chronic diseases seen in our elderly while still teenagers. Their life span is approximately 30 years. Rex D. Russel, M.D. p. 229, "Proceedings of the 1992 Twin-Cities Creation Conference". Editor's note.)

By the first, Pollutions of Idols, or, as it is in Acts 15:25, meats offered to idols, not only all idolatry was forbidden, but eating things offered in sacrifice to idols, knowing that they were thus offered, and joining with idolaters in their sacred feasts, which were always an incentive either to idolatry itself, or to the impure acts generally attendant on such festivals.

By the second, Fornication, all uncleanness of every kind was prohibited; for πορνεια not only means fornication, but adultery, incestuous mixtures, and especially the prostitution which was so common at the idol temples, viz. in Cyprus, at the worship of Venus; and the shocking disorders exhibited in the Bacchanalia, Lupercalia, and several others.

By the third, Things Strangled, we are to understand the flesh of those animals which were strangled for the purpose of keeping the blood in the body, as such animals were esteemed a greater delicacy.

By the fourth, Blood, we are to understand, not only the thing itself, for the reasons which I have assigned in the note on Genesis 9:4, and for others detailed at the end of this chapter; but also all cruelty, manslaughter, murder, etc., as some of the ancient fathers have understood it.

21 For Moses of old time hath in every city them that (Gemini or Argo) preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

22 Then pleased it the (Gemini) apostles and elders with the whole church, to send chosen (Gemini) men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas and Silas, chief men among the (Gemini) brethren:

23 And they (red radius) wrote letters by them after this manner; The (Gemini) apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia.

24 Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with (red radius) words, subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be (lunar crescent) circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment:

25 It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen (Gemini) men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul,

26 Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

27 We have sent therefore (Gemini) Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth.

28 For it seemed good to the (Milky Way) Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things;

29 That ye abstain from (solar) meats offered to idols, and from (red radius) blood, and from (solar neck) things (red radius) strangled, and from (Gemini) fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well.

30 So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch: and when they had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle:

31 Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation.

32 And Judas and Silas, being (Gemini) prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many (red radius) words, and confirmed them.

33 And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace from the (Gemini) brethren unto the (Gemini) apostles.

34 Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still.

35 Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, (red radius) teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also.

36 And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas, Let us go again and visit our (Gemini) brethren in every city where we have (red radius) preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do.

37 And Barnabas determined to take with them (Argo) John, whose surname was Mark.

John Mark was his sister's son; and natural affection might have led him to the partiality here mentioned.

38 But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who (Argo) departed from them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work.

39 And the contention was so (lunar crescent) sharp between them, that they departed asunder one from the other: and so Barnabas took Mark, and (Argo) sailed unto Cyprus;

40 And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the (Gemini) brethren unto the grace of God.

41 And he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches.

Was CIRCUMCISION Abolished?

God commanded circumcision (Gen. 17:10). John the Baptist and Jesus were both CIRCUMCISED (Luke 1:59; 2:21). Paul was CIRCUMCISED "the eighth day" (Phil. 3:5). Paul said CIRCUMCISION has much VALUE (Rom. 3:1). Isaiah 52:1 says, "For the UNCIRCUMCISED and the UNCLEAN Shall no longer come to" Jerusalem. Ezekiel 44:9 says, "Thus saith the Lord God: No stranger, UNCIRCUMCISED in heart, or UNCIRCUMCISED in flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary". Perhaps it is because disease germs are harder to wash off when under a flap.

Why then do we find a CONTROVERSY over CIRCUMCISION in the New Testament? Because some SHAMMAITE Pharisees required STRANGERS to be CIRCUMCISED PRIOR to DWELLING among Israelites (Talmud Yevamot 46b; Acts 15:5; Gal. 5:1-6). Paul and Barnabas "had no small dissension and disputation with them" (Acts 15:2) because Paul was trained by Rabbi Gamaliel the elder, grandson of HILLEL, and followed the HILLELITE oral law of Moses (Acts 22:3) which required BAPTISM rather than CIRCUMCISION as the INITIATORY RITE. "Repent and be BAPTISED" (Acts 2:38) -- not CIRCUMCISED. Paul never taught "Jews ... NOT to CIRCUMCISE their children" (Acts 21:21). Instead, Paul believed "all things which are WRITTEN in the law and in the prophets" (Acts 24:14) and had committed no offense against the Torah (25:8). He hadn't even violated the ORAL traditions (28:17) of HILLEL. Later Paul makes the point that God forgives sin BEFORE strangers are CIRCUMCISED (Rom. 4:7-12). Therefore, if you are called by God, CIRCUMCISION is not INITIALLY required for forgiveness of sin (1 Cor. 7:18-19). However, it is required prior to eating Passover (Ex. 12:43). Numbers 9:14 says, "You shall have ONE LAW both for the stranger and the native."

What was the INITIATION RITE? According to the Talmud (Yevamot 46b), Rabbi Joshua of Bet HILLEL ruled that both males and females performed BAPTISM when the Israelites received the Torah at Mount Sinai (Ex. 19:10,14-15), whereas Rabbi Eliezer the SHAMMAITE believed that men underwent CIRCUMCISION ONLY, and he makes no mention of any ceremony for women.

Furthermore, the schools of HILLEL and SHAMMAI differed on the issue of a proselyte who had ALREADY BEEN CIRCUMCISED before the time of his conversion: "Beit SHAMMAI states: 'One must DRAW from him the BLOOD of CIRCUMCISION'; Beit HILLEL states: 'One need NOT DRAW the BLOOD of CIRCUMCISION from him'" (Tosef., Shab. 15:9; TB, Shab. 135a). Most of the rabbinic authorities decided in favor of Beit SHAMMAI (Tos. to Shab. 135a; Maim. Yad, Issurei Bi'ah 14:5; Sh. Ar., YD 268:1). In the circumcision benediction of proselytes, the statement is made: "Who hast sanctified us with Thy commandments and hast commanded us to circumcise proselytes and to DRAW from them the BLOOD of the COVENANT" (Shab. 137b). In other words, CUT a CIRCUMCISED man just in order to make him BLEED.

When "certain men ... came down from Judea (and) taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be CIRCUMCISED after the MANNER of MOSES, ye cannot be saved" (convert to Judaism) (Acts 15:1), they were speaking from the perspective of the SHAMMAITE ORAL law. This is proven by the fact that the WRITTEN Torah says hardly anything about the "MANNER" in which it is to be done. They believed that their ORAL Torah was also given by God to MOSES on Mount Sinai at the same time as the WRITTEN Torah (Ber. 5a; Ex. R. 47:1; Shab. 31a). It does specify the MANNER in which CIRCUMCISION is to be done (Shab. 9:3; 18:3; 19:1-6; Pesachim 3:7; Megillah 2:4; N'darim 3:11; Arakhin 2:2; K'ritot 1:1 and N'ga'im 7:5). "But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees (SHAMMAITES), who believed, saying that it was needful to CIRCUMCISE them (Gentiles), and to command them to keep the (SHAMMAITE ORAL) law of Moses" (Acts 15:5). Paul was trained by Rabbi Gamaliel the elder, grandson of HILLEL, and followed the HILLELITE oral law of Moses. Paul said, "I am a Pharisee" (Acts 23:6). He was "zealous of the traditions" of his fathers (Gal.1:14) and urged Gentiles to "hold the traditions which ye have been taught" (2 Th. 2:15) -- the HILLELITE traditions which require ONLY BAPTISM when converting to Judaism, or for those already circumcised, to require no further CUTTING to DRAW BLOOD when converting to Judaism. Peter points out that "God made a choice among us, that the Gentiles by MY mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe (not by the mouth of a SHAMMAITE). "And God ... gave them the Holy Spirit, even as he did unto us. And put no difference between us and them (even though they weren't CIRCUMCISED)... Now, therefore, why ... put a YOKE upon the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?" (15:7-10) The "YOKE" is clearly the strict ORAL law of the SHAMMAITES since they sat in Moses' seat in 50 A.D. (see Gal. 5:2-3). The "YOKE of the Mitzvot" (B'rakhot 2:2 & Sifra 57b) is a Talmudic phrase referring to ORAL law or "TRADITIONS of the elders" (Mark 7:3). Paul said, "Be not entangled again with the YOKE of BONDAGE" (Gal. 5:1). Jesus said, "You have made the commandment of God of none effect by your (ORAL) TRADITION" (Matt. 15:6). Jesus also said, "My YOKE is EASY"(HILLELITE) (Matt. 11:30). "For he is not (only) a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is (only) outward in the flesh: But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly (also) ; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit (also), and not in the letter (only); whose praise is not of men (only), but of God (also)." (Rom. 2:28-29).

Nobody is debating the 613 written commands of the Torah! They are "a LAW of LIBERTY" (James 2:10-12). Paul said this LAW was "HOLY, JUST and GOOD" (Rom. 7:12) and he said "we ESTABLISH the (written) LAW" (Rom.3:31) which requires CIRCUMCISION. Instead it is the "middle wall of partition between us ... the law of commandments contained in ordinances" (Eph. 2:14-15) such as the "prohibition of bread, oil, wine and daughters of gentiles" which was one of the 18 decrees passed by Bet SHAMMAI which Peter deliberately violated (Acts 10:28; 11:3). The teaching that Gentiles are unclean is "of scribal origin" (Nid. 69b) and unrelated to the impurities mentioned in the Torah (cf. Tosef., Zar. 2:1; Nid. 34a). Also, "the daughters of the Cutheans (Samaritans) are considered menstruous from infancy" (Gentile uncleanness) -- another of the 18 decrees promulgated near 15 B.C. (TJ Shab. 1:7, 3c; Shab. 17b).

The "false brethren" of Galatians 2:4 who came in secretly to spy on UNCIRCUMCISED Christians were SHAMMAI Pharisees. They were "somewhat" because they were in the majority and IN CONTROL of the San Hedrin in 53 A.D. Because of the SHAMMAITE antagonism toward Gentile converts and the SHAMMAITE rule that Jews can't eat with non-Jews, Peter stopped eating with Gentile converts (Gal. 2:12). Paul then asks, "Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law" (Gal. 3:2) -- meaning the SHAMMAI ORAL LAW including CIRCUMCISION? No. "Repent and be BAPTISED" (Acts 2:38) was the method.

Cornelius the centurion received the Holy Spirit without being CIRCUMCISED according to the SHAMMAITE ORAL LAW (Acts 10:44-45). In Galatians 4:17 we read that these SHAMMAITES would "exclude you" (Gentiles can't achieve salvation). In Acts 16:15 a new convert named Lydia said, "If you have judged me to be faithful in the Lord, COME INTO MY HOUSE, and abide there." She was testing them to see whether they followed SHAMMAITE ORAL LAW or not. First Thessalonians 2:14-16 says that the Jews who killed Christ and the prophets and have persecuted Christians also "forbid us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved" because they are SHAMMAITE Pharisees who follow the eighteen measures and require CIRCUMCISION before conversion -- before the stranger could "sojourn among you." But to require CIRCUMCISION of a stranger implies he is a servant (Ex. 12:44) and not free to decide whether or not he wants to keep the Passover. The law merely says, "There shall no stranger eat" of the Passover (Ex. 12:43).

The MINIMUM requirements of strangers "to sojourn among" Israelites were that they not offer sacrifices to demon idols (Lev. 17:7-9) or eat blood (Lev. 17:10-11) or eat animals that had been killed by other animals or died of disease or strangulation preventing the blood from draining (Lev. 17:12-16) and that they avoid any sexual misconduct (Lev. 18:1-26). This we find summarized in Acts 15:20 , 29 and 21:25. Compare the seven Noachide Laws (Sanh. 56a). There were other laws specifically addressed to the stranger such as avoiding blasphemy (Lev. 24:16), incest (Lev. 18:26), participating in the religious festivals (Deut. 16:11,14), fasting and resting on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29), getting rid of leaven on the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 12:19), and using the red heifer (Nu. 19:10). But as Yebamoth 47a explains, the rabbis "do not ... tell him (the proselyte) TOO MUCH, or enter into TOO MANY DETAILS" upon initial conversion. The Israelites at Sinai also said, "We will do and we will hear" (Ex. 24:7) obliging themselves to OBEY the whole Torah BEFORE they KNEW what it required.

But the very next verse of Acts shows that converts were expected to attend synagogues "every Sabbath day" where Moses is read (Acts 15:21). As Exodus 20:10 says, "the stranger that is within thy gates" "shalt not do any work" on the Sabbath cp. Deut. 5:14). Attending with Jews shows that the SAME DOCTRINAL OBEDIENCE was expected of both. As Numbers 9:14 says, "You shall have ONE LAW both for the stranger and the native." As Leviticus 19:34 says, "The stranger that dwells with you shall be unto you AS ONE BORN AMONG YOU and thou shalt love him as thyself." As Jesus said in Matthew 28:19-20, "Teach all nations to OBSERVE ALL THINGS whatsoever I have commanded you." And if you will "enter into life, KEEP the COMMANDMENTS" (Matt. 19:17). (Strangers who sojourn among you must obey the same Old Testament as the Israelites obey.) When a STRANGER eventually decides to observe Passover, he must be CIRCUMCISED (Ex. 12:48). Christians should be CIRCUMCISED, but NOT as a pre-conversion SHAMMAITE DEMAND prior to DWELLING among Israelites (Gal. 5:1-6) and NOT to DRAW BLOOD when the man has already been CIRCUMCISED. Paul never taught "Jews ... NOT to CIRCUMCISE their children" (Acts 21:21). Instead, Paul believed "all things which are WRITTEN in the law and in the prophets" (Acts 24:14) and had committed no offense against the Torah (25:8). He hadn't even violated the ORAL traditions (28:17) of HILLEL. Therefore, if you are called by God, Shammaite CIRCUMCISION is not required for forgiveness of sin (1 Cor. 7:18-19; Rom. 4:7-12). Hillelite BAPTISM is the INITIATORY RITE. Perhaps this is what Paul was referring to in 1 Corinthians 7:19 when he said, "Circumcision (according to the commandments of men) is nothing, and uncircumcision (according to the commandments of men), but the keeping of the commandments of God." Galatians 5:12 says, "I wish those who are so eager to CUT your bodies would CUT themselves off from you altogether" (Phillips).

CIRCUMCISION is a law of health. Squamous-cell CARCINOMA (cancer of the penis) is virtually unknown among males who have been circumcised. Sexual relations with uncircumcised males has also been linked to female uterine CERVIX CANCER. "Most experts feel that these cancers are caused by smegma, a filthy and foul-smelling paste of bacteria and dead cells trapped under the foreskin" (p.89, McMillen's None Of These Diseases). CANCER of the CERVIX is one of the most common cancers in women. It comprises 25 percent of all cancers in women. In 1954, a large study of 86,214 women in Boston revealed that CANCER of the CERVIX in non-Jewish women was eight-and-one-half times more frequent than in Jewish women (New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 30, 1954, pp. 555-559).

Genesis 17:12 says, "And he that is eight days old shall be CIRCUMCISED among you, every man child in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed." (cp. Gen.21:4 & Lev.12:3)

Why the eighth day? Because this is the safest time, medically speaking. "At birth a baby's intestines contain no bacteria. Between the fifth to seventh day of life, these bacteria begin to proliferate and produce the important vitamin K. This vitamin goes to the liver where it plays an important part in forming four different clotting proteins. If any one of these proteins is missing, serious bleeding may result.... One of the proteins dependent on vitamin K is called prothrombin ... An average eight-day-old baby has MORE AVAILABLE prothrombin than on ANY OTHER DAY of his life" (McMillen, p.92). Yahweh was allowing for sufficient vitamin K to be built up. The Linus Pauling Institute of Oregon State University states: Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. The "K" is derived from the German word "koagulation." Coagulation refers to the process of blood clot formation. Newborn infants, in general, have low vitamin K status for the following reasons: 1) vitamin K is not easily transported across the placental barrier; 2) the newborn's intestines are not yet colonised with bacteria that synthesise menaquinones; and 3) the vitamin K cycle may not be fully functional in newborns, especially premature infants.

The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in 1989 that there may be "medical benefits and advantages" to CIRCUMCISION. URINARY TRACT INFECTION during the first year of life of UNCIRCUMCISED boys is ten times that of their CIRCUMCISED counterparts. Incidence of PENILE CANCER is much lower in CIRCUMCISED men (Science News, March 11, 1989, p.150). After studying the incidence of AIDS in Africa, researcher Jean L. Marx concluded that UNCIRCUMCISED men may be five to eight times more likely to get AIDS during heterosexual intercourse than men who have been CIRCUMCISED (Science, Aug.4, 1989, pp.470-471). "The exact cause of PENILE CANCER is unknown; however, it's generally associated with poor personal hygiene, and phimosis (tight prepuce) in UNCIRCUMCISED men. This may account for the low incidence among Jews, Muslims, and people of other cultures that practice CIRCUMCISION at birth or shortly thereafter" (p.246, Diseases). Furthermore, UNCIRCUMCISED men are more likely to become infected with CHANCROID. "Poor personal hygiene may predispose males -- especially those who are UNCIRCUMCISED -- to this disease. CHANCROID is transmitted through sexual contact" (p.998). "To prevent chancroid ... wash the genitalia with soap and water after sexual activity" (p.999, Diseases). Also "BALANITIS, a relatively uncommon penile disease, occurs in the UNCIRCUMCISED male when the glans penis becomes inflamed ... (this disease) is probably transmitted through sexual contact, and is likely to develop in males with long prepuces, especially those who improperly retract their prepuces and observe poor personal hygiene" (pp.1002-1003, Diseases).

The foreskin originated after man sinned and ate the forbidden fruit (Gen.3:21). As such, the foreskin represents a physical and symbolic curse. The UNCIRCUMCISED male may be part of the reason God said to the woman, "I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception" (Gen.3:16) via UTERINE CANCER, CHANCROID, etcetera. In order to undo the curse, we must take of the tree of God's knowledge, the Bible, and be CIRCUMCISED.


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