God's Hand in History

(Part 2)

Benjamin Franklin, speaking at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in June, 1787, asserted: "The longer I live the more convincing proofs I see that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice [Matt. 10:29], is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid?" Winston Churchill clearly perceived God's hand in history. In an address before the U.S. Congress December 26, 1941, the British prime minister asserted that "he must indeed have a blind soul who cannot see that some great purpose and design is being worked out here below." On another occasion in Britain some 10 months later, he said, "I sometimes have a feeling of interference. . . . I have a feeling sometimes that some Guiding Hand has interfered."

The following is a miniature history course -- "His Story 101" -- the way it should have been taught in grade school to every child growing up. But historical evidence to support God's hand in history has been LEFT OUT of our history classes. MIRACULOUS intervention and circumstances with PRECISE TIMING at crucial dates in the story of nations and empires point unmistakably to the GUIDING HAND of God. But God has been "kicked out" of school text books. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind" (void of judgment) (Romans 1:28). "For the material man rejects spiritual things, for they are foolishness to him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).

Battle of Ravenna in 476 A.D. -- Midpoint of The "Times of the Gentiles" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24)

The Battle of Ravenna took place on the 2 September 476 and was a minor confrontation between the Heruli under their King Odoacer, of the Sciri clan (Issachar), and the remnants of the Western Roman Army in Italy. The Roman Empire had been in relative decline until 455 when the Vandals sacked Rome effectively destroying the empire. By 476 the Roman Emperor was little more than a warlord having very little de facto control of any territory outside of Italy. The Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, wasn't even recognized as a legitimate ruler outside of Italy.

Herulians were foederati of the Western Roman Empire; they were mercenary troops of the Roman Army of Italy. They envied the fortune of their brethren in Gaul, Spain, and Africa, whose victorious arms had acquired an independent and perpetual inheritance; and they insisted that A THIRD PART of the lands of Italy should be immediately divided among them (cp. Rev. 8:7-9:18). Orestes, the father of the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, rejected their demand causing their revolt. From all the camps and garrisons of Italy the confederates flocked to the standard of Odoacer, their leader; and Orestes retreated to Pavia. Pavia was pillaged and Orestes was executed.

The decisive battle was fought near Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire: it saw the Foederati defeat the heavily depleted Roman garrison. The city was captured swiftly and easily. Two days later the sixteen year old Emperor Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate by Odoacer ending twelve-hundred years of Roman rule in Italy beginning with the Roman Kingdom in 753 BC. Romulus was sent into retirement in Campania. Israelite Heruli were prophesied to "break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms" (Dan. 2:44; Jer. 51:20).

The first king of the Babylonian Empire represented by the image of Daniel 2 was Nabonassar who ascended the throne at noon, February 26, 747 B.C. This date has been determined with certainty through a series of exact astronomical observations given by Ptolemy. This is therefore the earliest date from which to measure the "seven times." If we add 1222.5 solar years or 446,503 days, to 747 B.C., we arrive at the fall of Romulus Augustulus, August 22nd, 476 A.D; while 1260 lunar years (or 15,120 lunations) contain 446,502.5 days, so that the difference, if any, is merely one of hours. Can any thinking mind regard this fact as mere chance coincidence? The duration of the four kingdoms of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome, from the era of Nabonassar B.C. 747, to the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the end of the Western Roman Empire in August 22, 476 A.D., all fit perfectly within exactly 1260 LUNAR years (1,222.5 solar years).

Omar the Turk (the "Desolator") Took Jerusalem in 637 A.D. and Set Up the "Abomination"-- Another Midpoint in "The Times of the Gentiles"

Nabonassar revolted against Assyria and drove the Assyrians out of Babylon in 625 B.C. and the Neo-Babylonian Empire was established with a Chaldean dynasty by Nabopolassar in 624 B.C. The four Gentile Empires of Daniel 2 have possessed the Holy Land for a combined total of "42 MONTHS" or 1260 days which symbolize 1,260 years (Num. 14:34; Ez. 4:6): Babylon possessed Palestine for 90 years, from 624 to 534 B.C. Medo-Persia for 200 years, from 534 to 334 B.C. Greece for 304 years from 334 to 31 B.C. (Battle of Actium) and Rome for 666 years from 31 B.C. to 636 A.D. Now 90 + 200 + 304 + 666 = 1,260 SOLAR years. From 637 to 1897 A.D. Jerusalem was trodden under gentile feet (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24; Rev. 11:2). From when Omar the Turk took Jerusalem in 637 A.D., we add 1,260 more SOLAR years to arrive at 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations with the object of again settling the Jews in the Holy Land. Just as the Gentiles "tread under foot" (Rev. 11:2) the physical Jerusalem for 42 months (1,260 days), so also Papal Rome was to continue for the second 1260 years (Dan. 7:25). "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator" (Dan. 9:27).

In 637, Omar captured Jerusalem and all Syria and in 638 a wooden mosque was erected on the site of Solomon's Temple, called the "Mosque of Omar." This was rebuilt in stone and called the "Dome of the Rock." "And the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months" (Rev. 11:2; Luke 21:24; Lev. 26:28). If we add 1260 SOLAR years, we arrive at 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations with the object of again settling the Jews in the Holy Land. Jews held their first Zionist Congress thereby becoming an organized body politic for the first time since their dispersion. Also in 1897 was the Turko-Greek War. The autonomy of Crete was determined by the Great powers. If we add 1260 LUNAR years (1222.5 solar years), we arrive at July 9th, 1860 when there was a Mohammedan Druze massacre of 3,300 Christians in Lebanon and Damascus followed by English and French intervention. Lebanon was placed under a Christian governor and British Protectorate, England and France having a veto on the appointment. Lord Dufferin, British Commissioner, entered Damascus. The Universal Israelite Alliance, whose headquarters were at Paris, was also formed in this year. Its objective was to labor for freedom and moral progress of Israelites and encourage colonization of Palestine. If we add 1260 PROPHETIC years (1241.889 solar years), we arrive at 1878. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 resulted in Russia totally defeating the Ottoman armies in1877, followed in 1878 by British occupation of Cyprus and a Protectorate in Asia. The Berlin Treaty dismembered the Ottoman Empire and deprived the Porte of its most important possessions in Europe and bound it to introduce "necessary reforms" signed 13th July 1878. The office of Sultan-Caliph was abolished by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) on March 1924. This is confirmed in Daniel 12:11, being 1290 solar years from 634 A.D., when Omar (the "desolator"), who set up the "abomination" here referred to, succeeded to the Caliphate. Exactly 1290 solar years after the Mosque of Omar was built in 638, Islam was abolished as the State religion of Turkey in 1928. In 1973 the Yom Kippur War occurred and Israel was victorious -- 1335 years after Omar Captured Jerusalem..

The date 637 A.D. is also tied in to the "FIVE MONTHS" mentioned twice (Rev. 9:5,10) in the 5th Trumpet, which comes to a total of 300 years (150 x 2). This is the full limit of the Arab supremacy from about 632 to 932 A.D. History bears this out. Through luxury and licentiousness the Arabs began to decline. The last Caliph of eminence was slain outside the walls of Baghdad near the Euphrates in 932 A.D. The Caliphate at Baghdad was stripped of its temporal power in 934 A.D. From the taking of Damascus and Jerusalem in 637 A.D., when Sophronius bowed before the Caliph and secretly muttered "The Abomination of Desolation is in the Holy Place" (Gibbon ch. 51), we add 300 years to get 937 A.D. In 936 A.D. Persia advanced on Bagdad and stripped the Caliph of his secular office of supremacy. Why not just say "ten months" instead then? Because natural locusts only appear FIVE MONTHS in the year.

Fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. After "an Hour, and a Day, and a Month, and a Year" (Rev. 9:15)

The Turkish power began when Togrul Beg, their first military leader, married the daughter of the Caliph of Baghdad on April 27th 1062 A.D. (the head of the Arab-Moslem religion), and became head of the Mohammedan faith, establishing himself in Islam. He died the same year and was succeeded by Alp Arslan, the "valiant lion" who, setting out from Baghdad, "passed (crossed) the Euphrates at the head of the Turkish cavalry" (Decline & Fall, Gibbon ch. 57, p.12) in 1062 A.D. and waged a holy war against Greek "Christendom" which by this time had once again become idolatrous because the Empress Irene convened the Second Council of Nicea which declared idols lawful and by the Ninth Century idolatry reigned supreme in both east and west. Finally Turkey completed the capture of Constantinople May 29, 1453 A.D. and slew the eastern Roman emperor. The Greek or Byzantine "THIRD" of the Roman Empire passed to the Turks under the 6th Trumpet. This THIRD was KILLED politically and religiously if not physically (cp. Hos. 13:1). The city named for the first Christian emperor was now in the hands of Islam and its Cathedral of St. Sophia, the center of Eastern Orthodoxy, was turned into a Moslem mosque. Other churches erected to departed spirits of saints (demons), were converted to mosques by the victorious Turks. The patriarch of the Greek Catholic Church, originally stationed in Constantinople, fled to Moscow, where he set up his power, and which became known as the Third Rome. The Goths already had the western THIRD under the first Four Trumpets and the Arabs the southern THIRD under the Fifth Trumpet. From 1062 A.D. to 1453 A.D. is the FIRST instance of 391 years, which agrees with the prophetic period mentioned in Rev. 9:15: An hour, day, month and year using the day-for-a-year principle represents one month, one year, thirty years and 360 years. Total is 391 years and one month.

"On the 22nd May 1453, at the first hour of the night, there appeared a wonderful sign in the sky, telling Constantine the worthy Emperor of Constantinople that his proud empire was about to end. The MOON rose, being at this time FULL, so that it should have risen in the form of a complete CIRCLE; but it rose as if it were no more than a three-day moon (CRESCENT-shaped), with only a little of it showing, although the air was clear and unclouded, pure as crystal. The moon stayed in this form for about four hours, and gradually increased to a FULL CIRCLE, so that at the sixth hour of the night it was FULLY FORMED. When we Christians and the pagans had seen this marvelous sign, the Emperor of Constantinople was greatly afraid of it, and so were all his nobles, because the Greeks had a prophecy which said that Constantinople would never fall until the FULL MOON should give a sign, and this was the reason for the fear which the Greeks felt. But the Turks made great festivity in their camp for joy at the sign, because they believed that now victory was in their hands, as in truth it was.

"On the 29th May, 1453, the last day of the siege, our Lord God decided, to the sorrow of the Greeks, that He was willing for the city to fall on this day into the hands of Mahomet Bey the Turk son of Murat, after the fashion and in the manner described below; and also our Eternal God was willing to make this decision in order to fulfill all the ancient prophecies, particularly the first prophecy made by Saint Constantine, who is on horseback on a column by the Church of Saint Sophia of this city, prophesying with his hand and saying, "From this direction will come the one who will undo me," pointing to Anatolia, that is Turkey. Another prophecy which he made was that when there should be an Emperor called Constantine son of Helen, under his rule Constantinople would be lost, and there was another prophecy that when the MOON should give a sign in the sky, within a few days the Turks would have Constantinople. All these three prophecies had come to pass, seeing that the Turks had passed into Greece, there was an Emperor called Constantine son of Helen, and the MOON had given a sign in the sky, so that God had determined to come to this decision against the Christians and particularly against the Empire of Constantinople" (Diary of the Siege of Constantinople, 1453 by Nicolo Barbaro).

"On May 22, 1453, the moon, symbol of Constantinople, rose in dark eclipse (with just a crescent showing -- comment mine), fulfilling a prophecy on the city's demise. Four days later (May 26), the whole city was blotted out by a THICK FOG, a condition unknown in that part of the world in May. When the FOG lifted that evening, a strange LIGHT was seen playing about the dome of the Hagia Sophia, and from the city walls LIGHTS were seen in the countryside to the West, far behind the Turkish camp. The LIGHT around the dome was interpreted by some as the HOLY SPIRIT departing from the Cathedral" (and going West). (Wikipedia, "Fall of Constantinople"). Therefore, it was probably on that very foggy night, May 26, 1453, that young Greek Orthodox scholars (Orion) fled Constantinople (came "down from heaven" or the government capitol -- Rev. 10:1) secretly ("clothed with a CLOUD" of the Milky Way FOG hiding their escape from Constantinople -- 10:1). This was certainly a real-life GREEK OLYMPIC GAME for these GOLD-MEDAL champions (The sun symbolized a GOLD MEDAL -- 1 Cor. 3:12; the light blue sky a BLUE RIBBON -- Nu. 15:38) RUNNING for their lives, as they must have been, behind enemy lines (1 Cor. 9:24; Gal. 2:2; 5:7; Philip. 2:16; 3:14; Heb. 12:1) carrying precious Greek manuscripts. After escaping, they probably lit these signal fires to let the citizens of Constantinople know they had escaped successfully. The Turks were darkening the sun (Christ, "the sun of righteousness" -- Mal. 4:2) creating the "Dark Ages" but the Scriptures were lighting up a dark world like a TORCH. They enlightened Christians, who read them, like a HALO illuminates Orion's face (The star chart predicted May 26 precisely to the very day). The pillars of fire (feet) and the cloud were leading Israelites -- themselves "A CLOUD of witnesses" (Heb. 12:1) -- westward from Constantinople (which fell to Moslem Turks on May 29th) toward the Promised Land (Britain). In one hand, Orion holds a Greek "open scroll" (Rev.10:2) high to preserve it from the flood. The sun's orb directly on the scroll makes it a TORCH. When the Bible is openly read, it becomes a TORCH. "Thy word is a LAMP unto my feet and a LIGHT unto my path" (Ps. 119:105; Greek Orthodox OLYMPIC TORCH). This ignited both the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation.

The Spanish Armada -- God "Breakest the Ships of Tarshish with an East Wind" (Ps. 48:7) in 1588 A.D. (30 years [Rev. 10:8-9] + 1260 months [Rev. 11:3])

"They that strive with thee shall perish ... they that war against thee shall be as nothing" (Isa.41:12). "The nations shall see and be confounded at all their (Israel's) MIGHT" (Micah 7:16). "The Eternal thy God will set thee on high ABOVE ALL NATIONS of the earth (Deut. 28:1-10; 26:19; 15:6; 7:6; 14:2). Jacob is the "CHIEF of the nations" (Jer.31:7). "NO WEAPON that is formed AGAINST THEE shall PROSPER, and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt CONDEMN. This is the heritage of the servants of the Eternal" (Isa.54:17). "For the nation ... that will not serve thee shall PERISH" (Isa.60:12). "And FIVE of you shall CHASE an HUNDRED, and an HUNDRED of you shall put TEN THOUSAND to FLIGHT" (Lev.26:8). "Thou art my BATTLE-AXE and WEAPONS of WAR; for with thee will I break in pieces the nations" (Jer. 51:20). "I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee" (Ex.23:27). "I will contend with him that contendeth with thee" (Isa. 49:25). From 1453 till 1588 = 135 years or 30 years (Rev. 10:8-9) + 1260 months (Rev. 11:3).

The first "Song of MOSES" (Exodus 15:1-21) had an obvious parallel in 1588 when the English sang the "song of Moses" (Rev. 15:3). Yes, the SPANISH ARMADA was "thrown into the sea" (15:1) and the Spanish soldiers were "cast into the sea" in 1588 (15:4). "His chosen (Spanish) captains also are drowned" (15:4) "The depths have covered them; they sank into the bottom as a stone" (15:5). The Armada's total weight was 60,000 tons. "Thy wrath ... consumed them as stubble" (15:7), not only from British broadsides, but because Drake (shown above) and his eight fire ships spread havoc in the Spanish galleons. "And with the blast of thy nostrils ... Thou didst blow with thy wind; the sea covered them; they sank as lead in the mighty waters" (15:8-10). Winds blew the Armada off her course and smashed many ships on the rocky coasts of France, Norway, Scotland and Ireland (cp. Ps. 48:7). "With his chariots ... The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea" (15:19-21). We are sure the Spanish took "wagons" with them in their ships (p.20, Defeat of the Spanish Armada by Close) and also horses and mules to pull them. The Armada carried a large number of horses and mules for the invasion force. These animals were put over the side in the North Sea as there was insufficient water for the journey home. An English ship later saw the mass of animals swimming in the sea. Of the 30,000 Spanish soldiers and sailors who had sailed in the Armada, scarcely 10,000 returned home. Of the 130 Spanish ships that set sail, only 53 returned home. No more than 100 English sailors were wounded and none of the English ships were lost other than eight fire ships. In a song of thanksgiving composed shortly after the Armada's defeat, Elizabeth declared, "He made the wynds and waters rise. To scatter all myne enemies". This was a second "Song of Moses." In acknowledgment of the Providence of God, Queen Elizabeth I ordered numerous silver medals struck illustrating the deliverance and with the words inscribed "He blew with his winds and they were scattered."

Drake's Raid on Cadiz in April 1587 and the subsequent pursuit of his fleet, DELAYED the Armada preparations. Marquis de Santa Cruz, the intended commander of the Armada, DIED before it could sail. He was Spain's most distinguished admiral. Medina-Sidonia was his replacement, an experienced administrator who proved to be resolute and capable in action, but he had relatively LITTLE SEA EXPERIENCE. On May 29, 1588, the Spanish Armada sailed out with 130 ships. Drake's smaller fleet of 101 ships had only 28 properly equipped for fighting. But they were "RACE-BUILT" and had LONG-BARRELLED cannons on rollers to absorb the RECOIL. Spanish cannons were of many different calibers, hard to reload and often blew apart when fired. Due mainly to stormy east WINDS, and the GULFSTREAM, the Spanish fleet arrived back home with 53 shattered gallions. Of the 30,000 soldiers and crew in the Armada probably 20,000 died during the voyage; of wounds, by execution (by the English in Ireland), but mostly of starvation and disease. They continued to die after the Armada reached Spanish ports. It is said that there was no noble family in Spain that did not lose a son in the Armada. One hundred English sailors were wounded. The English fleet suffered little damage. God "breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east WIND" (Ps.48:7).

The Armada campaign was enormously costly for Spain. Philip II was forced to take out large loans and increase taxation significantly to meet the expenses including claims for compensation from owners of foundered ships. After Gravelines it was found that no English ships had suffered hull damage, while many of the Spanish ships were severely damaged by canon fire, much of it below the waterline. Examination of Spanish canon balls recovered from wrecks showed the Armada’s ammunition to be badly cast, the iron lacking the correct composition and too brittle, causing the balls to disintegrate on impact, rather than penetrating the hull. Several guns were found to have been badly cast and of inadequate composition, increasing the danger of bursting and killing or injuring the gun crews. Much of the ammunition recovered from the Spanish wrecks proved to be of the wrong calibre for the guns carried in the ships.The Spanish crews were not trained to load and fire repeatedly during a battle and the carriages and tackles of the guns were not designed or suitable for this function; the system of wheels and tackle restricting recoil rather than easing it.

The Armada crossed the English Channel and anchored at Calais the night of 6 August. Drake sent eight blazing fire ships adrift among the anchored Spanish fleet at midnight August 7-8, causing the Spaniards to cut their anchors and put out to sea in confusion. Four Spanish ships were lost at this point. The Armada fled northward, pursued hotly by Drake. The hardest fighting of the entire naval campaign followed, and the Spanish lost heavily. But before Drake could deliver the knockout punch, the English ran out of ammunition. Both the west wind and the English fleet now prevented the Armada from rejoining Parma, and it was forced to make the passage back to Spain around the northern tip of Scotland. The English fleet turned back in search of supplies when the Armada passed the Firth of Forth and there was no further fighting, but the long voyage home through the autumn gales of the North Atlantic proved fatal to many of the Spanish ships. Whether through battle damage, bad weather, shortage of food and water, or navigational error, some ships foundered in the open sea while others were driven onto the rocky coasts of Scotland and west coast of Ireland and wrecked. They had cut their anchors at Calais and were unable to hold their ships off the rocks. For many days, fragments of Spanish vessels were cast by every tide upon the northern coasts of the isles. Of those ships that finally reached Spain, many of them were too badly damaged to be repaired.



A Troubling Dream Before the Battle of Zenta in 1697 -- "1600 furlongs" (Rev. 14:20) from 96 A.D. When John Wrote the Apocalypse

August of 1697, Sultan Mustafa II crossed the Danube near its junction with the Tisza (Theiss) River leading 100,000 troops. The second in command, Grand Vizier Elams Mehmed, had been troubled by a dream in which he met the former Grand Vizier who was killed at the Battle of Slankamen. Elams interpreted this as a prediction of his death, were he to go near the same area. He therefore urged Mustafa to move WEST toward the fortress of Peter-wardein on the Danube, away from Slankamen. The other pashas (high ranking officers) opposed him, however, and convinced Mustafa to march NORTH and pursue Eugene. This began a pattern of dissension and indecision within the Ottoman high command.

The Sultan thought Eugene was beating a retreat when he moved his main forces north away from the Muslim army. But the Field Marshall was not fleeing. He moved north to combine with other forces to increase his army to 50,000 men, then turned around to make a lightning-fast march SOUTH to pursue Mustafa. On 6 September, Savoy slipped his army under the Turks' noses to camp by the Peterwardein fortress, WEST of the Ottomans, where his men would be protected by its guns.

Mustafa was stunned by Eugene's return. The Grand Vizier, still shaken by his dream, pronounced God's condemnation on an assault against Peter-wardein. The Sultan listened to him and concluded it would be suicidal to expose his army to the fortress's artillery. Mustafa decided to change plans once again and march NORTH along the Tisza, to attack the city of Szeged. He did so over the objections of some factions within his council who insisted that Peterwardein should be taken immediately. Arguments between the commanders led to a state of indecision when the army began its march on 7 September.

Eugene received reliable intelligence from Hungarian light cavalry (hussars) that the Ottomans were committed to going NORTH. These horsemen captured Kiicsug Dzafer, a Turkish pasha and brought him to Eugene. Reports that the Field Marshall threatened to "hack him to pieces" if he did not reveal the Sultan's plans are highly dubious. The pasha's secretary mentioned no such coercion in his account and Eugene's version of the interrogation treated the matter similarly.

Eugene concluded that Mustafa had changed his tactics again. The Sultan had canceled attacking Szeged, fearing his army would get caught between the fortress and the Austrian army. He decided instead to cross the Tisza at Zenta, Hungary (now Serbia) to move away from Eugene and reprovision. Eugene saw the opportunity to catch the Turks at Zenta and pushed his men into an 18-hour forced march. In the mean time, Mustafa's French engineers erected a bridge over the Tisza. It was collapsible and portable, supported by 60 boats serving as pontoons. The Turks had to pass over it slowly to avoid damaging it, giving the Austrians time to catch up.

Eager to seize the moment, Eugene rode ahead of his army with hussars on 11 September until they reached a point where he could survey Zenta. He saw the town smoking in ruins to the north. The Sultan, unaware that he was being pursued by Eugene, entrenched his troops and prepared to cross the Tisza. Construction crews completed the bridge by noon, Mustafa and his bodyguard were the first to cross it. The sipahis (Turkish cavalry) went after him to reach the safety of the east bank. But there were 135,000 soldiers and not enough time for everyone to follow. Eugene sneaked up behind him, positioning his heavy artillery in the high ground overlooking the river. He chose his moment carefully: just as the Sultan’s own artillery was fording the river, and therefore out of action, he gave the order to start raining shot down from above. At the same time he mounted an assault on the rear flanks of the Turkish army. The Turks found themselves hemmed in between the river and Eugene’s army. The Turks were fortified around the bridge to the south and in a state of near panic, due to their incomplete preparations. The Ottoman infantry hastily threw up earthworks and lined their wagons in a semi-circle. Mayhem broke out as thousands plunged into the water to escape being slaughtered.

Standard procedure in a situation like this would be to convene a council of war to plan the next step, but Eugene preferred a rapid strike. Although there would be only two to four hours of daylight left, he pressed forward, saying "I trust my men, there are no cowards among them". Eugene organized his forces in a crescent to pin the Ottomans against the Tisza. His men moved past outer defensive trenches to surround the core of Turkish defenses. Before them, Janissaries took protection in trenches behind earthworks, which in turn surrounded the area in front of the bridge. These barricades enveloped Ottomans by extending along banks of the river in back of them. They created a second barricade with a semi-circle of wagons.

The mounds were buttressed by fascines, stacks of brush covered with mud. The Ottoman soldiers and artillery fired at the Austrians through embrasures, indented pockets between the walls looking out through protected slits. The shooters retired to the protection of the trenches afterward, where they would reload. Time had been cut so short, however, that these defenses were incomplete.

The Imperials assaulted their opponents after the sipahies and their heavy artillery had crossed over the river, denying them support from the Ottoman cavalry and heavy cannons on the east bank. General Guido Starhemberg led the left wing forward at 5:00 PM when his cannons began to shell the bridge. Panic broke out among the Janissaries when they saw the span damaged. It was their only hope of escape! Many stampeded to get to it, crushing the Grand Vizier and fulfilling his nightmare. Eugene exploited the confusion by ordering the rest of his army to attack. His cavalry took the unusual step of dismounting so they could join with the infantry and close with the Turks in hand-to-hand combat.

Meanwhile, Eugene noticed a bulge of land along the banks of the Tisza that paralleled the mounds in back of the Ottoman camp. He directed the left wing to use it to encircle the enemy from the rear. Though the Ottomans bombarded them with grapeshot, Starhemberg's men scaled the banks of the river and the walls looming overhead. It was such an incredible accomplishment that, in his later report, Savoy could not explain how they had overcome the sheerness of the heights!

The exact sequence of events vary from one observer to another, but the following happened: The Sipahies tried to cross over the bridge to reinforce the Janissaries, but only succeeded in trampling the fleeing soldiers to death coming from the opposite direction. Starhemberg's men raced to the bridge and sealed it off. Eventually, the span groaned under the strain of the men overloading it and disintegrated, spilling the soldiers into the river. The Tisza flows at this time of year with a strong, icy current and reaches depths greater than the Danube, making it a death trap for the Janissaries. Hypothermia froze their limbs as they vainly struggled to swim across it.

The remaining Janissaries on the west bank were surrounded by frenzied Austrians who showed them no mercy. Eugene described the situation, "The soldiers got worked up to such a pitch that they spared no one and butchered all who fell into their hands despite the large sums of money which the Pashas and Turkish leaders... offered them to spare their lives". Mustafa saw everything from the far bank of the river in a state of despair. He paced back and forth, cursed, tore his hair and threw himself on the ground. An estimated 22,000 of his men were cut down in front of the bridge, another 10,000 drowned. All he could do was to gather the sipahis and flee northeast to Temesvar. The battle concluded just before night fell. Most of the Muslim senior military officials were slaughtered. The Imperials lost 300-400 soldiers. The next day the Imperialist army crossed the bridge into what had been Mustapha’s camp. There it discovered nothing short of a treasure. In his panic, the sultan had left behind all of his artillery, a huge sum in money, roughly 9,000 baggage carts, and an astounding 60,000 camels. Eugene led his men away from the scene as quickly as possible to protect them from contracting diseases from the rotting corpses. The Tisza was choked with bodies for days.

Indecision defeated Mustafa and left him a broken man. He never led an army on the battlefield again and was overthrown by his own men in 1703. On the other hand, Eugene's victory gave him the reputation of being one of the best seven generals in history, by Napoleon's reckoning. The scrawny young man retrieved his family's honor and achieved lasting greatness. Rarely does a single battle result in the long-term consequences of Zenta. The defeat forced the Turks to submit for the first time to a treaty as a defeated power and accept Western mediation. The Battle of Zenta signaled the end of the Austro-Ottoman Great Turkish War of 1683-1699, forcing the Turks into signing the Treaty of Carlowitz, which ceded a large chunk of Hungary, the whole of Croatia and Slovenia, and most of Transylvania – all the territory that the Ottoman Empire had gained in central Europe since 1526 – to Austria. The interval from the fall of the Western Empire in A.D. 476 to a time 1260 LUNAR years later brings us to 1698 (1,222.5 solar years). What happened in 1698? The completion of the Protestant Revolution at the Peace of Ryswick in September 20, 1697 (commemorated at the opening of St. Paul's Cathedral on December 2nd of that year) and the Peace of Carlowitz in January 26th, 1699 A.D. The significant date of 1698 bisects the two treaties that limit the two "little horns."

"As Birds Flying" Allenby Liberated Jerusalem in 1917 -- "Seven Times" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24) After Jerusalem Was Taken Captive in 604 B.C.

Ezekiel 25:14 says, "I will lay my vengeance upon EDOM (TURKEY) by the hand of my people Israel." "And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of ESAU for stubble" (Obad. 18). "The house of Jacob shall possess their possessions" (Obadiah 17). "Saviors shall come up on Mount Zion to judge the mount of ESAU ; and the kingdom shall be the Eternal's" (Obad. 21). Yes "the elder (ESAU) shall serve the younger (Israel)." (Gen. 25:23) because " Israel (Jacob) is ... my firstborn (not Esau)" (Ex.4:22). In that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins (Jerusalem rebuilt); and I will build it as in the days of old: That they may possess the remnant of EDOM, and of all the heathen, which are called by My name (Palestine's mixed population is called Israel), saith the Lord that doeth this" (Amos 9:12). From these verses we can easily identify EDOM with TURKEY-- the people who guarded the site of the tabernacle before Britain took over in 1917.

TURKEY was defeated in 1917 by Britain's General Edmund Allenby and Colonel T.E. Lawrence. The surrender happened on 25th Kislev, the anniversary commemorating the recapture of the Temple from the Selucidae by Judas Maccabeus in 165 B.C. It is called the Feast of Dedication (John 10:22). The OTTOMAN EMPIRE had ruled over Egypt, Sudan, Arabia, Palestine, Iraq and Mesopotamia. But Britain took these possessions from her and ruled over most of them. August 10, 1920 the Treaty of Sevres was signed and the TURKISH EMPIRE was broken in pieces. March 5 & 6, 1924, the Caliph was expelled from TURKEY and the OTTOMAN EMPIRE ended. It had begun in 597 B.C. when Jerusalem was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar and ESAU (TURKEY) took spoil (Ez. 35; Obad. 13) till 1924 when Britain (Israel) took it back. 597 B.C. + 2520 = 1924 A.D. (Add one year since no year "0") Also, if we call Islam the "abomination of desolation" (Dan.12:11) which arose in 622 A.D., and add 1335 lunar years (Dan.12:12) of 354 days each according to the Islamic chronology (which equal 1295 solar years), we come to 1917 A.D. when Jerusalem was delivered or "blessed". 622 A.D. +1295 = 1917 A.D. Or from Omar, the first Caliph in 634 A.D. to 1924 A.D. when the Caliphate ("abomination") ended is 1290 years (Dan. 12:11). Or alternately, from 622 till 1873 is 1290 lunar years which saw Herzegovenia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Bulgaria rebel in open war against the Sultan. "All your allies have driven you to your border" (Obadiah 1:7). One by one the provinces of Roumania, Montenegro, Servia, Bulgaria, etc. have struggled for and obtained their independence and driven the Ottoman Turks to their border. From 622 till 1844 is 1260 lunar years (Dan. 12:7). In 1844 Britain and other Christian European nations forced the Sultan of Turkey to sign the Decree of Toleration which abolished the death penalty ("treading down") for conversion from Islam to Christianity or any other religion. For over 12 centuries ESAU, in the guise of Saracen and Turk, was in possession of the Holy Land as TURKEY made Palestine "desolate" (Ez.36:3) with "thorns and briars" (Isa. 32:13). Ezekiel 36:5,22,24 says, "Surely in the fire of my jealousy have I spoken against the residue of the heathen, and against all EDOM, who have appointed my land into their possession with the joy of all their heart, with despiteful minds.... Therefore, say unto the House of Israel, Thus saith the Lord God, I do not this for your sakes, O house of Israel, but for mine holy name's sake.... For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land." "AS BIRDS FLYING, so will the Eternal of hosts defend (protect) Jerusalem; defending (protecting) also he will deliver it, and passing over he will preserve it" (Isa. 31:5).

The secret to Allenby's success was domination of the air with British PLANES that were used for bombing, reconnaissance, and machine-gunning. He gave strict orders that no fighting was to take place in Jerusalem. Instead he attacked the enemy's supply line forcing their retreat. Then when the TURKS tried to level the city with their big guns, the British PLANES attacked those guns to protect Jerusalem. Not a shot was fired inside the city. When General Allenby advanced over Mount Gerizim (the Mount of Blessing), the TURKS were fleeing over Mount Ebal (the Mount of Cursing). In their conceit, the TURKS had boasted, "When the waters of the Nile flow into Palestine, then will a PROPHET of the Lord come and drive the TURKS out of this land." But this impossibility did happen when British engineers laid a pipeline across the desert to supply the British army at the rate of many thousands of gallons a day from the Nile. Not only that, but the leader of the army was named Allah-en-Nebi (God's prophet) in Arabic or Allenby in English.

Deuteronomy 11:24 says, "Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and LEBANON, from the river, the river EUPHRATES, even unto the uttermost SEA shall your coast be." After the First World War, Britain held the mandate stretching across the Fertile Crescent through what was then known as Palestine, Trans-Jordan and Iraq. From 1919 and through the 1920s this prophecy received fulfillment. God promised Abraham "all the land of Canaan" (Gen.17:8) and it was promised "for an everlasting possession." Therefore, the Palestinians, who are being given control over the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in Israel today, do not belong there. Isaac prophesied about ESAU, "Behold, thy dwelling shall be ("far from" -- Bas) the fatness of the earth, and ("far from" -- Bas) ... the dew of heaven above; And by thy SWORD shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother" (Gen.27:37-40). Haman and Herod were both EDOMITES (see Josephus). ESAU lives in TURKEY and TURKESTAN. These areas lack most of the important industrial natural resources. ESAU became EDOM (Gen. 25:30) or IDUMEA. One son called "AMALEK" gave his name to the capital of Jagatai in central Asia called ALMALIK (Acad. Am. En. 2:255). The Tarim River in TURKESTAN used to be called YUMALAK-Darya (29:872). The Egyptians called the Amalekites "AMU." In TURKESTAN is the AMU River (called Oxus by Greeks). We also see the SYR River in TURKESTAN named after Mount SEIR. ESAU'S son KORAH named the KARA-Kum desert, KARA-Kul Lake, KARA-Tau Mts., KIRGHIZ and KHORASAN in TURKESTAN. It's called TURKESTAN because it is "inhabited by TURKISH races" (27:419b). TEMAN gave his name to the OTTOMAN Empire (cp. Gen.36:11 & Obadiah 9) which stands "in the crossway" (Obad.14) -- the Bosporus and Dardanelles area that the British, Australians and New Zealanders fought so hard for in World War One. Strabo mentions the ODOMANTES tribe in N. GREECE and the ODOMANTIS country in TURKEY (3:359 & 5:325). They practiced circumcision (Aristophanes Acharn. 157). Herodotus calls these same peoples the SIRO-Painones (5:15) which may refer to SEIR of Pannonia. Plutarch called the Strymon River, on which the ODOMANTI lived, the PALESTINE River (DeFluv. 11). Ptolemy 3:12 mentions the town of IDOMENE and the province of ODOMANTICA both in Macedonia and IDYMUS in Lydia (TURKEY) (5:2).

Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian army took tribute from Jerusalem in 604 B.C. Jehoiakim was taken captive (cp. Jer. 25:1 & Dan. 1:1-2). From 604 B.C. till 1917 A.D. were the seven "Times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24; Lev. 26:28) which are bisected by the date 657 A.D. What happened in 657 A.D.? In the time of Ali Bin Abu Talib's reign, ruler of the Islamic Realm, Muawiya bin Abu Sufian was the governor of Syria (Al-Sham), and wanted to separate Syria from the realm, to be independent. At the battle of Seffeen, north of Syria, in the year 36 of the Hijri calendar, (some 657 A.D.), the two sides fought. After this battle there was a split in Islam. Those who supported Ali were called the Shiia'ats who were mostly in Iraq and Iran, and those who supported Muawiya are the Sunies. And so the Muslims were divided into two political factions.

If we add 1260 SOLAR years to this date, we come to 1917 and the Russian Bolshevik Revolution which was a punishment on the Moslem Religion which persecuted Jews and Protestants just as the French Revolution (1789) was a punishment on the Roman Catholic Church which persecuted Jews and Protestants. Atheistic Russia destroyed Turkish Islam just as Revolutionary secular France destroyed Roman Catholicism -- each after 1260 years. Also in 1917, Turkey was driven from Jerusalem and Palestine completely by Great Britain's General Allenby and Lawrence of Arabia from November 1917 to the Armistice in November 1918

Also on November 2, 1917, the Balfour Declaration gave Jews authority for "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." On December 9th 1917, (during the Festival of Hanukkah which commemorates the recapture of the Temple by Judas Maccabeas) British General Allenby liberated Jerusalem from the Turks. It was the 24th day of the ninth month of the Jewish calendar. Jews lost their authority over Jerusalem for "SEVEN TIMES" punishment (Lev.26:28). Also we know that Benjamin was part of the Kingdom of Judah and so in 1918 Iceland (Benjamin) was granted full self-government a full 2520 YEARS later. On that day (24th day of ninth month), the word of the Lord came to Haggai saying, "I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen" (Hag. 2:20). Jesus said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). This scripture alone should be sufficient witness that Britain is Israel. The Babylonian image of Daniel 2 (which included an Ottoman eastern leg) had been smitten by the British Empire and that "stone" then "became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth" (Dan. 2:35) which included the United States. By the end of the First World War (1917-1918 A.D.) the great Gentile Empires all fell and broke into pieces: Germany, Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Czarist Russia and Italy.

By 1917 (622 + 1335 = 1917) on the 1335th LUNAR year (Dan. 12:12), (1295 solar years), Turkey was driven from Jerusalem and Palestine completely by General Allenby and Lawrence of Arabia from November 1917 to the Armistice in November 1918. This period on the Moslem calendar occupied the entire 1335th Moslem year since the Moslem calendar ran from September to September.

If we add 1260 LUNAR years (1222.5 solar) to 657 A.D. we come to 1879 A.D. In 1878 at the Berlin Conference, the wholesale dismemberment of the Turkish Empire occurred. If we add 1260 PROPHETIC years (1241.915 solar) to 657, we come to 1899 when Theodor Herzl established the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement in 1899.

God's Hand in HISTORY

Many more examples could be given. But we can summarize and conclude by saying that "God removes kings and sets up kings" (Dan. 2:21, RSV). Daniel affirmed to King Nebuchadnezzar that "the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory" (Dan. 2:37). The purpose of seven years' punishment of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 4) was so "that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men" (Dan. 4:17). Isaiah stated it is God who "bringeth the princes to nothing" (Isa. 40:23). King David of ancient Israel declared that "God is the judge; he putteth down one, and setteth up another" (Ps. 75:7). God's intervention in events is PRECISE and FITS into a MASTER PLAN. He knows the end result from the beginning of time (Isa. 46:10). At certain times, it has been necessary for God to directly intervene to influence events to conform with the timetable of that overall master plan. In this regard, Victor Hugo -- writing with unusual insight in his description of Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo -- declared, "It was time for this vast man to fall."

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