God's Hand in History
The following is a miniature history course -- "His Story 101" -- the way it should have been taught in grade school to every child growing up. But historical evidence to support God's hand in history has been LEFT OUT of our history classes. MIRACULOUS intervention and circumstances with PRECISE TIMING at crucial dates in the story of nations and empires point unmistakably to the GUIDING HAND of God. But God has been "kicked out" of school text books. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge (persona non-grata), God gave them over to a reprobate mind" (void of judgment) (Romans 1:28). "For the material man rejects spiritual things, for they are foolishness to him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).
From the Invasion of the Hyksos Shepherd Kings (1957 BC) to the Expulsion of Israelite Shepherds (1446 BC) (Their Supposed Descendants)
Manetho Reckoned 511 Years (2nd & 3rd Dynasties) (Against Apion 1:14)
A few centuries before the Israelites went down to Egypt, an Asiatic people, the HYKSOS, (Hieroglyphic Hyk = king or armed + Coptic shos = shepherd; "foreign rulers" or "shepherd kings" -- Against Apion 1:14 or "armed shepherds" -- Egypt's Record of Time, p.219) took advantage of the unsettled political condition in Egypt, and seized the throne. They "kept possession of Egypt five hundred and eleven years" (Against Apion 1:14) which is the correct sum of the Second and Third Dynasties: 260 + 251 = 511 years. (15th - 17th Dynasties were Hyksos and contemporaneous). Psalm 78:49 mentions this invasion of "king-shepherds" or "mishlakhat malkhei-roim" against Egypt but the text has been corrupted to read "evil angels" or "mishlakhat malakhei-roim" instead. This is contrary to proper Hebrew grammar. If "evil angels" were the correct reading, then the Hebrew should be "malakhim raoth." They were Arabians (Against Apion 1:52). Specifically Amalekites (pp. 64-65, Ages in Chaos). Their king Agag (Nu. 24:7) was known as Apop (Manetho). This is because the early Hebrew letters g (gimel) and p (pei) show a striking resemblance, both looking like the number 7 (Ages in Chaos, p.72).
(They settled in the northern Delta region of Egypt, making their capitol at Avaris.They were somewhat akin to the Israelites and the HYKSOS Pharaoh treated Israelites kindly as long as he reigned. This is why Joseph coached his brethren before they were introduced to Pharaoh. Joseph told them to profess to be shepherds "For every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians" (Gen. 46:34). Why? "That ye may dwell in the land of Goshen" where Pharaoh dwells, a land of cattle and sheep, "the best of the land" (47:6). Therefore there would be no objection from the Egyptians. Pharaoh also had cattle (47:6). Thus we know that the Pharaoh who was in Egypt was not an Egyptian but an Asiatic HYKSOS, a king who did not favor the Egyptians. To any native king, a shepherd would be an abomination, but not to the HYKSOS, for they, too, were shepherds. The passage might also be translated, " "every consecrated goat is an idol or object of worship with the Egyptians" (46:34). Manetho affirms that such was the case as early as the second dynasty, and four centuries prior to the Shepherd invasion, "the bulls Apis in Memphis, and Mnevis in Heliopolis, and the Mendesian goat, were appointed to be gods." (Euseb. Chron. Can. Lib. Prior, Cap. 20). Julius Africanus, a Christian writer of the third century, mentions that Joseph went into Egypt, and was raised to power under one of those pharaohs who belonged to the "Shepherd Dynasty." Syncellus, a Byzantine historian of the eighth century, believed that Joseph governed Egypt under Pharaoh Apophis -- a "Shepherd King. Ancient Egyptians "believed that wool was unclean ... Priests could not wear ... wool clothing" (Everyday Life, Montet, p.122). "The figure "5" was also an abomination to them, probably because "Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt ... that Pharaoh should have the FIFTH part" (Gen. 47:26). Sir Gardner Wilkinson
speaks of 5 as being the 'evil number' in modern Egypt still. It is marked by '0' on their watches" (Murray's 1864 'Handbook for Egypt,' p.142).
Manetho wrote an account of the HYKSOS preserved in Josephus: “…for what cause I know not, a blast of God smote us; and unexpectedly, from the regions of the East, invaders of obscure race marched in confidence of victory against our land. By main force they easily seized it without striking a blow, and having overpowered the rulers of the land, they burned our cities ruthlessly, razed to the ground the temples of the gods, and treated all the natives with a cruel hostility, massacring some and leading into slavery the wives and children of others. Finally they appointed a king of one of their number whose name was Salatis. He had his seat at Memphis, levying tribute from Upper and Lower Egypt, and always leaving garrisons behind in the most advantageous positions.” (Flavius Josephus, Against Apion, book I, chapter 14, parts 73-92).The name “Salatis” comes from a Semitic root meaning “prince”. It is the root word of “SULTAN”. These invaders came from the East and must have passed to Egypt from the Sinai. They made Egyptians, slaves. The Bible records a people who suddenly gained prominence in that part of the world – the Edomite Amalekites (Amalek was a son of Edom or Esau). As late as the days of Saul, the Egyptians were still subject to these people: “And they found an Egyptian in the field…And David said unto him, To whom belongest thou? And whence are thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an AMALEKITE; and my master left me, because three days ago I fell sick.” (I Samuel 30:11-13).The Amalekites seized the Delta after the Exodus. They are mentioned in the Bible around the time of Moses in the words of Balaam: “Amalek the FIRST of the NATIONS; but his latter end shall be that he perish forever.” (Numbers 24:20). “FIRST of the NATIONS” (Hyksos) refers to their position and ranking at that time, since they were not great in earlier times (their forbearer was Esau) like the Bablylonians, Assyrians, and Egyptians. Also, the first people to attack the children of Israel in Sinai after the Red Sea crossing were the Amalekites: “Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim” (Exodus 17:8).
During part of Israel's stay in Egypt she was favored with the choicest land called Goshen for pasturing flocks and herds and Joseph was put upon the throne as prime minister. When the famine increased, there is no indication the Israelites were forced to mortgage their lands, sell their flocks or sell themselves as slaves. They were favored in Egypt. But the tables were turned and Israel became oppressed. How? Exodus 1:8 says, "There arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph." He was a native Egyptian, the founder of the eighteenth dynasty who expelled the HYKSOS. His name was Amosis I (c. 1570-1545) who stormed Tanis (Zoan) and destroyed the last Semitic garrisons in Egypt about 1550 B.C. including Avaris. This native Egyptian feared lest the Israelites might multiply and some day do as the HYKSOS did and seize the throne. This accounts for their enslavement and persecution. The HYKSOS included Hebrews (Apiru) and Arameans (Amurru) and others -- a "mixed multitude." Manetho recorded that these HYKSOS later went to JUDEA and built JERUSALEM after leaving Egypt (Josephus, Against Apion 1:14). Ezekiel 16:3 says that Jerusalem was built by "an Amorite , and ... an Hittite." Therefore we know the HYKSOS included Amorites and Hittites as well as Hebrews and Arameans. The Hyksos had Canaanite names.
The powerful 18th Dynasty was founded by Amenhotep I (1546–1525 B.C.), who came to power after the Hyksos campaign. Remaining Semites who stayed behind after the Hyksos were driven out were treated brutally by the next several kings (Thutmose I and Thutmose II), culminating in Thutmose III, who “…made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field…” (Exodus 1:14). Thutmose III was known as “the Napoleon of Egypt”, and who set about conquering large swaths of territory once occupied by the Hyksos and their allies. He was also a great builder who used many slaves in his building projects; the population of slaves included large numbers of Semites, who were hated by Thutmose as a result of the Hyksos period. Archaeologist and historian W.F. Albright confirmed that the Hyksos invasion of Egypt was led by a Semitic people, not Hurrians or Indo-Aryans as some scholars contend; the fact that the remaining population was Semitic help fuel the hatred that many Egyptians felt for the Hebrew slaves remaining in Goshen.
Rekhmire, the vizier to Thutmose III, left behind splended wall paintings in his tomb in which scenes of the making of bricks and other tasks are being carried out, similar to the scene in Exodus 5:6–19. Found among the figures in the paintings are Semitic foreigners engaged in brick-making, with the hyroglyphic text having them say “He supplies us with bread, beer, and every good thing,” while they get a stern warning from the task-masters: "The rod is in my hand; be not idle!"
Secular History Confirms Abraham Entered Canaan in 1876 BC -- 428 Years After the Flood
Serug may be Sargon the Great of Akkad, whose descendants included Ibarum/Ibrium (Abram/Abraham). That may be why Abraham was called "a mighty prince" (Gen. 23:6) and his half-sister a "princess" (Gen. 17:15). The son of Sargon was Naram-sin (cp. "naharaim" -- Judges 3:8), who may therefore be Nahor, son of Serug. "They served other gods" (Josh. 24:2). Ebla Tablets in NW Syria mention a king of Ebla named Eber and towns in the Mesopotamian valley such as Phaliga (Peleg), Reu, Sarugi (Serug) Til-Turakhi (Terah), Hakhaur (Nahor) and Haran. They also mention the five cities of the plain (Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and Bela or Zoar) (BAR, 3/1978, pp.4-10). Ur of the Chaldees was the birth place of Abraham. It was a NORTHWESTERN, not southeastern Ur. Only the NW Ur is "beyond" the Euphrates (Joshua 24:3). It was in the Haran area. The patriarchs were Aramean (Syrian). The city of Urfa (Edessa), 40 miles north of Haran, may have been his birth place since his ancestor was Arphaxad (Urfa + Chesed). "Terah lived seventy years, and begat" -- not Abram -- but Haran who was firstborn because his daughters, Milcah and Iscah (Sarah), were married to their uncles, Nahor and Abram, and Sarah was only ten years younger than her husband (Gen. 17:17). Abraham was 75 years old when his father died at age 205 (Gen. 12:4), therefore, Abraham was born when his father was 130 years of age (Gen. 11:32). Abraham was named first due to his pre-eminence, not being first-born. By the same analogy, Shem, the second son of Noah, is placed first of his three sons (Gen. 5:32) and Japheth "the eldest" last. (Gen. 10:21 & 11:20). Isaac is put before Ishmael even though 14 years younger (1 Chr. 1:28).
Abraham "was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and NOT MISTAKEN in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, that there was but ONE GOD, the Creator of the universe ... to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honour and thanksgiving. For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans and other people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the command ... of God. Berosus mentions our father Abram, without naming him, when he says thus: -- "In the tenth generation, after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man RIGHTEOUS and great, and skilled in the CELESTIAL science.... Abram reigned at Damascus" (Antiq. 1:7:1-2; see also Eusebius Praep. Evang. 9:16:417). Abraham "taught the Phoenicians the motions of the sun and moon" (Eusebius Praep. Evang. p.9). He was "renowned for his JUSTICE and great exploits, and for his skill in the CELESTIAL sciences" (ibid.) Abraham was admired by the Egyptian priests "as a VERY WISE man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to to him. He communicated to them ARITHMETIC, and delivered to them the science of ASTRONOMY; for before Abram came into Egypt, they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also." (Antiq. 1:8:2). Egyptians probably got CIRCUMCISION from Abraham also. The whole history of Abraham is related in different parts of the Koran.
Abraham was driven out of Chaldea because he refused to participate in their idolatry (Judith 5:8; Acts 7:2-4). He entered Canaan when he was 75 (Gen. 12:4) in 1876 BC. Isaac was born 25 years after that when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28; dividing in two equal parts of 215 years each -- Ant. 2:15:2) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. Joseph was "seventeen years old" (37:2) in 1683 B.C. when he was sold into Egypt. Furthermore, Joseph was born in 1700 B.C. when God "opened her (Rachel's) womb" (29:22) and Jacob was age 91.
Secular History Confirms Sodom and Gomorrah Were Destroyed
Diodorus Siculus says, "The country about the Lacus Asphaltites being of an igneous character, and exhaling bad odours, renders the inhabitants sickly and short-lived." (Diodorus Siculus 19:98). "The water of it is bitter and fetid to the last degree, insomuch that neither fish, nor any other aquatic animals are able to live in it" (Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Hist. 19:734).
"The lake Asphaltites produces nothing whatever except bitumen, to which it owes its name." (Pliny Nat. Hist. 5:16; 35:15)
"Not far from the Dead Sea lie the desert plains, such as they report to have been of old a fruitful and flourishing country, full of populous cities, which were consumed by lightnings and thunderbolts; they add that the traces and monuments of such desolation still exist, and that the soil itself looks scorched, and has ever since lost its fertility ... To speak my own sentiments, I would allow that cities, once very great and important, were burnt here by fire from heaven, and that the soil is infected by exhalations from the lake." (Tac. Hist. 5:7).
"Near Moasada (a place near the Lake Asphaltites, called Masada by Josephus) are to be seen rugged rocks, bearing the marks of fire; fissures in many places; a soil like ashes; pitch falling in drops from the rocks; rivers boiling up, and emitting a fetid odour to a great distance; dwellings in every direction overthrown; whence we are inclined to believe the common tradition of the natives that thirteen cities once existed there, the capital of which was Sodom , but that a circuit of about sixty stadia around it escaped uninjured; shocks of earthquake, however, eruptions of flames, and hot springs containing asphaltus and sulphur, caused the lake to burst its bounds, and the rockas took fire; some of the cities were swallowed up, others were abandoned by such of the inhabitants as were able to make their escape."
(Strabo Geog. 35:2). The remains of Sodom and Gomorrah are now deep under water in the Dead Sea.
Abraham "entertained angels" (Heb. 13:2) by showing hospitality to them as they travelled toward Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 18:1-8). Then Lot showed them hospitality when they arrived. He said to the perverts of Sodom, "They came under the shadow of my roof" (19:1-9).
|"Full oft, while piety was yet revered
By pristine man, the gods on earth appeared,
And, entering oft some hero's pure abode,
To human crowds immortal beauty showed."
-- Catullus Carm. 64:387
"Enter, my noble guest! and you shall find,
If not a costly welcome, yet a kind;
For I myself, like you, have been distressed,
Till heaven afforded me this place of rest.
Like you, an alien in a land unknown,
I learn to pity woes so like my own."
-- Virgil Aen. 1:631
|"Miltiades ... offered them the use of his house and the rites of hospitality." (Herodotus 6:35)
"Every man receives every comer and treats him with repasts as long as his ability can possibly furnish them." -- Tacitus Germ. 21
"Hardened with woes, a statue of despair,
To every breath of wind unmoved her hair;
Action and life from every part are gone;
And even her entrails turn to solid stone."
-- Ovid Metam. 6:301
|"The good ... are God's peculiar care,
And such as honour him shall heavenly honour share." -- Ovid Metam. 8:724
"The neighborhood, said he,
Shall justly perish for impiety:
You stand alone exempted; but obey
With speed, and follow where we lead the way:
Leave these accursed, and to the mountain's height
Ascend; nor once look backward in your flight.
An arrow's flight they wanted to the top,
And there secure, but spent with travel, stop;
Then turn their now no more forbidden eyes;
Lost in a lake the floated level lies."
-- Ovid. Metam. 8:626-697
Secular History Confirms Joseph's Seven-Year Famine Which Ended in 1656 BC
Manetho's king lists were CONTEMPORANEOUS as well as SUCCESSIVE. "There were many kings in Egypt at the SAME TIME... some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places ... It is very unlikely that they ruled in SUCCESSION to eachother. Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place" (p.137-138, Eusebius' Chronicon). The framework of all history, which now originated from Egypt, was distorted: “In the arrangement of …Egyptian materials within a framework of consecutive dynasties, all modern historians are dependant upon an ancient predecessor. This was an Egyptian priest and writer Manetho who lived under Ptolemy II Philadelphius (285-246 B.C.). Much of his material has been preserved by Josephus. It is found in "Against Apion" book 1 chapter 14, parts 73-92. Manetho was born at Sebennytus (now Samannud) in the Delta. He rose to be high priest in the temple at Heliopolis. Berossos of Babylon was practically a contemporary, and the two priests became RIVALS in the proclamation of the ANTIQUITY and greatness of their respective lands.” (Jack Finegan, Light for the Ancient Past, pages 65-66). Manetho summarized the history of Egypt under the rule of 30 dynasties, or ruling houses, from the royal cities of Thinis, Thebes, Memphis, Tanis, Elephantine, Heracleopolis, Abydos, Xois, Bubastis, and Sais. It was made to appear that each city and family dominated all Egypt, and each ruler governed a unified Egypt at any given time. This teaching FALSELY established the antiquity of Egypt, but DISTORTED the dating of historical events, and implied a unity in Egyptian political affairs that did not in reality exist. Isaiah warned against trusting in Egypt for help (Isa. 31:1). Just as throughout the history of man in other nations, Egypt was a confederation of several dynastic families from different cities. In any given time, only one being the supreme Pharaoh or several engaged in struggles for balances of power. In biblical accounts, many lands and empires had not one king, but several: “Lo the king of Israel hath hired against us the KINGS of the Hittites and the KINGS of the Egyptians.” (2 Kings 7:6). “At that time did king Ahaz send unto the KINGS of Assyria to help him.” (2 Chronicles 28:16).
Justin says, "Joseph was very dear to the king himself: for he was most sagacious in explaining prodigies, and first framed the interpretation of dreams, and nothing in divine and human jurisprudence, seemed to be unknown to him. Insomuch that he even foresaw a barrenness of the grounds, many years before it happened; and all Egypt would have perished with famine, had not the king, by his counsel, ordered the fruits to be preserved for several years. And so excellent were his regulations, that they seemed rather to be oracular responses not given by man, but by God." (Justin General History 36:2)
Artapanus relates that Joseph, being hated by his brethren, and dreading the plots which they were daily contriving against him, besought the neighboring Arabs to carry him into Egypt. Here he gained so much upon the favor of the king, that he was appointed governor of the whole country; which from previously lying in an uncultivated state, soon assumed under his management a very different aspect. He divided it into inclosures, assigned to the priests their own portion, and became the inventor of standard measures. In this elevated situation, he married Asenath, the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis. Afterwards he entertained his father and all his brethren upon their emigration into Egypt, and assigned to them for their place of residence the city Cefan, the Goshen of Scripture (Eusebius Praep. Evang. 9:23).
Historians tell us
Imhotep was a non-royal, second-in-charge visier who saved Egypt from a 7-year famine by interpreting Pharaoh's dreams (by the power of God) (cp. Gen. 41:9-19), imposed a 20% tax (cp. 41:34), built grain silos (cp. 41:56), bought up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh (except for the priests' land) (cp. 47:20-22), lived to the age of 110 and was embalmed when he died (cp. 50:26) -- just like Joseph. Imhotep was also the High Priest of Heliopolis paralleling Joseph who married the daughter of the high priest of On (the capital of Heliopolis) (cp. 41:45). We believe the visier Imhotep (Suphis) WAS Joseph and Pharaoh Netjerikhet or Djoser ("the wise") was Joseph's pharaoh. In 1 Kings 6:1 we read that the Exodus took place 480 years before the fourth year of Solomon in 966 BC, which brings us to 1446 BC. Also the covenant made with Abraham was 430 years before the Exodus (Gal. 3:17) in 1876 BC. Isaac was born 25 years later when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. The end of a seven-year's famine occurred at the close of year 18 of Djoser I (end of winter 1656).
An account of the calamity is to be found on the rocks of the island of Sihiel, at the First Cataract. No other seven-years' famine is reported during the entire history of the Pharaohs. This is the Biblical seven-years' famine under Joseph. It is at the right time. A modern translation of it may be found in "Biblical Archaeology" by G. Ernest Wright, page 56. The account reads: "Year 18 .... I was in distress on the Great Throne, and those who are in the palace were in Heart's affliction from a very great evil, since the Nile had not come in my time for a space of SEVEN YEARS. Grain was scant, fruits were dried up, and everything which they eat was short .... The infant was wailing; the youth was waiting; the heart of the old man was in sorrow .... The courtiers were in need. The temples were shut up .... Everything was found empty." (Translation by J. A. Wilson in "Ancient Near Eastern Texts", edited by J. B. Pritchard, page 31.) The same inscription goes on: "Pharaoh Djoser asks Imhotep to help him with the COMING SEVEN YEARS of famine" ("Joseph in Egypt" by G. Drake). How did this pharaoh know about the COMING SEVEN YEARS yet in the future if they had not been predicted?
Dynasty III and Dynasty IV of Manetho mention Joseph under the name Suphis (or Souphis or Saophis) -- different Greek spellings from Manetho's commentators. Joseph in Hebrew, is not pronounced with an English "J" sound, but with a "Y" sound. In Manetho's Egyptian transcription of the name only the consonents "s" and "ph" appear -- hence the Greek Souphis or its variant forms. Eratosthenes wrote that the Egyptians had designated Suphis as a "money-getter" or "trafficker" (Fragment 17, "Manetho", by W. G. Waddell, page 219). Dynasty III in Manetho is made up of many rulers which do not appear in the Turin Papyrus. Only the two Djosers appear in each list, and in each case the full length of reign is preserved in Manetho. In Dynasty IV Suphis or Joseph is given 66 years by Manetho. This makes it clear that Dynasty IV -- a foreign dynasty -- parallels Dynasty III. The two records together tell the full story. Only the latter portion of Joseph's reign is preserved in the list of rulers in Dynasty III. The entire period of Joseph's public service is contained in the parallel account. The 66 years of Joseph's public service cover the years 1670-1604. The famine ended in 1656 after the rise in Upper Egypt of the new Nile during the summer of 1657 in Djoser's 18th year. He thus served till 96 years of age, and died at 110 (50:26). Sanchoniathon quotes Manetho as saying that Suphis built the Great Pyramid and also wrote a sacred book (Job) (p.443).
Albert Shultens in his Monumenta Vetustiora Arabiae, quotes from the 'Cosmography' of Al-Kaswini, an Arab writer of the 14th century, an inscription in Himyaritic characters, which he reports as having been discovered over the gateway of a castle near Hisn Ghorab, about 20 miles east of Aden, in Southern Arabia, by Abderrahman, Viceroy of Yemen, seven centuries before his time, i.e. about 660 AD. In English, the inscription reads: "We dwelt at ease in this castle for a long period of time, nor had we any desire save for the lusciousw region of the vine; hundreds of camels came to us each day at eve; twice the number of our camels were our sheep: We dwelt in this castle DURING THE SEVEN YEARS OF PLENTY; then came THE YEARS OF FAMINE, barren and burnt up; when one evil year had passed another succeeded, and we became as though we had never seen a glimpse of food. They died, and neither foot nor hoof remained (cp. Ex. 10:26). Thus fares it with him who renders not thanks to God; his footsteps fail not to be blotted out from his dwelling."
Pocock cites the Arabian writer named Firazabandi who corroborates the seven years. "Ebn Hesham relates that a flood of rain laid bare to view a sepulchre in Yemen (Arabia), in which lay a woman having on her neck seven collars of pearls, and on her hands and feet bracelets, and ankle rings, and armlets seven on each, and on every finger a ring, in which was set a jewel of great price, and at her head a coffer filled with treasure with this inscription" in Himyaritic characters: "In thy name, O God, the god of Himyar, I, Tajah, the daughter of Dzu Shefar, SENT MY STEWARD TO JOSEPH, and he delaying to return to me, I sent my handmaid with a measure of silver, to bring me back a measure of FLOUR; and not being able to procure it, I sent her with a measure of gold; and not being able to procure it, I sent her with a measure of pearls; and not being able to procure it, I commanded them to be ground; and finding no profit in them, I am shut up here: Whoever may hear of me, let him commiserate me; and should any woman adorn herself with an ornament from my ornaments, may she die no other than my death." Yes, "all countries came into Egypt to JOSEPH to buy CORN" (Gen. 41:57).
In the archives of the Chinese Empire it is recorded that "in the beginning of the reign of Ching-tang there happened a drought and famine all over the empire WHICH LASTED SEVEN YEARS, during which time no rain fell." (History of China collected out of Martinus, Couplet, and Du Halde, in Jackson's Chronological Antiquities 2:455) According to the Chinese chronology the Emperor Kie, the immediate predecessor of Ching-tang died 1758 BC. Then a long civil war ensued. The Biblical seven years of famine began in 1663 BC. "and the famine was in ALL LANDS" (Gen. 41:54) including China.
Job Built the Great Pyramid in c.1656 BC; Are the Pyramids Just Tombs "Kings ... Built (as) Desolate Places (Mausoleums) for Themselves" (Job 3:14)?
Job was either Jobad of Zerah of Bozrah, king of Edom (Gen. 36:33) or Job, the son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13). Eusebius says he was son of Esau (p.383, Prep. For Gospel). His age can be figured out by simple addition of 140 years after his afflictions (Job 42:16-17) plus about 40 more years before his afflictions to account for ten grown-up children settled in their own houses (Job 1:2-4,13) making his full life to be at least 180 years long. Yet compared to his fathers, his days are "but a shadow" (8:8-9). He must have lived around the time of Jacob since Job used pieces of money called "keshitah" (Job 42:11) and Jacob also bought a parcel of a field from the children of Hamor and paid for it, not by weight, but gave a hundred "keshitahs" (Gen. 33:19). This money wasn't in use in Abraham's day since he paid for the field of Ephron by weight in silver, not number of pieces (Gen. 23:16). Therefore, Job was not as ancient as Abraham, but his long life will not permit us to suppose him much younger than Jacob. According to Manetho, "Suphis reigned 63 years: he built the largest pyramid, which Herodotus says, was constructed by Cheops. He was arrogant toward the gods, and wrote the sacred book, which is regarded by the Egyptians as a work of great importance" (Cory's Fragments, p.102). Suphis lived in the 4th Dynasty. Job's friends were Eliphaz ha-Temani (from Ishmael's son Teman -- Gen. 25:15), Bildad ha-Shuachi (from Keturah's son Shuah -- Gen. 25:2) and Elihu the son of Barachel ha-Buzi (from Nahor's son Buz -- Gen. 22:21)
In the book of Job, there is a reference to the stars which some scholars believe may pinpoint the time when Job lived. Supposing the principal stars here mentioned to be those of Taurus (Pleiades) and Scorpio (Antares) (Job 38:31-32; cp. Job 9:9), and that these were the cardinal constellations of spring and autumn equinoxes in the time of Job (Kimah = Aldebaran, the Bull's eye; Kesil [Arabic "frigid"] = Antares, the Scorpion's heart), and calculating from today their positions by the precession of the equinoxes (one degree every 71.5 years), dating the book of Job would become easy. But the result is well over 4000 years into the past -- too much time; and the proof that the constellations referred to are Taurus (spring equinox) and Scorpio (autumn equinox), is too uncertain to give much weight to the argument. The other two references may be, "Wilt thou bring forth Egypt's star-signal in its season? -- solstice signal of the Nile's rising Leo (with Sirius rising). Mazouroth. It is expressed in Job 9:9 by "the chambers of the south wind," the hottest quarter. "Or avenge the man (Ish or Aquarius -- winter solstice) upon the sons of men?" These four answer to the four faces of the cherub in Ezekiel's vision: Ox, Eagle, Lion, and Man. One possible translation of Job 38:31 says, "Canst thou shut up the delightful teemings of Kimah? Or the contractions of Kesil, canst thou open?"
Secular History Confirms The Plagues and The Identity of the Pharaoh of the Exodus in 1446 BC
The Exodus in 1446 B.C. was 430 years after Abraham entered Canaan in 1876 B.C. "Now the sojourning (in Canaan and Egypt -- 215 years each) of the children of Israel (which here includes Abraham, Isaac and Jacob -- see footnotes in both the Companion Bible and Jerusalem Bible), who dwelt in Egypt (and Canaan), was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt" (Ex.12:40-41). Josephus says the same thing: "They left Egypt ... on the fifteenth day of the lunar month (Num. 33:3), four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan" (Ant.2:15:2). Both the Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint add "and in Canaan" in verse 40. The Septuagint, quoted by Paul in Galatians, says "the sojourning of the sons of Israel who dwelt in the land of Egypt and Canaan was 430 years" because they dwelt in Canaan before they dwelt in Egypt.
Paul also mentions "Jannes and Jambres" (2 Tim. 3:8) as two magicians who withstood Moses. Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean philosopher, in his 3rd book, says: "Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians" (cited by Eusebius Prepar. Evang. 9:8) See also Pliny Hist. Nat. 30:1. By the third plague of LICE, the Egyptian magicians were forced to admit it was "the finger of God". LICE were particularly offensive to these superstitiously clean Egyptians. Their priests "used to shave their whole body every third day, that neither LOUSE, nor any other vermin might be found upon them, while they were employed in serving their gods" (Herodotus 2:37).
Just before Moses was born, "One of those sacred Scribes, who are very sagacious in foretelling future events truly, told the King, that about this time there would a child be born to the Israelites, who, if he were reared, would bring the Egyptian dominion low; and would raise the Israelites: that he would excel all men in virtue; and obtain a glory that would be remembered through all ages. Which thing was so feared by the King, that, according to this man’s opinion, he commanded that they should cast every male child, which was born to the Israelites, into the river, and destroy it ... Thermuthis adopted him for her son ... she put the infant in her father's hands: so he took him and hugged him close to his breast: and, on his daughter’s account, in a pleasant way, put his diadem upon his head: but Moses threw it down to the ground; and, in a puerile mood, he wreathed it round, and tread upon it with his feet; which seemed to bring along with it an evil presage concerning the Kingdom of Egypt. But when the sacred Scribe (2 Tim 3:8 -- Jannes or Jambres) saw this, (he was the person who foretold that his nativity would bring the dominion of that Kingdom low,) he made a violent attempt to kill him; and crying out in a frightful manner, he said, 'This, O King! this child is he of whom God foretold, that if we kill him we shall be in no danger: he himself affords an attestation to the prediction of the same thing, by his trampling upon thy government, and treading upon thy diadem. Take him therefore out of thy way, and deliver the Egyptians from the fear they are in about him; and deprive the Hebrews of the hope they have of being encouraged by him.' But Thermuthis prevented him, and snatched the child away. And the King was not hasty to slay him; God himself, whose providence protected Moses, inclining the King to spare him. He was therefore educated with great care: so the Hebrews depended on him, and were of good hopes that great things would be done by him. But the Egyptians were suspicious of what would follow such his education. Yet because if Moses had been slain, there was no one, neither akin or adopted, that had any oracle on his side, for pretending to the crown of Egypt, and likely to be of greater advantage to them, they abstained from killing him." (Jos. Ant. 2:9:2-7)
The "new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8) was Pharaoh Ahmose (1580-1546 B.C.), who began dynasty 18, who liberated it from the Hyksos. Hebrew hardships came during the rule of Amenhotep I (1546-1525 B.C.) or Thutmose I (1525-1508 B.C.) as the Egyptians remembered Hebrew friendship with the Hyksos. (Manetho attributes 511 years to the Hycsos -- Josephus.) "Moses they say was tall and ruddy" (p.388, Eusebius, Prep. For Gospel). Now Moses was born "fourscore" years before the Exodus (Ex.7:7) or 1527 B.C. He was raised by "the daughter of Pharaoh" (Ex.2:5), who was known as "Queen Hatshepsut" who married her brother named Thutmose II. But when Hatshepsut couldn't produce a male heir to the throne, her brother/husband chose a non-royal mistress named Isis to produce a male heir and named their son Thutmose III. Hatshepsut raised the boy as her own son even though Isis was his real birth mother. She was the daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I, the grand son-in-law of Ahmose. Moses fled from Thutmose III (c.1482-1450 B.C.), the pharaoh of the oppression (Ex. 2:23), who had been pushed aside by his aunt and step-mother Hatshepsut. Once pharaoh, he organized military campaigns and fought the enemies of the Hyksos who had settled in Canaan. After his famous battle of Megiddo in Canaan in 1479 B.C., he installed district governors in garrison cities throughout Canaan. Amenhotep II (c.1450-1425 B.C.) was the arrogant and haughty pharaoh of the Exodus (Ex.7). The suffix "MOSE" means "SON" (p.115, Keller's Bible As History). Thutmose and Ahmose were sons of Thut (scribal god) and Ah (moon god). But nobody knew who the father of MOSE was, so he was just called MOSES. Or perhaps Moses' name had a prefix like the others (Hatshepsutmose) but Moses "refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter" (Heb.11:24). The treasure cities of Pithom and Raamses (Ex. 1:11) are identified as the Patamos of Herodotus and the name of one of the sons of Amosis which reads Ra-MSS.
|"The Lord overwhelms their army with the waves;
And the whole host entombs in watery graves.
But Israel's sons a wonderous passage found;
Dry at the ocean's bottom was the ground."
"When the Egyptians pursued the Israelites, tempests compelled them to retreat" (Trogus Pompeius).
"Zipporah ... was ... one of the descendants of Keturah, of the stock of Abraham" (p.390, Eusebius, Prep. For Gospel).
|"The Lord God also in the heavens
did thunder in his ire;
And there the Highest gave his voice,
hailstones and coals of fire.
Yea, he his arrows sent abroad,
and them he scattered;
His lightnings also he shot out,
and them discomfitted.
The water's channels then were seen,
the world's foundations vast
At thy rebuke discovered were,
and at thy nostrils' blast" (Ps. 18:13-15; 77:16-17)
|Artapanus relates that though the Memphites attributed the fortunate passage of the Israelites to the skill of Moses in the ebb and flood-tides, yet the Heliopolites who lived near the scene) affirmed that Moses divinely inspired struck the sea with a rod; on which, the water accumulating on each side, he led his people dry across the channel: but the Egyptians attempting to pursue them, lightnings flashed in their faces, and the recoiling sea overwhelmed them totally. (Eusebius)
"An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the lower Egypt, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea, with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity." (Strabo 16:2). Strabo praises Moses for saying "that the Aegyptians were mistaken in representing the Divine Being by the images of beasts and cattle, as were also the Libyans; and that the Greeks were also wrong in modelling gods in human form ... for who shall dare to make any representation of the Most High?" (16:2:35-37). Pliny says, "There is a sect of adepts in the magic art who derive their origin from Moses, Jamres, and Lotopea, Jews by birth, but many thousand years posterior to Zoroastre" (Nat. Hist. 30:2).
"In ancient times there happened a great plague in Egypt, and many ascribed the cause of it to God, who was offended with them because there were many strangers in the land, by whom foreign rites and ceremonies were employed in their worship of the deity. The Egyptians concluded, therefore, that unless all strangers were driven out of the country, they should never be freed from their miseries. Upon this, as some writers tell us, the most eminent and enterprising of those foreigners who were in Egypt, and obliged to leave the country, betook themselves to the coast of Greece, and also to other regions; having put themselves under the command of proper leaders for that purpose. Some of them were conducted by Danaus and Cadmus, who were the most illustrious of the whole. There were besides these a large but less noble body of people, who retired into the province called now Judaea, which was not far from Egypt, and in those times uninhabited. These emigrants were led by Moses, who was superior to all in wisdom and prowess. He gave them laws, and ordained that they should have no images of the gods; because there was only one deity, the Heaven, which surrounds all things, and is Lord of the whole." (Diodorus Sic. 40 apud Photium.).
Tacitus says, "Most authors agree, that a cutaneous disorder spreading through Egypt, king Bocchoris consulted the oracle of Hammon how to obtain relief; the answer was, that he should purge his kingdom, by expelling that race of men who were so hateful to the gods" (Tacitus History 5:3). Justin says, "the Egyptians had the leprosy amongst them; that upon consulting their oracle for a cure, they were directed to send away all the infected persons out of the land, under the conduct of Moses. Moses undertook the command of them, and at his leaving Egypt stole away (asked not borrowed) the Egyptian sacra (jewels of silver and gold -- Ex. 12:35). The Egyptians pursued them in order to recover their sacra, but were compelled by storms to return home again. Moses in seven days passed the desert of Arabia, and brought the people to Sinai." (Justin History 36:2) Eupolemus says Moses was the first wise man, and the inventor of letters; which the Phoenicians received from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians (Euseb. Praep. Evang. 9:26).
"It is an ancient report among the Ichthyophagi, who inhabit the shores of the Red Sea, that by a mighty reflux of the sea which happened in former days, the whole gulf became dry land, and appeared green all over: and that the water overflowed the opposite shore, and that all the ground continued bare to the very lowest depth of the gulf, until the water, by an extraordinary high tide, returned to its former channel." (Diodorus Sic. 3:40)
"Moses, to ensure the subjection of the nation to himself for ever, established religious ordinances altogether new, and opposite to those of all other men and countries. The Jews solemnly immolated a ram, in contumely to Jupiter Hammon. The ox, too, is what they sacrifice, a creature which the Egyptians worship for the god Apis." (Tacitus Hist. 5:4).
Secular History Confirms Joshua's Long Day in 1406 BC
The Earth's pole axis tilted till it lay in the plane of Earth's orbit and pointed toward ther sun. Gibeon became Earth's rotational north pole for a day, making the sun appear to stand still. The poles then reversed. As Sophocles said, "Zeus ... changed the course of the sun, causing it to rise in the east and not in the west." (Fragments, III, 5, 738). Plato said, "At certain periods the universe has its present circular motion, and at other periods it revolves in the reverse direction" (Politicus, p.53). Herodotus added, "the Egyptians asserted that the sun had four times deviated from his ordinary course -- twice rising where now he sets, and twice setting where he now rises." (Hist. 2:142). Joshua would not have ordered the sun to stand still early in the morning with ten hours of sunlight left. The sun was going down EAST of the battle scene (Joshua 10:11-13). "When a man fights against him whom God honours and assists, a great and sudden destruction comeds upon him." (Homer's Iliad 17:98)
1. Herodotus was told by an Egyptian priest of a day when "The sun ... had remained low on the horizon ... Two days had been rolled into one. The sun ... instead of crossing the sky, stayed where it was. Whilst the moon ... reduced its speed and climbed slowly, the sun stopped moving" (Crombette's Verdique Historique de l'Egypte Antique). The moon stopped its faster apparent daily motion but kept its orbital speed. "And the moon stayed" (Josh. 10:13). It only moved 13.2° in 24 hours since it has a period of 27.3 days.
2. Phaethon wanted to drive the chariot of the sun for a day. "The celebrated son of Hyperion (Helios -- the sun) stopped, for a long time, his swift-footed horses." (Homer Hymn. in Pallad. 13) "When Sol himself leans downward from the sky, Beholds the virgins with enraptured eye, Detains his chariot, whence new glories pour, Prolongs the day, and stops the flying hour." (Callimachus H. in Dian. 180) "The lazy god of day forgets to rise, And everlasting night pollutes the skies" (Lucan. Phars. 6:462). "Detained by Jove, nor ever did the day, So long, before, survive his setting ray." (Stat. Theb. 5:177)
3. West African story of a long night where the owl overslept and did not awaken the sun (Aardema, V. 1975. Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears [NY: Dial Press]).
4. Chinese History reports that at the time of their seventh emperor, Yao, the sun did not set for ten days (should have been translated ten hours?) in the year of the world 2554 (Martinii. Sinic. Histor. 1:25). Therefore, 3960 BC - 2554 = 1406 BC.
5. The Ojibways tell of a long night without any light (Olcott, W.T., 1914, Sun Lore of All Ages: A Collection of Myths and Legends Concerning the Sun and its Worship, p.212).
6. The Wyandot Indians told missionary Paul Le Jeune of a long night (ibid. p.215).
7. The Dogrib Indians of the northwest tell of a day when the sun was caught at noon and it instantly became dark (ibid. p.216).
8. The Omahas say that once the sun was caught in a trap by a rabbit who checked his traps at the break of dawn, presumably before sunrise (ibid. p.217).
9. The Bungee Indians from Lake Winnipeg area of Canada also tell of a long night (ibid. p.218). Obviously the "Joshua's Long Day" story didn't migrate all around the world or it would everywhere be called a "long day."
10. "At long last, the sun burst forth ... But the sun, despite his brilliant light, did not move; he hung on the edge of the sky, apparently unwilling to begin his appointed task" (Caso A. 1937. The Religion of the Aztecs, pp. 15-16).
11. "They did not sleep; they remained standing and great was the anxiety of their hearts and their stomachs for the coming of the dawn and the day ... 'Oh,... if we only could see the rising of the sun! What shall we do now?' ... They talked, but they could not calm their hearts which were anxious for the coming of the dawn" (Goetz and Morley, 1972. Popul Vuh: The Sacred Book of the Quiche Maya, pp. 172-190).
12. In Peru, the sun was hidden for nearly 20 hours in the third year of the reign of Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II because of sin in the land. (Z. Stichin, The Lost Realms [NY: Avon Books]) Titu ruled about 1400 BC.
13. On the island of Lacomba in the eastern Fiji Islands, J.G. Frazer tells of a tradition of a long sunset at one time (Frazer, Golden Bough 1:316).
Secular History Confirms That
Canaan Fled From "Joshua the Robber" to Libya in 1406 BC
From Procopius of Caesarea, "History of the Wars" Book IV, "The Vandalic War," Capt.X, 12ff (Loeb Class, London, 1916) we read, "it is necessary to tell from the beginning whence the nations of the MOORS came to Libya, and how they settled there. When the Hebrews had withdrawn from Egypt, and had come near the boundaries of Palestine, Moses, a wise man, who was their leader on the journey, died, and the leadership was passed on to Joshua, the son of Nun, who led this people into Palestine, and, by displaying a valour in war greater than that natural to a man, gained possession of the land. And after overthrowing all the nations he easily won the cities, and he seemed to be altogether invincible. Now at that time the whole country along the sea from Sidon as far as the boundaries of Egypt was called PHOENICIA. And one king in ancient times held sway over it, as is agreed by all who have written the earliest accounts of the PHOENICIANS. In the country there dwelt very populous tribes, the GERGESITES and the JEBUSITES and some others with other names by which they are called in the history of the Hebrews. Now when these nations saw that the invading general was an irresistible prodigy, they emigrated from their ancestral homes and made their way to Egypt, which adjoined their country. And finding there no place sufficient for them to dwell in, since there has been a great population in Egypt from ancient times, they proceeded to Libya. And they established numerous cities and took possession of the whole of Libya as far as the Pillars of Heracles, and there they have lived even up to my time, using the PHOENICIAN tongue. They also built a fortress in Numidia, where now is the city called Tigisis. In that place are two columns made of white stone near by the great spring, having PHOENICIAN letters cut in them which say in the PHOENICIAN tongue: 'We are they who fled from before the face of Joshua, the robber, the son of Nun.' There were also other nations settled in Libya before the MOORS, who on account of having been established there from of old were said to be children of the soil. And because of this they said that Antaeus, their king, who wrestled with Heracles in Clipea (i.e. Clypea, or Aspis, now Kalibia, on the Carthaginian coast) was a son of the earth. And in later times those who removed from PHOENICIA with Dido came to the inhabitants of Libya as to kinsmen. And they willingly allowed them to found and hold Carthage. But as time went on, Carthage became a powerful and populous city. And a battle took place between them and their neighbors, who, as has been said, had come from Palestine before them and are called MOORS at the present time, and the Carthaginians defeated them and compelled them to live a very great distance away from Carthage. Later on the Romans gained the supremacy over all of them in war, and settled the MOORS at the extremity of the inhabited land of Libya, and made the Carthaginians and the other Libyans subject and tributary to themselves. And after this the MOORS won many victories over the Vandals and gained possession of the land now called Mauretania, extending from Gadira as far as the boundaries of the Caesarea (i.e. from Tangier, opposite Cadiz, to Algiers....) as well as the most of Libya which remained. Such, then, is the story of the settlement of the MOORS in Libya."
The famous Augustine of Hippo, in North Africa, called himself a Canaanite and stated that the inhabitants of Carthage called themselves Canaanites even in the fifth century A.D. (The Phoenicians and the West by Aubet, p.10).
The story of Samson placing firebrands between the tails of foxes, and turning them into the grain fields of the Philistines (Judges 15) has been confirmed by an archaeological discovery made in London about four centuries ago. In Leland's Collectanea, p.70, is a copper plate representing a Roman brick, found 28 feet below the pavement of the metropolis in 1575 AD. On this brick was inscribed, in basso-relievo, the figure of a man driving into a field of grain two foxes with firebrands fastened to their tails. This Roman custom was evidently borrowed from the Phoenicians, who probably perpetuated the memory of Samson's strategem with the Philistines by one of a similar kind. Ovid mentions the same thing as an annual custom amongst the Romans at the feast of the Vulpinalia in the spring, when they were accustomed to let go foxes in the circus with firebrands tied to their tails, of which he asks the origin (Fasti, 4:681).
Greek Civilization Parallelled Hebrew Civilization
Greek civilization parallelled Hebrew civilization in many ways. (1.) The ALPHABETS are similar in letter names and appearance: Aleph - Alpha, Beth - Beta, Gimel - Gamma, Daleth - Delta. etcetera (2.) HERCULES (Herod. 2:44) was SAMSON who slew a lion with his bare hands (Judges 13:6; 15:4). From the story of Samson originated the embellishments or fictions of Greek profane history, such as the story of the Sabine rape; the story of Nisus' hair, and the Golden Lock given to Pterelaus by Neptune; that of Hercules and Omphale; of the Pillars of Hercules; of the death of Cleomedes and Astypalaeus; and of Agamemnon and Iphigenia. These stories were given to Greece by the Danai emigrants, thus confirming that the Danai were Israelites of the tribe of Dan. (3.) The Greek SEVEN-HEADED HYDRA slain corresponds to the heads of LEVIATHAN crushed (Ps. 74:14; Rev. 12,17,18). (4.) Colchians practiced CIRCUMCISION (Diod. Sic. 1:55) just like Israelites (Gen. 17:10-14). (5.) Greeks "CUT a TRUCE" (Eurip. Hel. 1235; Her. 7:39) "DIVIDING the faithful COVENANTS" (Homer's Iliad 2:124; Odyss. 24:483; Livy 40:6) just as in Abraham's day, "a burning lamp passed between those pieces" (Gen. 15:17; 1 Ki. 2:23). (6.) "Abram gave him a TENTH of everything" (Gen. 14:20) just as "Each man received his share of the money that had been raised by the sale of the captives, the TENTH PART of which they consecrated to Apollo, and to Diana of Ephesus." (Xen. Anab. 5:3; Xen. Hist. Graec. 4:3). Jove is wroth with men who "rob the orphan of his dues" (Hesiod Oper. et dies 328). (7.) Hesiod said, "The SEVENTH DAY is SACRED" (Hes. apud Euseb. Praep. Evan. 13) just as the Bible does (Ex. 20:8). "it was SATURN'S DAY, and therefore I delayed" (Latins thought it improper for business because unpropitious). (Tibul. 1: Eleg. 3:18) "Diogenes, the grammarian, used to hold public disquisitions (discussions) at Rhodes every SABBATH DAY." (Suet. Tiber. 32) Yes Greeks "got ... benefit ... from the Hebrews" (p.420, Eusebius, Prep. For Gospel). "For what is Plato, but Moses speaking in Attic Greek?" (p. 367, Eusebius, Prep. For Gospel) (8.) "The gods, pitying the naturally laborious race of man, have ordained for it as remissions from labor, the returns of FEAST DAYS in honour of the gods." (Plat. de leg. 2:1) "Let servants enjoy the SACRED FESTIVALS, their toils being remitted, for therefore they were appointed at certain seasons." (Cic. de leg. 2:8) paralleling the biblical FEAST DAYS (Lev. 23). (9.) A great HOST is compared with the SAND of the sea (Iliad 2:800; 9:385; Gen. 32:12; Judges 7:12). (10.) Furthermore, Judges 1:6-7 tells of MUTILATING or cutting off the thumbs and big toes of captured heroes so as to render them unfit for warfare. Plutarch, Life of Lysander: 9 tells us that the Athenians cut off the right thumb of prisoners so that they could no longer wield the spear but only ply the oar. (11.) King Agamemnon disliked Calchas "a PROPHET of EVIL" (Iliad 1:106) just as King Ahab said, "I hate him (Micaiah) because he PROPHESIES NOT GOOD but evil concerning me" (1 Ki. 22:8). (12.) Odysseus CONSULTED his departed SPIRIT in Hades (Odyssey 10:490-5; 11:89-137) just as Saul had the ghost of Samuel called up from Sheol (1 Sam. 28:3-20). (13.) Paris suggested that Hector set himself "in the midst" to engage in SINGLE COMBAT with Menelaus (Iliad 3:69) to settle the war paralleling Goliath who was the "man in the midst" in 1 Samuel 17:4,23 as the two armies watched. (14.) God told Gideon by vision to penetrate and SPY the enemy camp with his attendant at night (Judges 7:9) much like Agamemnon who rises at night (Iliad 10:1) and takes two able men penetrates the enemies' defenses in the dark for information prior to the assault on the morrow (Iliad 10:254). (15.) Conquerors ripped open pregnant women KILLING their UNBORN FETUSES (2 Ki. 8:12; 15:16; Amos 1:13; Hos. 13:16) just as Agamemnon advised Menelaus to not spare any male Trojan fetus in the womb (Iliad 6:55-62). (16.) Death by STONING was common to both cultures (Ex. 17:4; 19:13; 21:28). This is what "donning a coat of stones" refers to in Iliad 3:57 (cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon: 872). (17.) Those grief-stricken Israelites WALLOW in the DUST (Jer. 6:26; 25:34; Ez. 27:30; Micah 1:10) just as Priam "grovels in the filth" for the slain Hector (Iliad 22:414). (18.) Just as King Jehu said, "Tend to this cursed one (Jezebel) and BURY her, for she is the daughter of a king" (2 Ki. 9:34), so also burial after one day of weeping is advocated by Homer (Iliad 19:228:-9; see also Antigone: 205-6, 697-8, 1017, 1081-2; Odyssey 11:72-78). (19.) Just as Melchizedek was both KING and PRIEST (Gen. 14:18), so also "In old times, kings themselves performed the most and the greatest of the sacred rites." (Plutarch Quaest. Rom. 63). (20.) "Come not near your wives" (Ex. 19:15) parallels PURITY through WASHING and avoiding sex using "separate couches" (Ovid Fasti 2:328). Also "first dip yourself in a running stream" (Livy 1:45) and "in running water PURIFY your hands" (Tibul. 2:1) parallel "the doctrine of baptisms" (Heb. 6:2). (21.) Both the horse and mule were UNCLEAN in both societies (Tacitus History 4:60; Lev. 11 & Deut. 14). In Pontus they abstained "from SWINE'S FLESH" in the city of Comana (Strabo 12:8). "Numa ordered that FISH WITHOUT SCALES should not be served up at the festivals of the gods." (Pliny Hist. 32:10). Aeschylus asked, "How can BIRD THAT PREYS on bird be pure?" (Suppl. 226). Herodotus mentions that the Nasamones EAT LOCUSTS (4:172). (22.). FIRSTFRUITS of the harvest given to God (Ex. 23:19) parallels "Every year to thee (Delos) are sent tithes and FIRSTFRUITS." (Callim. H. in Delon. 278) (23.) The streams of IARDANUS in Crete (Odyssey 3:291-2) and the streams of IARDANUS in Elis (Iliad 7:135) correspond to the river "Jordan" in Palestine (Heb. yarden; Sept. Iordanes) which merely means "the river." (24.) DESCENT from a TREE or ROCK is found in Odyssey 19:163 as well as Jeremiah 2:27 where people "say to the tree, 'You are my father' and to the stone, 'You have borne me.'" (25.) A prostitute was known as a "STRANGE" woman in Israel (Judges 11:2) and also at Athens where Pamphilus was married to a STRANGER woman (Ter. Andr. 1:1). (26.) Jephthah accidentally VOWED to sacrifice his daughter (Judges 11:36) just as "Agamemnon, when he had VOWED to Diana the loveliest thing that should be born that year in his kingdom, sacrificed Iphigenia." (Cicero de off. 3:25). Iphigenia even sounds like Jephthagenia. (see The Common Background Of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations by Cyrus Gordon and Testimony of Heathen to Truths of Holy Writ by Millington)
Why this common background? Because they were the SAME PEOPLE.
After Troy Was Destroyed (1184 BC), the Trojans Sailed to England and Built a New Troy (London) in 1100 BC
JUDAH got Tamar pregnant with twins. As Genesis 38:27-30 says: "Now it came to pass, at the time for giving birth, that behold, twins were in her womb. And so it was, when she was giving birth, that the one put out his hand; and the midwife took a scarlet thread and bound it on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” (RED HAND of Ulster) Then it happened, as he drew back his hand, that his brother came out unexpectedly; and she said, “How did you break through? This breach be upon you!” Therefore his name was called Perez (Breach). Afterward his brother came out who had the scarlet thread on his hand. And his name was called Zerah (Seed)."
They were called Pharez and Zarah. ZARAH had no children when he went down into Egypt with his grandfather Jacob (Gen.46:12). The descendants of ZARAH, both sons and grandsons, are mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:6-8 and 1 Kings 4:30-31 as "ETHAN the Ezrahite (i.e. Zerahite), and HEMAN, and CHALCOL, and DARDA, the sons of MAHOL" (1 Ki.4:31). But the biblical geneology of ZARAH ends with this third generation indicating the departure of ZARAH'S line from Israel while Israel was in Egypt 400 years (Gen.15:13). Where did they go? In Crete we find Mount IDA and inhabitants called IDAEANS which sound similar to the word JUDAEANS (Tacitus' History 5:2). A YARDANUS River (Jordan) was also in Crete. They became known as the MILESIANS of Istria (Herod. 2:33) after MAHOL. They settled in a seaport called MILETUS in IONIA, in Asia Minor. When the Persians destroyed this city in 494 B.C., many MILESIANS escaped to Ireland and Scotland. One of the islands west of Scotland is called IONA. Primitive Greek received a variety of exotic words from the Celtic language (Liter. Antiq. of Greece, sect. 4).
The Egyptian command to "cast every male child into the river to destroy it," would drive the younger generation to emigrate and escape Egypt for Greece and they became known as Hellenes, from the Anglo-Saxon word "Helanes" which means "of the concealed".
HEMAN was the founder of TYRE (p.80, British Israel Bible Notes by Bell).
CALCOL (Cecrops) took a colony of Saits out of Egypt in 1581 BC using the ships of Dan and they settled ATTICA and built TWELVE towns which became the kingdom of ATHENS (Strabo 9). He taught the men to have one wife, rather than share all women in common (Suidas). After his death, the Areopagus Court at ATHENS was instituted with TWELVE judges (Apollodor. 3:13:2). The time when CECROPS became king of Attica may be determined from the Parian Chronicon, which records that CECROPS reigned at ATHENS 1318 years before that Chronicle was composed (263 BC according to Ussher) which fixes the beginning of Cecrop's reign to 1581 BC. "Certain of the rulers of ATHENS were originally Egyptians" (Diodorus Siculus 1:1; 1:28:6). In Spain CALCOL established "ZARAHGASSA" meaning "The Stronghold of ZARAH" now called "Saragossa in the Ebro Valley. "Behold, I will lift up My hand in an oath to the nations (RED HAND of Ulster). And set up My standard for the peoples" (Isaiah 49:22 NKJV).
COLCHIA, a region in ancient Greece, gets its name from CHALCOL. Some of CHALCOL'S descendants founded the colony of COLCHIS about 1480 B.C. named after CALCOL and the inhabitants practiced CIRCUMCISION (Diodorus 1:55). The speech and manners of the COLCHIANS were Egyptian (Her. 2:103). We also find the city of CHALCIS in Greece. CALCOL became the founder of the kingly dynasties of Western Europe. The name of COL is familiar to all students and geneologists in Western Europe, particularly in Spain, France, Ireland, and Scotland; indeed, in England also we have old King COL. CALCOL was the ancestor of the Irish and Scottish kings.
In 1518 BC, Cadmus sailed from Sidon and seized a part of the country called BOEOTICA in Greece in which he built the city of THEBES, and named the citadel Cadmea (Marmor. Arund. Ep. vii). Cadmus also migrated to THESSALY (Strabo 9:2:3). Cadmus was the great grandson of Chalcol (1 Ki.4:31; 1 Ch.3:6), brother of Darda, who was the great great grandson of Judah. Cadmus discovered the art of working metals and making armour (Pliny 7:56) and introduced Phoenician letters into Greece with sixteen letters (Diod. Sic. book 4). The Milesian royal family came from Crete to MILETUS. CRETE was JEWISH (Tacitus' History 5:2) and gave their laws to SPARTA (Her.1:65).
"DARDA" (KJV margin of 1 Chr.2:6) called "DARDANUS" by Josephus, was the Egyptian founder of TROY (and the Kingdom of Priam) on the southern shore of the strait called "DARDANELLES." DARDANUS founded DARDANIA (Iliad 20:215-216). Pliny says the "Moesia (W. coast of Black Sea) contains the DARDANI" (3:25:149). He also says that the "savage tribe of the DARDANI" live on the northwest coast of Greece (4:1:3). Strabo says the "DARDANII" live among the Illyrians (7:5:6) (YUGOSLAVIA). In Greek Mythology, "DARDANUS" is a son of Jupiter and Electra and founded the kingdom of TROY. The "TROJANS were called DARDANI and DARDANIDAE" (Lemp. Clas. Dict., p.193). The gate of Troy was surmounted by a statue of a White Horse. That is why the Greeks gave them a Trojan Horse. (p.51, A Peculiar People by Proctor). Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiad -- in 1184 BC.
The grandson of DARDA was named Tros and called the country Troy and the people became known as Trojans. His three sons were Ilus, Assaracus and Ganymede. Ilus was the grandfather of Priam, king of Troy. Assarachus was the ancestor of Aeneas the father of Brutus, from whom the British kings are descended. Brutus, the son of Aeneas, sailed from Troy with a fleet of 332 ships. When Brutus arrived at Malta, he enquired of the oracle of Diana the fate of his nation and family. The question and answer, which was written in archaic Greek in the temple of Diana in Caer Troia (London) has been versified by Pope as follows: "Goddess of woods! Look upon us on earth! unfold our fate, And say what region is our destined seat, When shall we next thy lasting temples raise, And choirs of virgins celebrate thy praise?" The oracle's reply was: "Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds An Island, which the western sea surrounds, By ancient giants held, now few remain To bar thy entrance or obstruct thy reign, To reach that happy shore thy sails employ, There fate decrees to build a second Troy, And found an empire in thy royal line Which time shall ne'er destroy nor bounds confine."
Brutus landed in Britain in 1100 BC and built Caer Troia which later was corrupted to Trinovantum, then Caer Lud (Geoffrey's British History) "The Britons themselves claimed to be descendants of the ancient TROJANS ... The religion of the Britons was identical with that held by all the disciples of the PELAGIANS ... The identity of the British Druids with the HYPERBOREANS of the Greeks is clear and distinct" (J.P. Yeatman, Early English History, pp.116-120).
When the city of TROY was overthrown in the famous "Siege of TROY," Aeneas, the last of the royal blood, took what was left of his nation and traveled with them into Europe. His son Brutus, on going to Malta, was there advised by an oracle to re-establish his people in "The Great White Island" (BRITAIN so-called because of the white cliffs of Dover). The oracle said, "the whole earth shall be subject" to the race of Brutus (Milton's History of Britain). This advice was recorded in the archaic Greek on the Temple of Diana in Caer TROIA (New TROY), and was later verified by the "pope." The king landed at Torbay. An historic stone still stands in the town of Totnes commemorating his coming. He built a new capital city and named it "Caer TROIA" or New TROY (1100 B.C.), later called TRINOVANTUM. Still later the Romans called it LONDINIUM, now known as LONDON. Brutus-the-Trojan named BRITAIN after himself (Historia Britonum, Nennius 10; also Geoffrey of Monmouth). Caesar's Commentaries tell of a people called TRINOBANTES (Gaul 5:20) living in Middlesex and Hertfordshire which seems to confirm this story.
The ancient Annals Of Clonmacnoise state, "The most part of our Irish chronicles agree that the sons of MILETUS came to this land in the beginning of the destruction of Troy" (pp. 27-28). "The Sacred Banner of the MILESIANS was a flag on which was represented a dead serpent and the ROD of MOSES" (p.12, A.M. Sullivan's The Story of Ireland).The letter from Cassibelaun, king of the Britons to Caius Julius Caesar (given in full by Geoffrey of Monmouth) says, " the same vein of NOBILITY flows from AENEAS in the Britons and Romans" (Historia Britonum 4:2). Virgil's Aeneid written about 19 B.C., tells about Trojans under AENEAS who founded Rome.
After the Trojan War, Phrygia was utterly devastated by Cimmerians. The Phrygians migrated into Europe. The Greek name Phryges was gradually changed to Phraggoi. When the Romans encountered them, they applied the Roman word for Freemen -- Franci -- Franks in English. Procopius, in his Roman history, called the Franks Phraggoi (III, 3, 1). They finally settled in France. Is it only a coincidence that the capital of their new land is called Paris -- the name of the famous Trojan or Phrygian hero Paris, son of Priam? Just as we find the city of TROY in PHRYGIA next to GALATIA, so also we find TROYES in France. Just as PARIS was a Trojan war hero, so also we find PARIS, France. The Greeks called the Franks FRAGGOI. "GOI" means "People" in Hebrew and "FROEG" means "Hebraic" in Saxon (p.24, Senior's British Israelites). Hence the slang term "FROG" for a Frenchman. The Greeks would pronounce FRAGGOI as "FRANCI" today since they put an "n" before a double "g."
Archbishop Ussher supposes the Parian Chronicon to have been composed 263 BC; and the Arundelian marble tells us that Danaus's coming into Greece was 1247 years earlier -- in 1510 BC. (p.163, Shuckford's Sacred and Profane History) In 1510 BC Danaus seized upon the kingdom of ARGOS. Petavius in his "History of the World" says, "Danaus was the son of Bela, a sojourner in Egypt. Bilhah was a wife of Israel, and the mother of Dan, who was directed to say to Pharaoh, "for to sojourn in the land (of Egypt) are we come.'" Hecatoeus of Abdera says, "The most distinguished of the expelled foreigners followed Danaus and Cadmus into Greece from Egypt; but the greater number were led by Moses into Judaea." All writers agree in making Danaus the tenth king of Argos (Tatian. Orat. ad Graec. 59, p.131; Eusebius in Chron., p.24; Pausanias in Corinthiacis, p.112). W.E. Gladstone says, "The Danai of Greece, and the Dardanai of Troy were originally one family." According to Homer's Odyssey, the Danites were in Britain in 1200 BC. Perseus who was descended from Danaus, formed the kingdom of MYCENE.
The word "Danaans" or "Danaoi" has a close resemblance to the Hebrew word used by Rachel at the birth of the child whom she named "Dan" -- "God hath judged me (dananni) and given me a son." Therefore she called his name Dan (Judge). This is an important fact, especially when the people who bore it were emigrants from Egypt as well as seafarers as the Danites were. Danites changed the name of "Laish" to "Dan" when 600 colonists took possession of it. We are told by Euripides and Strabo that when the Danai took possession of Argos they passed a law compelling all the people living under the name of Pelasgiotae in Greece to call themselves Danai. Surely this is a conspicuous characteristic of these Israelites. Danites are associated with Greece in Ezekiel 27:19 where Dan and Javan (Greece) traded with the fairs of Tyre. A.M. Sullivan's "The History of Ireland" explains that around 1000 BC or before, Ireland was colonized by the Tuatha de Danaans who carried a sacred banner on which was found a dead serpent and the rod of Moses (cp. Nu. 21:4,9). They were searching for the "Isle of Destiny" in the west.
"The language spoken by the natives of Ireland (HIBERNIA) was one of very great antiquity, which General Vallancy paid considerable attention to ... It appears to be a compound of Phoenician and HEBREW, as that learned linguist and antiquarian has published "several thousands of words which are alike in HEBREW and Irish. In suggesting the best course of study to be pursued in order to obtain a correct knowledge of the ancient Irish language, the same writer placed an acquaintance with HEBREW first. He moreover quotes, with approval, from an author who wrote a small treatise on the "Precursory Proofs that Israelites came from Egypt into Ireland, and that the Druids expected the Messiah." This author states that some of the HEBREW family were separated from the rest at a very early period; that they were heirs to singular blessings promised to them in the latter days. These sailed from Africa, and settled in Ireland. He further says, they "brought with them the Saxum Jacobi (Jacob's stone, pillar, or pillow, which was formerly at Scone, and is now under the coronation chair at Westminster Abbey) into Ireland."
The ancient HEBREW and Phoenician languages were almost identical, and much that goes for Phoenician is really HEBREW, arising from the very long and close intercourse of the two peoples. On the map of Ptolemy, the 2nd century geographer, a spot in Ireland is named Dunscobrace (Heb. "Dan's Refuge") where the modern Carrickfergus stands. Even the law of the HEBREWS relating to the liberation of slaves upon the seventh year (Lev. 25:40) is found in some of the biographies of St. Patrick, since he obtained his freedom in that way.
Britain and Ireland were called "the TIN Islands" or "Kassiterides" by the Greeks in the time of Solomon. Cornwall and Devonshire to be specific. One of the oldest seaport towns on the coast of Cornwall has a Hebrew name, being called Marazion; and another called Port Isaac. "We are driven to conclude that it was from the Cassiterides, or the TIN districts of Britain, that the Phoenicians obtained the great bulk of this commodity" says W.A. Wright M.A. in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. Sir G.C. Lewis agrees, and he quotes Strabo to show that the voyage was made directly between Britain and Gades, or Cadez.
The south of Spain was at a very early period inhabited by a people called IBERIANS and an EBRO River in Spain was also named after Eber. Also the Gaudalquivir River (anciently called Wadi-al- HIBRI). Furthermore, a stone was discovered in Spain bearing an inscription in Hebrew characters, to the memory of Adoniram, whom Solomon, King of Israel, had sent thither to collect the tribute of that colony (from a Jesuit commentary on Ezekiel quoted by Bishop Titcomb in the 1800s). Therefore, Spanish commerce was connected also with Palestine since it was a colony of King Solomon who had a navy of Tarshish that sailed with the navy of Hiram (king of Tyre) returning every third year (1 Ki. 9:26-27; 10:11,22). Remarkably, the name of the first King of Britain was Solomon, indicating that Britain may have been a colony. Solomon "gathered gold as TIN" according to Ecclesiasticus 47:18. Hiram and Solomon were friends. The "inhabitants of the isles (of the west -- Isa. 11:11; 24:15) ... whom the merchants of Zidon, that pass over the sea have replenished" (Isa. 23:2) implies immense trade between Britain and Phoenicia. Dr. Eadie, known for his classical scholarship in his Biblical Cyclopedia, acknowledges that "our country derived its name of Britain from the Phoenician navigators and merchants, who designated these islands Bratanec from the abundance of LEAD and TIN mines found in them." Robert Pegrum, Professor of Hebrew, says Britanec means "a purifier of LEAD or TIN." Bret, Brut and Brit are derived from one root which means to cleanse, to clear, to purify. The Hebrew noun anec occurs in Amos 7:7 and signifies LEAD or TIN, hence a weight of LEAD or of TIN ore, a plummet, a plumbline. Aristotle calls the western land from which the Phoenicians procured their cargoes of TIN, Bretanikee, and it is evident that the word had come to him from some language other than his native tongue. Herodotus and others use the word Kassiterides which is more purely Greek. But even here, this word is found in the HEBREW and Chaldee as Kasetira meaning "TIN," suggesting that it was borrowed by the Greeks from HEBREW.
The Heraclidae, or the clan of Hercules (Danites of Samson), sailed to the Peloponnesus from Pelusium, Egypt. They seized upon Lacedemon, Argos and Mycene. In 1 Maccabees 12:20-22 we read that the SPARTANS and JEWS are both ABRAHAM'S children. Josephus repeats this episode and adds an important detail: "Areus, King of the Lacedemonians, to Onias, sendeth greeting ... we have discovered that both the JEWS and the Lacedemonians (SPARTANS) are of one stock, and are derived from the kindred of ABRAHAM ... This letter is four-square; and the seal is an EAGLE, with a DRAGON in his claws" (Ant.12:4:10). That is the tribal emblem of DAN! These "DISPERSED among the GREEKS" (John 7:35) had to be ISRAELITES. All Greeks were called "DANAANS" by Homer (Strabo 12:8:7) even though many were merely PELEG'S branch (Strabo 8:6:9) and not necessarily DANITE Israel. Greek traditions tell us that "the chiefs of the DORIANS are really genuine Egyptians" (Her. 6:53).They were Manasseh from "DOR and her towns" (Joshua 17:11). They spoke "DORIC" Greek. The Peloponnesus was for the most part peopled by Dorians in a Greek state named Doris. A tribe of wandering Dorians inhabited the coasts of Gaul (Ammianus Marcellinus 15:9). The Leleges and Megareans, who both came from Egypt, established themselves in Megara (Pausan. 1:95,106). It is stated in the "Vetus Chronicin Holsatiae" that the "Danes and Jutes are Jews of the tribe of Dan." From Keating's History of Ireland we read, "The Danaans were a people of great learning; they had overmuch gold and silver ... They left Greece after a battle with the Assyrians, and for fear of falling into the hands of the Assyrians came to Normandy and Denmark, and thence they passed over to Ireland."
Agenor and Phoenix also led colonies from Phoenicia to Greece.
Ancient Greece before the Trojan War was surrounded by Argolis, Aetolia, Caledonia, Locris, and Doris
(Niebuhr, Ancient Ethnology 1:123). Ancient Britain was labeled with the same territorial words: Argyle, Athol, Caledonia, Lloegr and numerous terms derived from Dor, water. The Cymry have always maintained that they came to the White Island from the east -- from Dyfrobani (Mountains of Dor) -- which is shown to be Dorian Greece. "
|The iron age followed the destruction of Troy:
"Hard steel succeeded then:
And stubborn as the metal were the men.
Truth, modesty, and shame, the world forsook:
Fraud, avarice, and force, their places took."
-- Ovid Meta. 1:125
|Brutus, the son of Aeneas, sailed from Troy with a fleet of 332 ships, and arrived at Malta. He enquired of the oracle of Diana the fate of his nation and family. The question and answer, which was written in archaic Greek in the temple of Diana in Caer Troia (London) has been versified by Pope as follows: "Goddess of woods! Look upon us on earth! unfold our fate, And say what region is our destined seat, When shall we next thy lasting temples raise, And choirs of virgins celebrate thy praise?" The oracle's reply was: "Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds An Island, which the western sea surrounds, By ancient giants held, now few remain To bar thy entrance or obstruct thy reign, To reach that happy shore thy sails employ, There fate decrees to build a second Troy, And found an empire in thy royal line Which time shall ne'er destroy nor bounds confine."
Brutus landed in Britain in 1100 BC and built Caer Troia which later was corrupted to Trinovantum, then Caer Lud (Geoffrey's British History).
||"Now sunk the sun from his aerial height,
And over the shaded billows rushed the night:
When lo! we reached old Ocean's utmost bounds,
Where rocks control his waves with ever-during mounds.
There in a lonely land, and gloomy cells,
The obscure nation of Cimmeria dwells."
-- Odyssey of Homer
Carthage Built in 883 BC, So Hiram Began to Reign in 1039 BC
Carthage was taken and destroyed by Scipio at the close of the third Punic war in 146 BC. Solinus and Cato both affirm that it had been built 737 years before -- in 883 BC. Menander, the Syrian historian, allows 156 years from the beginning of the reign of Hiram to the foundation of Carthage. Therefore, 883 + 156 = 1039 BC for the commencement of Hiram's reign. Hiram was contemporary with both David and Solomon (1 Ki. 5) and assisted Solomon in building the Temple. King David reigned 1010-970 BC because there were 480 years between the Exodus in 1446 BC and the Temple foundation built in 966 BC in Solomon's 4th year of reign (1 Ki. 6:1).
Spanning the Gap of History Until We Arrive At Ptolemy's Canon in 747 BC
What caused this large gap in ancient history? Certainly one cause was the burning of the Library of Alexandria during the civil wars of Julius Caesar in 48 BC. It was burned again by Saracens in the seventh century. The books were used for common fuel in fires. Therefore we will span the gap:
1. Varro reckons the interval between the Flood (2304 BC) and the first Olympiad (776 BC) to be about 1600 years (p.84, Sanchoniathon). Varro also says that Egyptian Thebes, whose founder was Menes their first king was built 2100 years before his time. That is 2216 BC since Varro was born 116 BC and died 27 BC.
Josephus also says that "more than one thousand three hundred years" elapsed from when Menes (Misraim) founded Memphis (Menephis) until Solomon (Ant. 8:6:2). If Solomon was born in 990 BC, then 1300 years before that, brings us to 2290 BC and Misraim reigned 62 years making Nimrod's accession about 2228 BC.
More precisely, several independent methods of reckoning place the beginning of Nimrod's reign at 2234-2233 B.C. (Garnier's Worship of the Dead, pp. 280-285; see also Pliny NH 7:56 and Rawlinson's Herodotus vol. 1, essay 6, pp.434-435; Rawlinson's "Ancient Monarchies," p. 149).
Simplicius says that Callisthenes, a relation and disciple of Aristotle, who accompanied Alexander the Great on his eastern expedition, was told by the priests of the temple of Belus in Babylon, that they had preserved a series of Chaldean astronomical calculations, which extended over a space of 1903 years before that time. Alexander conquered Babylon in 330 BC. These records therefore must have begun 2233 BC.
Diodorus says that from Ninyas (son of Nimrod and Semiramus) to Sardanapalus, the Assyrian Empire continued 1360 years (Diodorus Siculus 2:77). Since Sardanapalus died in 745 BC, that would place Ninyas reign at 2105 BC. (There were in fact two Assyrian Empires: Ninyas to Sardanapalus was the first. It was divided between Arbaces of Media and Belesis of Babylon; and from then till the destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC by Nabopolassar was the second.) Diodorus Siculus and Cephalion and Ctesias affirm that the Assyrian Empire commenced 1000 years before the fall of Troy (1184 BC). That would be 2184 BC. Auctor Barbarus makes the foundation of the Assyrian Empire in the twenty-third century BC.
Diodorus Siculus 1:29 says that after the time of Menes (Misraim) 52 (Egyptian) kings reigned a space of over 1400 years (actually 1370 years from Menes to Sesostris according to Sir John Marsham's tables of the Theban Kings) where nothing historically noteworthy occurred. That time period ended with Sesostris or Shishak raiding Jerusalem (2 Chr. 12:9) in the fifth year of Rehoboam (926 BC) since Diodorus says Sesostris performed the most illustrious actions, far exceeding all before him (1:34). For Herodotus says "the other kings, they gave no account of their deeds, nor ... were in any degree of renown, except one, the last of them, Moeris" (2:100-104) -- who constructed a lake. Moeris was the immediate predecessor of Sesostris. Then Herodotus talks in detail about the conquests of Sesostris. Josephus agrees that Sesostris was Shishak (Antiq. 8:4 p.368).
7. Constantine Manasses says the Egyptian empire endured 1663 years till its subversion by Cambyses (525 BC). (Apolon. Rhod 4:268) Therefore we are looking at 2188 BC for Menes accession.
8. Emilius Sura (in Paterculus) counted 1995 years from the fall of Antiochus the Great (190 BC) up to Ninus, the founder of Nineveh as Dicearchus calls him; who was not the Titan Ninus, but Nimrod (2185 BC).
Remarkably, Alexander Polyhistor from Berosus affirms that the first dynasty of kings at Babylon began 163 years after the Deluge (2304 BC - 163 =2141 BC)
9. Menes may have begun his reign in Thebais Egypt. Therefore, Eratosthenes counts about 1008 years from the first king of Thebais to Phuron, when Troy was taken (1184 BC). That is 2192 BC. Diodorus Siculus counts 23000 lunar months from Osiris (Misor) to Alexander's conquest of Egypt 332 BC (1860 years). This sets the commencement of the Egyptian empire 112 years after the flood (2304 BC) in 2192 BC.
10. "The SCYTHIANS state their origin to be one of the youngest of the nations, and that their national existence had only lasted one thousand years up to the time when Darius (the Persian) invaded their territory" (Herod. 4:5). This would be from 1446 B.C. when Israel became a nation at Sinai to 508 B.C., When Darius Hystaspes invaded, a total of 938 years. Herodotus tells us that the Israelites in Media -- the SCYTHIANS in "Upper Asia" (4:1) -- lived "beyond the Araxes" (1:201,209,216; 4:11) and came from "across the Araxes into Cimmeria" (Her.4:11), Cimmeria being the Crimea area.
11. Herodotus states that "the Assyrians held the sovereignty of all upper Asia not more than 520 years before the defection of the Medes" (1:95). But the Medes revolted in 710 BC. Counting backwards from 710 BC, 520 years, we get the commencement of the Assyrian dominion, 1230 BC. In confirmation of this, Appian says that the Assyrians, Medes and Persians successively ruled Asia 900 years (Proem. 9). But the Persian empire ended with the death of the last Darius, 330 BC, from which, counting backward 900 years, we get the commencement of the Assyrian dominion, 1230 BC, as before. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says "The Assyrians empire, though ancient indeed, and carried up to the fabulous times, yet held the dominion of Asia but a short while" (Antiq. Rom. Lib. 1:2) -- evidently referring to the shorter 520-year period rather than the 1360 years from Ctesias.
12. Philo-biblius, according to Stephen, said, "Babylon was founded 1002 years before Semiramis" and the Trojan war (1184 BC), which is 2186 BC.
13. Berosus and Critodemus are said by Pliny to have made the inscribed stellar observations reach to 480 years before the era of Phoroneus (middle eighteenth century BC) = 2330 BC.
14. Eratosthenes gives 986 years from Menes to Pharaoh Nilus, whom Herodotus (2:3) calls the son and successor of Ramessu the Great. Dicaearchus, a Greek historian of the fourth century B.C., says, "From the time of Pharaoh Nilus (1212 BC) to the first Olympiad (776 BC) there were 436 years. Therefore, Menes became pharaoh of Egypt in 2198 BC -- five years after the Tower of Babel (2203 BC). The Turin Papyrus says there were 355 years from the time of Menes to the close of the sixth Dynasty (1843 BC).
There could hardly be any transition from Biblical to secular history without Ptolemy's Canon (Almagest) which unintentionally confirms the metallic statue of Daniel 2. It begins with the reign of Nabonassar: 26 Feb. 747 BC. and is the starting point of the "SEVEN TIMES" of Daniel 4. It is the most ancient verifiable secular history we have available today.
The (Seven) "Times of the Gentiles" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24) Begins With Babylon -- Feb. 26, 747 BC
"Of all nations, the Assyrians first possessed the sovereignty; then the Medes, afterwards the Persians, next the Macedonians; afterwards ... not long after the conquest of Carthage, the supreme power descended to the Romans." (Patercul. 1:6). All ancient nations began to reckon their separate histories from the Tower of Babel when mankind was divided into linguistic groups around 2203 BC (Gen. 10:25;11:10-16,32). Ptolemy's Canon only goes back as far as the king of Babylon known as Nabonassar who ascended the throne Feb. 26, 747 B.C. (Ptolemy's Almagest). If we add 1222.5 solar years (1260 lunar years x 354.37/365.24 = 1222.48), we arrive at the fall of Romulus Augustulus, Aug. 22nd, 476 A.D. Adding 1260 lunar years more brings us to 1698 when the two treaties that limit the two "little horns" are bisected: the completion of the Protestant Revolution at the Peace of Ryswick Sept. 20, 1697 and the Peace of Carlowitz Jan. 26th, 1699 A.D. If we add 1260 solar years to 747 B.C., we arrive at the accession of Hormisdas in 514 A.D., the first dope to speak of papal supremacy. Adding 1260 solar years more brings us to 1774 -- the royal accession of Louis XVI who lost his life in the French Revolution. Also the defeat of the Turkish army by Russia resulting in the Peace of Kainarge occurred in 1774; and the Roman Catholic Jesuits were banished by Clement in 1774.
The 2520 years is the "(seven) Times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24) or "seven times" punishment (Lev. 26:28) or "Mene [1000 gerahs], Mene [1000 gerahs], Tekel [20 gerahs], U Pharsin [500 gerahs]" (Dan. 5:25; Ez. 45:12) divided in half by a "deadly wound" in 476 A.D. (Rev. 13:4-5) symbolized by an angel dividing a river at mid-point (Dan. 12:5-7). The four Gentile Empires of Daniel 2 have possessed the Holy Land for a combined total of "42 MONTHS" or 1260 days which symbolize 1260 years (Num. 14:34; Ez. 4:6). Babylon possessed Palestine for 90 years, from 624 to 534 B.C. Medo-Persia for 200 years, from 534 to 334 B.C. Greece for 304 years from 334 to 30 B.C. and Rome for 666 years from the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. to the Saracen conquest in 636 A.D. Now 90 + 200 + 304 + 666 = 1260 years. Just as the Gentiles "tread under foot" the physical Jerusalem for 42 months (1260 days), so also they "shall" "tread under foot" the "New Jerusalem" or all TRUE CHRISTIANS for 1260 YEARS because "HEAVENLY JERUSALEM" is the "ASSEMBLY and CHURCH of the FIRSTBORN" wherever they may dwell (Heb. 12:22-23). From when Omar the Turk took Jerusalem in 637 A.D., add 1260 more years to get 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations desiring to settle in the Holy Land. The fig tree represents the Jewish people (Matt. 24:32-33). When they became a nation, Christ's return is imminent. From 606 AD when Emperor Phocas decreed the Dope "Universal Bishop" till 1866 AD when the last two Protestants were burned at the stake by papal decree at Barletta, Italy is exactly 1260 years. From 610 AD when Emperor Phocas died till 1870 when the city of Rome was captured and the Dope lost his temporal power is exactly 1260 years. Constantine ascended the throne in 312 AD. Claiming to be Christian, but really Catholic, he persecuted "heretics." Exactly 1260 years later, Huguenots were massacred in 1572.
"The gods know all things and foreshow them to whom they please by auguries, by omens, and in dreams." (Xen. Hipparch. 9.). "For dreams descend from Jove" (Pope's Iliad 1:86).
"It is related by the Chaldeans, that Nebuchadnezzar, as he mounted to the roof of his palace, was possessed by some god, and cried out, saying, 'Oh! Babylonians, I foretell you of a calamity which must shortly come to pass, which neither Bel my ancestor, nor his queen Beltis can persuade the Fates to avert. A Persian mule (Cyrus) will come assisted by your gods, and will impose on you the yoke of slavery, the author of which shall be a Mede (Darius), the vainglory of Assyria. Before he should lay his yoke upon my countrymen, would that some flood might engulf him, and his memory be blotted out for ever! Or that he might be doomed to wander through some desert, where is neither city nor trace of men, a solitary exile among rocks and caverns, where beasts and birds alone dwell! Would that I, before these thoughts had entered my mind, had closed my life in peace!' Thus having prophesied, Nebuchadnezzar suddenly disappeared from sight." (Abydenus ap. Eusebius, Praep. Evangel. 9:41)
Secular History Confirms Assyrian King Sardanapalus Defeated in 747 BC (Nahum 1-3; Zeph. 2:13-14)
The Assyrian Empire was founded c.2059 BC and lasted till the reign of Sardanapalus, the 31st sovereign in 747 BC. a period of about 1300 years. Diodorus gives a particular account of the taking of Nineveh by Arbaces, assisted by the Bactrians, and of its subsequent destruction. Arbaces was incited to this by a famous Babylonian priest named Belesis (perhapsd the Beladan of 2 Kings 2:12), who pretended by interpreting the stars to promise a successful issue to the adventure. Arbaces was thrice defeated by the king Sardanapalus; but afterwards, intercepting an army of Bactrians who were on their way to reinforce the city, he persuaded the leaders to join him in his revolt, and by their help his next attempt was successful.
"It happened that the king of Assyria, not knowing anything of the revolt of the Bactrians, and elated by his former successes, was indulging in idleness and revelling; and had prepared wine and other things necessary for feasting his soldiers. While his whole army was now feasting and revelling, Arbaces, receiving intelligence from some deserters of the carelessness and intemperance of the enemy, fell upon them, easily broke into their camp, slew great numbers of them, and drove the remainder back into the city." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 1:10 says, "For while they be folden together as thorns, and while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry."
"The rebels twice defeated the king's forces, once in the open field, and the second time before the walls of the city; in which last engagement Salaimenes was killed, and almost all his army destroyed, some being cut off in the retreat, and the rest, with few exceptions, being driven headlong into the river Euphrates; the number of the slain was so great that the river was dyed over with blood, and retained that colour for a great distance afterwards." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 2:3 says, "The shield of his mighty men is made red, the valiant men are in scarlet: the chariots shall bed with flaming torches in the day of his preparation, and thy fir trees shall be terribly shaken."
"The king being afterwards besieged, many of the nations revolted to the confederates, so that Sardanapalus perceiving that the kingdom was in great peril, sent away his three sons and two daughters, with a great deal of treasure, into Paphlagonia, to Cotta the governor there, who was his friend: he also sent posts into all the provinces of the kingdom in order to raise soldiers, and made every other preparation to enable him to endure a siege. He was encouraged in this by an ancient prophecy that 'Nineveh could never be taken until the river should become the enemy of the city.' The king was also very careful to furnish the inhabitants with everything necessary, and neglected nothing that could be done for the defense of the city. The siege continued two years, during which time the enemy gained no advantage against it." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 2:5 says, "He shall recount his worthies: they shall stumble in their walk; they shall make haste to the wall thereof, and the defense shall be prepared."
"In the third year of the siege the Euphrates, overflowing with continual rains, rose above its banks, and entering the city carried away a portion of the wall, making a breach twenty furlongs in length. The revolters entered through the breach and took the city." (Diodorus Siculus 2:27) As Nahum 2:6 says, "The gates of the river shall be opened".
"The king, that he might not fall into the hands of his enemies, caused a huge fire of wood to be made in the court of his palace, and having heaped upon it all his gold, silver, and royal apparel, and enclosed his eunuchs and concubines in an apartment within the pile, caused it to be set on fire, and burnt himself and them together." (Diodorus Siculus 2:27) As Nahum 2:6 says, "the palace shall be dissolved."
"Belesis pretended that he had made a vow to Belus that when Sardanapalus should be conquered and his palace consumed, he would carry the ashes to Babylon and there raise a mound near to his temple; but his true reason for desiring to do this was that he had heard of the gold and silver which lay hidden among the ruins. Arbaces being ignorant of the plot, granted him permission to carry away the ashes: upon which Belesis prepared shipping and took away great treasures of gold and silver to Babylon." (Diodorus Siculcu 2:28) As Nahum 2:9 says, "Take ye the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold: for there is none end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture.
"Notwithstanding the immense strength of Nineveh, whose walls, according to Diodorus, were 100 feet high and broad enough for three chariots to go abreast upon them, with fifteen hundred towers at proper distances in the walls, each 200 feet in height, Nineveh was so totally destroyed that the very site of it is hardly to be recognized. Lucian, who was a native of Samosata, on the Euphrates, must have known whether there were any remains of Nineveh or not, and he wrote as folllows: 'Nineveh is so completely destroyed, that it is not even possible to say where it stood." (Lucian, Contempl. 23) As Nahum 3:17 says, "their place is not known where they (are)."
Zephaniah 2:13-14 says, "He will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations."
Ezekiel 31 says, "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of a high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. The waters made him great, the deep set him on high with her rivers running round about his plants ... Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height ... I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen ... I have driven him out for his wickedness. And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him ... Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field shall be upon his branches ... I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall."
Israel Taken Captive to Cities of the Medes (721-718 BC) And Then Migrated to Arsareth
Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, transplanted the captive Israelites into the cities of the Medes circa 721-718 BC (2 Ki. 17:6) where they revolted from Assyria circa 710 BC. The Medes consisted of the "Busians, Paratacenians, Struchates, Arizantines, Budians, and Mages" (Herodotus 1:101). Herodotus says the Medians were ARII (7:68). Reuben, Gad and half-Manasseh were placed by Tiglath-Pileser in the mountain district of Great Media, a region expressly called HARA (1 Chr. 5:26; Ar being a mountain). In fact all ten tribes of Israel were placed in the "cities of the Medes" (2 Ki. 17:6). Also the Arian language is Hebraic, and like Hebrew, has three sibillants (Moore, Lost Tribes, pp.288-290, 299). HARA was named ARIA, ARIANA and ARACHOSIA by the Greeks (see Ptolemy). It contains the city of HARAT. According to the black obelisk discovered in the ruins of the palace of Nimrod which is now in the British Museum, the people or leader of the ARIANS was called ESAKSKA (Isaac) and their principal cities were "Beth-Telabon, Beth-Everak and Beth-Tsida" in 670 B.C. These ARIANS must have migrated to Thrace because, according to Stephanus, Thrace was called ARIA. Diodorus Siculus says, "many conquered peoples were removed to other homes, and two of these became very great colonies: the one was composed of Assyrians and was removed to the land between Paphlagonia and Pontus, and the other was drawn from MEDIA and planted along theTanais (the River Don in ancient Scythia -- the modern Ukraine, north of the Black Sea, in southern Russia)." (2:43) Notice the areas from which these colonies came -- Assyria and MEDIA. The very areas to which the House of Israel was taken captive! "So was Israel carried away out of their own land TO ASSYRIA unto this day" (2 Kings 17:23). "The king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away INTO ASSYRIA and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the River of Gozan, and in the CITIES OF THE MEDES" (2 Ki. 17:6). Herodotus also mentions a people "north of Thrace" "who dress in the MEDIAN fashion" and "claim to be colonists from MEDIA" (5:9). From Thrace they migrated to Germany since Tacitus mentions the HARII there in SE Germany (Ger.43). The Thracian SCYTHIANS pricked and stained their bodies (Herod. 5); so did the ARII of Germany (Tacitus); the BELGAE of Britain (Caesar de Bell. Gall.), and the PIKS of Norway and Scotland (Herodian; Claudian). We believe that ARIANS or Nordic peoples are found primarily in NW Europe today. Their mission is to BLESS all nations of the earth (Gen. 22:18; Micah 5:7). Rawlinson (in "Herodotus", essay iii, p.325) says, "that the Medes were a branch of the great ARIAN family, closely allied both in language and religion to the Persians (Keturah's descendants?), another ARIAN tribe, seems now to be generally admitted....Darius Hystaspes, in the inscription upon his tomb, declares himself to be a Persian, the son of a Persian, an ARIAN of ARIAN descent." (p.77. Who Are We? By Harrison) The word aristocrateia meant primarily the rule of the Arii (nobility). The Gothic Her is a cognate. These Arians did not spring from Japheth.
Then was fulfilled the divine promise, "when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon thee" (Isa. 43:2). Going north, they passed through the Caucasus Mts. and province of Azerbijan -- named by the Persians "Land of Fire" in consequence of the oil springs which were frequently on fire.
"Those are the ten tribes, which were carried away prisoners out of their own land in the time of Osea the king, whom Salmaneser the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land. But they took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt. That they might there KEEP their STATUTES, which they never kept in their own land. And they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passages of the river. For the Most High then showed signs for them, and held still the flood, till they were passed over (Isa. 43:2). For through that country there was a great way to go, namely for a year and a half: and the same region is called Arsareth (The river Siret is still in Romania (23:826, A1) and the prefix "Ar" means "city" in Hebrew. SCYTHIA used to be situated where Romania is today.) Then dwelt they there until the latter time" (2 Esdras 13:40-46). This word Arsareth is almost identical with the words rendered "another land" in Deut. 29:28.
Both 2 Esdras 13:39-45 and Herodotus 4:11 place Israel NW of the Black Sea. From the capital of Media we travel 1500 miles in a straight line to the north of Moldavia. Here is still the river Sereth, with a town of the same name, almost at its source. Herodotus 4:11 says, "the nomadic tribes of SCYTHIANS, who lived in Asia, being hard pressed by the Massagetae, were forced across the Araxes (Called Aras today which separated Armenia from Media) into Cimmeria (Crimea area and NW in Russia) (what is now SCYTHIA is said to have been once inhabited by Cimmerians.)" Therefore, the SCYTHS must have originally dwelt south of the Araxes in Media -- exactly where the Israelites dwelt. The Massagetae in 450 B.C. when Herodotus wrote, were living on the northern bank of the Araxes because Cyrus in 530 B.C. had to cross the Araxes to invade their country and the Massagetae ate the fish from the Araxes (Her. 1:201-215).
Secular History Confirms the Destruction of 185,000 Assyrians in Sennacherib's Army in One Night By Plague-Carrying Rodents in c. 701 BC
(2 Ki. 19:35; Isa. 37:36; 2 Chr. 32:21)
The Biblical account of Hezekiah (701 BC) is confirmed by Herodotus 2:141 where Sennacherib's Assyrian army is defeated by field mice with Bubonic Plague. "When Sennacherib, king of Arabia and Assyria, attacked Egypt with a mighty army, the soldiers of Sethos (having been ill-treated by him) refused to assist him. In this perplexity the priest retired to the shrine of his god, before which he lamented his danger and misfortunes. Here he sunk into a profound sleep, and his deity promised him in a dream, that if he marched to meet the Assyrians, he should experience no injury, for that he would furnish him with assistance: the vision inspired him with confidence: he put himself at the head of his adherents and marched to Pelusium, the entrance of Egypt. Not a soldier accompanied the party, which was composed entirely of tradesmen and artisans. On their arrival at Pelusium, so immense a number of mice infested by night the enemy's camp, that their quivers and bows, together with what secured their arms to their shields, were gnawed in pieces. In the morning, the Arabians finding themselves without arms, fled in confusion and lost great numbers of their men." Plague-carrying rodents kill 185,000 Assyrians?
"Lo, I will send a BLAST upon him, and he shall hear a RUMOR, and shall return to his own land, and I will cause him to fall by the SWORD in his own land" (2 Ki. 19:7). The RUMOR which Sennacherib, was that Tirhakah, king of Cush, or Arabian Ethiopia, was come out to fight against him, and to intercept him on his passage homewards (Isa. 37:9; 2 Chr. 32:20-22). The BLAST was probably the HOT, PESTILENTIAL SOUTH WIND blowing from the deserts of Libya, called the Samum, or Simoon. It is preceded by an extreme redness in the air and a purple haze. To survive it, each person must fall upon his face with his mouth close to the ground, and hold his breath as long as he can to avoid inhaling. It moves very rapidly and is about 20 yards in breadth, and about 12 feet high from the ground. When it passes, it is followed by a light hot suffocating air which can last as long as three hours. It leaves people exhausted, labouring under asthmatic sensations, weakness of stomach, and violent headaches. (See Hales' New Analysis, vol. 2, p.429) Fifty-five days after his return to Nineveh, Sennacherib was ASSASSINATED by his two eldest sons, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroc, his god. This was the SWORD. They escaped into the land of Armenia, while his third son, Esarhaddon, reigned in his stead (2 Ki. 19:9-37; Tobit 1:18-21).
Secular History Confirms Egyptian "Kingdom Against (Egyptian) Kingdom" "And They Shall Seek ... Familiar Spirits" (Isa. 19:2-3) (664-610 BC)
"After the abdication of Sabacon (the Ethiopian king of Egypt -- the "So" of 2 Ki. 17:4) there was anarchy in Egypt for two years; but the people falling into broils and tumults and SLAUGHTER one of another, twelve of the chief nobility took upon them the regal power and authority. Psammeticus, one of the kings, whose province was upon the seas coast, being envied by the others on account of the wealth which he derived from commerce, made WAR upon him; but he, having hired soldiers from Arabia, gained a victory over them." (Diod. Sic. 1:5) "At the death of their sovereign the priest of Vulcan, the Egyptian priests, who could not live without kings, chose twelve, among whom they divided the different districts of Egypt. These twelve kings were offering sacrifice, on a certain occasion, in the temple of Vulcan, and on the last day of the festival were about to make the accustomed libation; for this purpose the chief priest handed to them the golden cups used on these solemnities; but he mistook the number, and instead of twelve gave only eleven. Psammiticus, who was the last of them, not having a cup, took off his helmet, which happened to be of BRASS, and from this poured his libation. The other kings, observing this action remembered the prediction of the ORACLE 'that he among them who should pour a libation from a BRAZEN vessel should be sole monarch of Egypt.' They therefore confined him to the marshy parts of the country, and forbade him to leave it or to communicate with the rest of Egypt.... Psammeticus when in exile among the fens, being resolved to AVENGE himself upon the eleven kings, his persecutors, sent to the ORACLE of Latona, at Butos, which has among the Egyptians the highest character for veracity (Isa. 19:3 says they seek them that have familiar spirits). He was informed that the sea should AVENGE his cause by producing BRAZEN figures of men; and soon afterwards a body of Ionians and Carians, who had been engaged in a voyage of plunder, were compelled by distress to touch at Egypt: they landed in BRAZEN armour. Psammeticus, having formed alliance with these, OVERTHREW the eleven kings (Isa. 19:2), and became sole sovereign of Egypt." (Herodotus 2:147-153; also Diod. Sic 1:5) This was Dynasty XXVI (c. 660-529 BC)
Judith Slew Assyrian General Holofernes Around 612 BC (Judith 9:12-19; 13:8)
Assuming the events of the Book of Judith, in the Apocrypha, are historical, they must have occurred within Nebuchadnezzar's lifetime (634-562 BC). He sent Holofernes and his Assyrian army (cp. Her. 1:178; 3:153,155: "Assyrians of Babylon" and Ezra 6:22 where king of Persia is called king of Assyria) to punish Judaea, but Holofernes was confronted by ISRAELITES, from the Ten Tribes, who were newly RETURNED from the Captivity. The place where Holofernes pitched, was between Geba and SCYTHOPOLIS -- the city recently built by the Scythians -- the RETURNED ISRAELITES. Judith risked her life and slew Holofernes. The Assyrians fled. Then good King Josiah (648-609 BC) kept a very memorable Passover "and all Judah AND ISRAEL that were present" (2 Ki. 23:22; 2 Chr. 35:18) about 612 BC. This then led to the destruction of Nineveh itself in 612 BC (Tobit 14:15)
"Seven Shepherds and Eight Principal Men" (Micah 5:5)
"When the Assyrian shall come into our land (701 B.C.): and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight principal men" (612 B.C.) And they shall waste the land of Assyria with the sword, and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof (612 B.C.) : thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian, when he cometh into our land, and when he treadeth within our borders (701 B.C.) (Micah 5:5-6).
The seven shepherds (counsellors) are mentioned in Ezra 7:14 ("the king and ... his seven counsellors") and Esther 1:14 ("seven princes of Persia and Media")
Also, the Babylonian Berosus, writing soon after Alexander the Great, states that at a very early time (734-510 BC?), the Medes conquered Babylonia, and that EIGHT MEDIAN KINGS reigned thereafter in Babylonia for a space of 224 years. This information is preserved by Eusebius, who took it from Alexander Polyhistor.
Pharaoh-Nechoh (611- 595 BC) Slew King Josiah in 609 BC
Pharaoh-Nechoh marched into Syria for the purpose of capturing Carchemish on the Euphrates, when Josiah, disregarding the friendly remonstrances of Nechoh, ventured to oppose him in the valley of Megiddo. "King Josiah went against Pharaoh-Nechoh, who slew him at Megiddo when he had seen him." (2 Ki. 23:29). This is probably the same event described by Herodotus, who says that Necho "routed the Syrians at Magdolus (Megiddo) and afterewards took the sacred Cadytis (Jerusalem) a large city of Syria." (2:159)
Cyaxares and the Medes invited the greater number of Scythian Manda to a banquet (c.606 BC), at which they made them drunk and murdered them, and in this way recovered their former power (Her. 1:73). Jeremiah 25:27 says, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, “Drink, be drunk, vomit, fall and rise no more because of the sword which I will send among you.”’ (See also Nahum 1:10)
Secular History Confirms Pharaoh Apries (Hophra -- Jer. 44:30) (589-570 BC) Was A Proud "Broken Reed" Who Sealed the Doom of Egypt
Pharaoh is compared to a crocodile (Ez. 29:3). Phiraon, in Arabic, means "a crocodile."
In 588 BC, Apries sent an army to protect Jerusalem from Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 37:5; 34:21). His forces quickly withdrew to avoid a major battle and in 586 BC Jerusalem was taken by Babylon. God said "because they (Egyptians) have been a staff of reed to the house of Israel. When they (Israelites) took hold of thee ...thou didst break ... I will bring a sword upon thee" (Ez. 29:6-7).
"Apries is said to have believed that his power was so firmly established, that not even a god could have brought him down." (Herodotus 2:169) But God foretold that "I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand" (Ez. 30:22) and "there shall be no more a (native -- cf. Ez. 26:17) PRINCE of the land of Egypt" (Ez. 30:13), "neither shall it (Egypt) exalt itself anymore" (Ez. 29:15).
Then Pharaoh Apries sent his army against Cyrene (Libya) against Dorian Greek invaders. It ended disastrously for the Egyptians. The survivors returned and rebelled, thinking they had been deliberately sacrificed. Apries sent Amasis his general to quell the rebellion. But the people put a crown on the head of Amasis and offered him the throne instead of Pharaoh Apries. Therefore, he led them against Apries whose palace was at Sais. Nebuchadnezzar marched his army into Egypt and replaced Apries with Amosis as a vassal of the king of Babylon after Apries lost the battle (570 BC). Apries was taken prisoner for a time and then strangled (Herodotus 2:160-169) in 564 BC. This fulfilled the prophecy of doom: "I will give Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt, into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life." (Jer. 44:30; Ez. 32:32)
The restoration of Egypt under Amasis seems to have been foretold in Ezekiel 29:11: "At the end of forty years I will gather the Egyptians from the nations whither they were scattered." These forty years of captivity, counted from Nebuchadnezzar's invasion, 570 BC, expired 530 BC, when Cyrus, by a wise and liberal policy, released the Egyptians, as he had before released the Jews. This act of grace took place five years before the death of Amasis.
Isaiah 19:4 says, "The Egyptians will I give over into the hands of a cruel Lord; and a fierce king shall rule over them." Two centuries later the cruel Cambyses conquered Egypt and fulfilled this verse (Herodotus 3:14, etc.). "Memphis should be waste and desolate without an inhabitant ... I will destroy the idols, and will cause the images to cease out of Memphis" (Jer. 46:19) was fulfilled by Cambyses in Herodotus 3:26-39; Cambyses took Memphis by siege in 525 BC. Cambyses slew "the princes of Memphis," insulted the dead body of Pharaoh Amosis, killed the sacred bull Apis, and scourged the priests. He went to the temple of Ptah and made great sport of the image. He went to the temple of the Cabiri, and made great sport of the idols and even burned them (Her. 3:37). Memphis, the ancient capital, fell into utter desolation under the Saracens.
God foretold that Egypt "shall be the BASEST of the KINGDOMS" (Ez. 29:14-15) and "there shall BE NO MORE A (native -- cf. Ez. 26:17) PRINCE of the land of Egypt" (Ez. 30:13). This undoubtedly refers to the future government of Egypt by FOREIGNERS, or to the general destruction of the Egyptian princes by Nebuchadnezzar and Amasis. All men know, says Josephus against Apion, 50. 2. sec. 11, “That the Egyptians were subject to the Persians, differing nothing from SLAVES, and after them to the Macedonians, who ruled over Asia.” Egypt never recovered its former glory; and indeed, after Nectanebus was driven out of it by Ochus, king of Persia, it never after had a native king.
1. Egypt became tributary to the Babylonians under Amasis.
2. After the ruin of the Babylonish empire, it became subject to the Persians.
3. After the Persians, it came into the hands of the Macedonians. With the Ptolemies it rose again to something like eminence, but that, it must be remembered, was an alien dynasty. The nationality of Egypt was suppressed, and Alexandria, practically a Greek city, took the place of Memphis, Sais, and Thebes.
4. After the Macedonians it fell into the hands of the Romans.
5. After the division of the Roman empire it was subdued by the Saracens. Moslem Arabs conquered Egypt in 639-640 AD.
6. About 1250 A.D., it came into the hands of the Mameluke slaves.
7. Selim, the ninth emperor of the Turks, conquered the Mamelukes, 1517 A.D., and annexed Egypt to the Ottoman empire.
8. Napoleon's French conquest of Egypt from 1798-1801
9. British Protectorate (1882-1956)
10. Made a republic 18 June, 1953. Ex-king Farouk was the king until Egypt became a republic. But King Farouk was not descended from Egyptian Blood. He was an Albanian. He was descended from Mohammed Ali. The Egyptian rulers since 1953 have not been PRINCES and most were not Egyptian. They were Arab. For instance President Anwar Sadat descends from Moslem Arabs who dominate Egypt and Sudan -- not from Copts (ancient Egyptians) who are a small persecuted minority.
The captivity of the Egyptians (Ez. 29:14), though not taken notice of by Herodotus, is mentioned by Berosus, in one of the fragments of his history, quoted by Josephus, Antiq., 50. 10. chap. 11, and published with notes by Scaliger, at the end of his books, De Emendatione Temporum, whose remark upon the place is very observable, namely, “The calamities that befell the Egyptians are passed over by Herodotus, because the Egyptian priests would not inform him of any thing that tended to the disgrace of their nation.”
Today, is not Egypt the most heavily populated nation in the Middle East? Yet Ezekiel 29:15 says God would diminish the Egyptians and make Egypt a base kingdom. Has this prophecy been broken? The Bible means what it says. Today, Egypt is populated mainly by Arabs, not Egyptians. The Egyptians, upon whom God pronounced this curse, are called COPTS today. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Copts in Egypt -- not the Arabs -- are the racial representatives of the ancient Egyptians. In the article "COPTS" the Encyclopedia acknowledges: "the COPTS have undoubtedly preserved the race of the Egyptians as it existed at the time of the Arab conquest in remarkable purity." Further proof of this is found in the book The Nile by E. A. Wallis Budge. On page 331, he States: "The COPTS are direct descendants from the ancient Egyptians." He further admits, on page 333: "The COPTIC language is, at base, ancient Egyptian. Many of the nouns and verbs found in the Hieroglyphic texts remain unchanged in COPTIC ..." Notice how this ties in with the prophecy of Ezekiel 29:15. First of all, God said be would diminish the Egyptians -- not the Arabs who later invaded the country. When this prophecy was written by Ezekiel there were approximately 7,000,000 Egyptians or COPTS. Today, there remain only one million. There are seven times fewer Egyptians today than there were when this curse was pronounced. And not only that! Only one out of every twenty-four inhabitants of Egypt is a true Egyptian! The rest are Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael, Abram's son. In their own country the descendants of the ancient Egyptians are outnumbered twenty-three to one by Arab foreigners who have corne in and taken over the country. This prophecy further states that the Egyptians shall no more rule over the nations. This has been strikingly fulfilled! Almost every political office in Egypt is filled by an Arab. Gamal Abdel Nasser, ruler of Egypt, was an Arab. The COPTS not only do not rule over the nations -- they don't even rule in their own country. They were prophesied to be a base kingdom, a low, subservient people. Most of the COPTS are scribes or handicraftsmen and in those capacities they serve the Arabs. They are low in every sense of tile word -- even in their work.
Most of the COPTS have adopted a form of the "Christian" religion. In a country thar is almost entirely Moslem, this has caused them constant persecution. They are sneered at because of their religion. They are looked down upon because of their occupations. They have become a people cursed by God. As a final clincher, Ezekiel prophesied that the Egyptians would return, after being led into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, into the land of Pathros (verse 4). Pathros is in Upper Middle Egypt. The majority of the COPTS live in UPPER MIDDLE EGYPT! There is even a village named COPTOS located 25 miles northeast of Thebes.
This prophecy has been fulfilled, point by point-exactly as Ezekiel prophesied!
Isaiah Foretold Cyrus Conquering Babylon -- 539 B.C.
The "Chaldeans say" Nebuchadnezzar "went up to his palace, and being possessed by some god or other" said, "There will come a Persian mule, aided by the alliance of your own deities, and will bring you into slavery. And the joint author of this will be a Mede, in whom the Assyrians glory." (Eusebius, Preparation For Gospel, p.405) Cicero relates, on the authority of Dino, a Persian writer, [whom he calls Dionysius] a remarkable "dream of Cyrus, in which he thrice attempted to catch the Sun in his hands, which thrice eluded his grasp, in its revolution. This the Magi expounded, to denote a reign of [three sari, or decades] thirty years. Which so happened; for he lived till his seventieth year, and began to reign when he was forty years of age." (De Divin. 1:23) (559 - 529 BC)
Isaiah predicted the Babylonian Empire would fall to the Medes and the Persians (Isaiah 13; 21:1-10). He also called Cyrus by name (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1-5), and said the protective waters of the Euphrates would "dry up" (Isa. 44:27; Jer. 51:36) (Herodotus 1:185–191) and Babylon's "two-leaved gates" would "not be shut" (Isa. 45:1). "That I may open before him the valves; and the gates shall not be shut" - The gates of Babylon within the city descending from the streets to the river, were providentially left open, when Cyrus's forces entered the city in the night through the channel of the river, in the general disorder occasioned by the great feast which was then celebrated. Otherwise, says Herodotus, 1:191, the Persians would have been shut up in the bed of the river, and taken as in a net, and all destroyed. And the gates of the palace were opened imprudently by the king's orders, to inquire what was the cause of the tumult without; when the two parties under Gobrias and Gadatas rushed in, got possession of the palace, and slew the king (Xenophen's Cyropedia. 7:22-23 p. 528). Herodotus 1:179 says, "In the wall all round there are a hundred gates, all of brass; and so in like manner are the sides and the lintels." "The gates likewise within the city, opening to the river from the several streets, were of brass; as were those also of the temple of Belus" (Herod. 1:180, 181).The Chaldean scribe who recorded the story on a clay tablet (which was secured by the British Museum in 1879) closed his record with these words: "On the sixteenth day, Gobryas, pasha of the land of Gutium, and the troops of Cyrus, without a battle, entered Babylon." -- From tablet "Annals of Nabonidus" quoted by C.J. Ball in "Light From the East."
Cyrus said, "The river, my friends, has yielded us a passage into the city, let us boldly enter and not fear any thing within, considering that these people are the same we defeated when they were awake, sober, armed and in order. But now we march against them at a time when many of them are asleep, many drunk, and all in confusion." (Cyropedia 7:5)
This may be why "The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, they have remained in their holds" (Jer. 51:30). Due to the immense size of the city, Herodotus says many residents didn't know Babylon had fallen till days later (Herod. 1:191). "One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to show the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end" (Jer. 51:31).
The Lord will "subdue nations before him" and "loose the loins of kings" (Isa. 45:1). Xenophon gives the following list of the nations conquered by Cyrus: "the Syrians, Assyrians, Arabians, Cappadocians, both countries of the Phrygians, Lydians, Carians, Phoenicians, Babylonians. He moreover reigned over the Bactrians, Indians, Cilicians, the Sacae, Paphlagones, ldariandyni or Megadinians; likewise the Greeks that inhabit Asia, Cyprians and Egyptians." (- Cyrop.1:4), All these kingdoms he acknowledges, in his decree for the restoration of the Jews, to have been given to him by Jehovah, the God of heaven (Ezra 1:2). He was obliged to acknowledge this because Josephus says that Cyrus read this prophecy himself, which Isaiah had delivered: "This was known to Cyrus by his reading the book which Isaiah left behind him of his Prophecies. For this Prophet said, that God had spoken thus to him in a secret vision: 'My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed to be King over many and great nations, send back my people to their own land, and build my temple.' This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly when Cyrus read this, and admired the divine power, an earnest desire and an ambition seized upon him, to fulfil what was so written." (Antiquities 11:1:2) Herodotus says, that he ruled over all Asia (Clio, sive 1:130.). To "loose the loins of kings" such as Croesus king of Lydia, and Belshazzar king of Babylon, by divesting them of their dignity, power, and government" was not the full meaning. Belshazzar was thrown into such a panic that "the joints of his loins were loosed" literally (Daniel 5:6).
Amazingly, Isaiah’s prophecy was made roughly 150 years before Cyrus was born (Isaiah prophesied in about 700 B.C.; Cyrus took the city of Babylon in 539 B.C.). To add to Cyrus’ significance, Isaiah predicted that Cyrus would act as the Lord’s “shepherd” (44:28) to return Israel to their land a second time (Isa. 11:11-12; Isa. 51:9-11). The Exodus from Egypt was the first. Justin (Hist. ex Trogo 1:5) says, he had this name given him, while he was among the shepherds, by whom he was brought up, having been exposed in his infancy. Shepherd was an epithet which Cyrus took to himself. Cyrus himself compares a king to a shepherd, and observes a likeness between them (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8:18). In fact, Isaiah recorded these words of the Lord concerning Cyrus: “And he shall perform all My pleasure, even saying to Jerusalem, you shall be built; and to the temple, thy foundation shall be laid" (44:28). This is said with great exactness since only the foundation was laid in Cyrus's time; the Jews being discouraged and hindered by their enemies from going on with the building in his reign, until the times of Darius, king of Persia. (See Ezra 1:1).
Then Isaiah 45:5-7 says, "I am the LORD, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me ... I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the LORD do all these things." Why did our Lord explain this truth to Cyrus? Because Cyrus was educated in the Magian Religion, and it was the great principle of the Magian religion, which prevailed in Persia in the time of Cyrus, that there are two supreme, co-eternal, and independent causes always acting in opposition one to the other; one the author of all good, the other of all evil. The good being they called Light; the evil being, Darkness. That when Light had the ascendant, then good and happiness prevailed among men; when Darkness had the superiority, then eviI and misery abounded. It does not appear that Cyrus left the Pagan idolatry; for Xenophon relates, that when he found his end was near, he took sacrifices, and offered them to Jupiter, and the sun, and the rest of the gods; and gave them thanks for the care they had taken of him; and prayed them to grant happiness to his wife, children, friends, and country (Cyropaedia, 8:45).
"Lo, I will raise up against them the Medes, who shall not regard silver, nor shall they delight in gold" (Isa. 13:17). It is remarkable that Xenophen represents Cyrus, when setting out, as praising the Medes and his army, for their disregard of riches. "Ye Medes, and all here present, I well know that ye accompany me on this expedition, not coveting wealth." (Cyropedia 5) "their bows shall dash to pieces the young men" because the Persian bows were three cubits long, according to Xenophen Anab. 4 and therefore when used as clubs, in the sack of a city, were powerful weapons of destruction.
"Darius the Mede", to whom Cyrus entrusted the rulership of Babylon on its capture in 539 BC, was not the chief, but only the SECOND RULER in the kingdom. Darius was "MADE KING" (Dan. 9:1) by Cyrus. Thus Daniel was not only "the THIRD RULER"
(Dan. 5:25,31) in the Babylonian dynasty of Nabonidus and his viceroy Belshazzar (Nabonidus' eldest son was called Bel-shar-ezer on a cylinder discovered by Henry Rawlinson), but in the Medo-Persian dynasty as well. Nabonidus is portrayed as the ROYAL SEED of Nebuchadnezzar by Daniel (5:11) and Isaiah (14:22) whereas Berosus says Nabonidus was a usurper and conspirator. How do we explain this? In the same political terminology that King Saul called David his son (1 Sam. 26:21) even though David was the son of Jesse. Also Salathiel was called the son of Jeconiah (Matt. 1:12), yet Jeconiah died childless (Jer. 20:30) and Salathiel was son of Neri (Luke 3:27).
After being defeated by Cyrus, Croesus, the king of Lydia was ordered to be burned alive. At the last minute, Cyrus relented, when the flames were out of control. But a shower of rain miraculously extinguished the flames. (Herod. 1:86-87)
Cambyses' 50,000-Man Army Buried by a Sandstorm in 523-522 B.C.
"I will also gather all nations (c. 523-522 B.C.), and will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3:2). Figuratively, this valley can be anywhere "the Lord Judges." According to Herodotus 3:26, Cambyses sent an army to threaten the Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis. The army of 50,000 men was halfway across the Kushite (Sudan) desert when a massive sandstorm sprang up, burying them all. This was their valley where "the Lord Judges" in 523-522 B.C. People of almost "all nations" (3:2) composed Cambyses' army. "The harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats overflow; for their wickedness is great" (3:13).
|"Lo, where our wide Numidian wastes extend,
Sudden the impetuous hurricanes descend;
Which through the air incircling eddies play,
Tear up the sands, and sweep whole plains away.
The helpless traveller, with wild surprise,
Sees the dry desert all around him rise,
And, smothered in the dusty whirlwind, dies." -- Addison
|Thus when Cambyses led his barbarous host
From Persia's rocks to Egypt's trembling coasts
Defiled each hallowed fane and sacred wood,
And, drunk with fury, swelled the Nile with blood
Waved his proud banner over the Theban states,
And poured destruction through her hundred gates
In dread divisions marched the marshalled bands
And swarming armies blackened all the sands
By Memphis these to Ethiop's sultry plains
And those to Hammon's sand-encircled fanes:
Slow as they passed the indignant temples frowned
Low curses muttering from the vaulted ground;
Long aisles of cypress waved their deepened glooms,
And quivering spectres grinned amid the tombs;
Day after day their dreadful route they steer
Lust in their van, and rapine in their rear:
In red arcades the billowy plain surround,
And whirling turrets stalk along the ground
Long ranks in vain their shining blades extend;
To demon gods their knees unhallowed bend;
Wheel in wide circles, form in hollow square;
And now they front, and now they fly the war,
Pierce the deaf tempest with lamenting cries,
Press their parched lips, and close their blood-shot eyes,
Wheeling in air, the winged islands fall,
And one great earthy ocean covers all.
(-- Darwin abridged)
Darius Retook Babylon With Help from Zopyrus (Isa. 47:9)(514 BC)
After the Persian fleet had sailed for Samos, the Babylonians revolted, having taken advantage of the confusion of the times during the Magian usurpation, to provide, without being noticed, or opposed, against a siege. And in order to prevent famine they took the strange and unnnatural resolution of strangling all their women and children, except their mothers and one female of each man's family, whom he liked best, to bake their bread, which was anciently the woman's employment (Herodotus 3:150 & 7:187) As Isaiah said, "These two things shall suddenly come upon thee in one day, childlessness and widowhood (the men were widowers Ps. 78:64); they shall fully come upon thee, notwithstanding the multitude of thy services, and the strength of thy enchantments" (Isa. 47:9). This is why the Jews were warned two years before the siege began"to fly from the land of the north, from the daughter of Babylon" (Zech. 2:6-7).
Darius, in the fifth year of his reign (516 BC), besieged Babylon one year and seven months. Zopyrus, his general, thought up the strategem to voluntarily mutilate himself, and then he deserted to the Babylonians, gaining their confidence by a pityful tale of the cruelty of Darius, and after a few staged successes over some devoted detachments of the Persian army, he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Babylonian troops, and entrusted with the care of the city, which on a favorable opportunity, he betrayed to the Persians (Herodotus book 3:159).
Zoroaster, who is supposed to have lived as a contemporary with Darius Hystaspes, delivered the following prediction: "In the last days a JUST and RIGHTEOUS man will appear, who would adorn the world with religion, who would revive JUSTICE among the inhabitants of the world, SUPPRESS WRONGS, and RESTORE ANCIENT CUSTOMS which had fallen to decay; kings would follow and serve him; he would establish TRUE RELIGION, and in his time PEACE and TRANQUILITY would prevail, dissensions be forgotten, and troubles pass away." (Hyde, De Historia Veterum Persarum) Was Zoroaster a prophet like Daniel?
Daniel's Seventy-Weeks Prophecy
Daniel 9:24 -27 says, "Seventy weeks (or 490 years) are determined upon thy people (the Jews) and upon thy holy city (Jerusalem), to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up (or end) the vision and the prophecy (or prophet), and to anoint the most Holy. Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks (69 weeks or 483 years): the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times. And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for his own sins; and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the temple, and the end of it shall be with a flood (or army), and unto the end of the war desolations are determined. And he shall confirm the covenant with many (Jews) for one week (7 years): and in the midst of the week shall he cause the sacrifice and offering to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator."
The temple and city of Jerusalem were destroyed in 586 B.C. by Babylonians (2 Ki. 24:17-25:21). Then for seventy years Jerusalem was desolate (Jer. 25:11) from 609 B.C. when the Egyptians were defeated by Nabopolaser till Cyrus destroyed Babylon in 539 B.C. and from 586 B.C. when the Temple was destroyed till 515 B.C. when it was completely rebuilt.
Then there were FOUR decrees to rebuild the Temple and Jerusalem. They are mentioned in Ezra 6:14 "And they builded, and finished it ... according to the commandment of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxes king of Persia" (who gave two decrees). The question is which decree of which Persian king fulfills the prophecy? Cyrus issued the FIRST decree for the TEMPLE to be rebuilt (2 Chr. 36:23 in 539 B.C.). The altar was set up (Ezra 3:3) and the TEMPLE foundations were laid out (Ezra 3:8-11). But the building project was annulled by Cambyses in 536 B.C. (in Ezra 4:21, Artaxerxes or Ahasuerus) thus fulfilling a prophecy of Isaiah 44:28 (c.710 B.C.) that only the foundations of the TEMPLE should be laid at this time (Ezra 3:10): "Who saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure; even saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be built; and to the TEMPLE, Thy foundation shall be laid." Darius then issued a SECOND decree to advance the building of the TEMPLE (Ezra 4:24 to 6:1-12 in 520 B.C.), which was completed in the sixth year of his reign (515 B.C.) (Ezra 6:15). Therefore the decrees of Cyrus and Darius concerned the TEMPLE. But the city of Jerusalem still remained ruinous.
Then Artaxerxes Longimanus gave the THIRD decree in 457 B.C. "to set up the house of our God, and to repair the desolations thereof, and to give us a WALL in Judah and in JERUSALEM" (Ezra 7:11;9:9). Ezra 7:6-9 shows that the decree went out in the seventh year of the reign of Artaxerxes. Next we come to the FOURTH decree which Artaxerxes made in 445-4 B.C. and this decree involving Nehemiah specifically mentions rebuilding the WALLS of JERUSALEM (Neh. 2) in the 20th year of Artaxerxes' reign. See the Astronomical Canon of Ptolemy (Almagest) to confirm these dates. The years of Persian kings' reigns started in the autumn or September.
Incidentally, 2,300 LUNAR years from 444 B.C. gives 1789 A.D. (when French Revolution commenced) and 2,300 SOLAR years from 457 B.C. gives 1844 A.D. (when Turkey abolished execution for apostasy. This was also when the Sultan of Turkey granted permission to erect on Mount Zion the first English Church.). These two measurements cross one another at the central solar-lunar date of 29-30 A.D.
What happened after the first 49 years?
This prophecy is split into three sections. Seven weeks (49 years, which is the time it took to rebuild JERUSALEM), 62 weeks (434 years) till Messiah the Prince which takes us to the year A.D. 27, the year that Jesus was "anointed" and began His ministry in the autumn, and finally there is another week of 7 years. If the midst of this seven year period is Passover (March-April) when he died, then the beginning of this seven-year period was in the autumn (July-August).
The first seven weeks or 49 years on the solar scale from 457 B.C. bring us to 408 B.C. which witnessed the rebuilding of JERUSALEM, its walls and streets (Neh. 6:15,16; 7:4). The last act of Nehemiah occurred in the fifteenth year of of the reign of Darius Nothus which was the year 408 B.C., exactly 49 years from 457 B.C. Barnes and several other trustworthy Bible commentators mention the historian Prideaux who declared Nehemiah's last action in rebuilding the CITY occurred in the 15th year of the Persian ruler Darius Nothus (423 - 404 B.C.). Josephus seems to support this idea in his remarks about the death of Nehemiah. The solar 49 year period witnessed the rebuilding of JERUSALEM in "troublous times" (Ezra 4:4-5 and Nehemiah 4 & 6).
Did Messiah the Prince come after "Sixty-Nine Weeks" (or 483 years)?
Ezra left Babylon with his royal decree on the 1st of Nisan (March-April) and reached Jerusalem four months later on the 1st of Ab (July-August) in 457 B.C. (Ezra 7:9). Nehemiah received his royal decree in Nisan (March-April) of 444 B.C. and we assume he also took four months to arrive at Jerusalem. Both decrees actually took effect in July-August of 457 or July-August of 444 B.C.
In Bible prophecy we use the day for a year system. Ezekiel 4:6 says, “...I have appointed thee each day for a year” (cp. Num. 14:34) so that 70 weeks or 490 days becomes 490 years. The first calculation is SOLAR years using 365.25 days while the second is LUNAR years using 354.33 days. A third calculation uses PROPHETIC years of 360 days each. "At the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established" (Deut. 19:15). Two or three witnesses are required to prove any point according the Bible. The LUNAR year is 10.876 days short of the SOLAR year so an extra month was added to the LUNAR calendar about every three years to keep the seasons from moving through the LUNAR year. This meant some years contained thirteen months.
"Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks (483 years)" (Dan. 9:25).
Adding 483 SOLAR years to 457 B.C. brings us to the first of July-August, 27 A.D. which was the beginning of Christ's public ministry and his baptism. Adding 490 SOLAR years to 457 B.C. brings us to the martyrdom of Stephen in 34 A.D. Adding 483 LUNAR years to 444 B.C. brings us to February-March 2nd, 26 A.D. (Because 483 LUNAR years are equivalent to 469 SOLAR years: 365.2422 days - 354.366 days = 10.8762 days difference x 483 years = 5253.2046 days / 365.2422 = 14.38 SOLAR years difference.), the year of John the Baptist's preparatory ministry, when he revealed the Messiah at his baptism. Adding 483 PROPHETIC years to 444 B.C. brings us to 33 A.D. (because 483 PROPHETIC years are equivalent to 476.07 SOLAR years: 483 x 360 = 173880 days /365.24 = 476.07) which was the last year of Stephen's witness to the Jews before his martyrdom. Messiah was crucified in A.D. 31. Most scholars have tried to place the crucifixion in either 30 or 33 A.D. because these are the only two years in the time frame of Jesus' death when Passover fell on Friday. In the year 31 A.D. Passover fell on Wednesday -- the "midst" of a literal "week" as well as the midst of a seven-year Sabbatic period. According to the translator of Josephus, the Jewish new year that began in the fall of 27 A.D. marked the beginning of the last Jubilee Year that the Jews enjoyed in the land before their worldwide dispersal by the Romans in 70 A.D. This is most likely the year that Jesus began His public ministry. This is hinted at in Luke 4 where it says that when Jesus launched His ministry at the synagogue in Nazareth, He did so by reading a passage from Isaiah 61 about the way in which the Messiah would fulfill the spiritual essence of the Jubilee. After finishing the reading, Jesus proclaimed, "Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing" (Luke 4:21).
Remember that a mathematical error of one year is accounted for by the fact that 1 B.C. and 1 A.D. are both part of the same year. To be even more precise, Jesus "being about 30 years of age" at his baptism by John in the Jordan (Luke 3:23) must have been born about 4 B.C. because 27 A.D. - 30 = 4 B.C. When Christ was born, Herod the Great was still alive, and Herod died in 4 B.C. (see Matt. 2:13-20). Jesus may have been born on the Festival of Sukkot -- fifteenth day of the seventh month. Herod died about 6 months later just before Passover (Ant. 17:8:1; Wars 1:33:8). "The fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius" (Luke 3:1) can be independently established as 26-27 A.D., because Tiberius' reign began two years before the death of Augustus -- 12 A.D., and it was at the Passover of 28 A.D. that the Jews said to Christ, "Forty and six years was this temple being built " (John 2:20) and it was also Herod's eighteenth year (Ant. 15:11) which can be independently established. "When the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son" (Gal. 4:4) and Jesus preached that "the time was fulfilled" (Mark 1:15), both scriptures referring to the "sixty-nine weeks" unto Messiah. Also, if the SOLAR reckoning provides the beginning of his public ministry, perhaps the LUNAR reckoning provides the date of his private return to Palestine (Matt. 25:19). He died on Wednesday, 14th day of the first month Nisan, 31 A.D. as the Passover lambs were being slain in the temple (Wars 6:9:3).
Daniel 9:26 says that in the midst of the final seven years the Messiah will be "cut off, ("He was cut off out of the land of the living" -- Isa. 53:8) but not for himself." "He was wounded for our transgressions" (Isa. 53:5) (showing that Jesus would die after 3 1/2 years of ministry) and "in the midst of the week He shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease." On the tenth of Nisan our Lord fulfilled Zechariah 9:9 "thy King cometh unto thee; he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass." This is recorded in Luke 19:38 when his disciples sang Psalm 118: "Blessed be the King who cometh in the name of the Lord." But they were accused of blaspheming because the Pharisees "knewest not the time of thy visitation" (Luke 19:44) -- the sixty-nine weeks plus half a week more.
"A certain NOBLEMAN (Jesus) went into a FAR COUNTRY (Britain) to receive for himself a kingdom, and to RETURN (to Palestine after 18 years). And he called his TEN SERVANTS (lost ten tribes in Britain, Parthia, Scythia, Greece, etc.), and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy (my kingdom) till I come. But his CITIZENS (the Shammai Jews) hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us" (Luke 19:12-14). When he returned, his ministry which began in the autumn of 27 A.D. lasted for exactly three-and-one-half years (Luke 13:32-33). That is why He could confidently say, "My time is not yet fully come" (John 7:8) prior to the midst of the week, Passover in the spring of 31 A.D.. Jesus' one time perfect sacrifice offered up by the murderous "priests" of Judah put an end to the penalty of sin which is the death of mankind and the need for animal sacrifices once and for all.
Daniel 9:27 says, "And he shall confirm the covenant with many (i.e. Jews) for one week: and in the midst of the week shall he cause the sacrifice and offering to cease."
According to Josephus (37-100 A.D.), Tacitus (55-120 A.D.) and Suetonius (69-130 A.D.), Jews were expecting the fulfillment of a prophecy of a ruler to arise in the first century A.D. from Daniel's prophecy. During this 70th week, the gospel was preached only to Israel (Acts 11:19). "Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers" (Rom. 15:8). What happened in the final 3 1/2 years of this prophecy? The gospel message was still preached exclusively to the Jews (Acts 2), but at the end of this period in 34 A.D. , Stephen was stoned, marking the final decision of the Jewish leaders to reject Christ as the Messiah and from this time on the New Covenant was taken to gentile Israel. (cp. Rom. 15:8). Saul was present at the stoning of Stephen (Acts 7:58) and he later became Paul, the apostle to Gentile Israel. This shows us that the martyrdom of Stephen terminated the New Covenant to Jews and began the New Covenant to Gentile Israel. In Acts 9 Saul becomes the apostle to the Gentile Israel. In Acts 10 the gospel is given to the gentile house of Cornelius. (See also Acts 10:45, 11:18, 13:46, 14:27, 15:9, 18:6). In the parable of Luke 20:9 the original husbandmen (the Jews) of the vineyard are rejected and replaced. The "vineyard" was "let out ... unto other husbandmen" (Matt. 21:41; Isa. 5:1-7). "The kingdom of God shall be taken from you (Jews of Palestine who reject me as Messiah), and given to a nation (Christians of Britain) bringing forth the fruits of it" (Matt. 21:43).
Xerxes Disastrous Invasion of Greece (480 BC) Foretold By An Eclipse
Herodotus mentions a TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE when Xerxes left Sardis in spring 480 BC (Herodotus 7:5-20). Xerxes was alarmed but was reassured by the Magi that it meant failure to the Greeks, not Persians. "The Lord frustrateth the SIGNS of the liars, and maketh the diviners mad; he turneth wise men backwards, and maketh their wisdom foolishness" (Isa. 44:25). Xerxes reached Thermopylae (7:184, 201, 206). At this time a furious wind, blowing from ENE for three days together, raised such a hurricane that it wrecked or sunk 400 ships of war besides many transports and supply vessels. at the promontory of Sepias (7:188-191). Leonidas with 6,200 men went to guard the straits of Thermopylae against the Persian host. He delayed them three days. On the fourth day, they were being surrounded and so all but 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians retreated. These 1000 Greeks gave their lives that day while killing 20,000 Persians. Next came the sea battle of Artemisium where for three days the Persians fought and lost several of their vessels to the rocks because of midsummer gales. "All this was done by God that the Persian fleet might be rendered equal, or not greatly superior, to the Grecian fleet" (8:1-13). The Greek fleet sailed for Salamis, trusting in their "wooden walls" in obedience to the oracle (7:140-143). They had a total of 380 ships (8:82). Themistocles urged them to fight in the narrow seas rather than the open ocean. The Grecians lost 40 ships; the Persians 200, besides several that were taken. Then Xerxes retreated to the Hellespont with a mere pittance of his former army and suffering from famine and pestilence (8:107). His bridge of ships had been broken and destroyed by storms, but his fleet conveyed him back to Asia. He left Mardonius to command a Persian army of 300,000 remaining in Thessaly. Then came the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. Greek army numbered 110,000. Persians numbered 300,000 plus 50,000 Grecians (9:28-32). Mardonius was slain. No more than 3000 Persians escaped, except for 40,000 under the command of Artabazus who had advised a retreat. Many of these died of hunger or fatigue while escaping to Asia. The loss to the Grecians was 91 Lacedemonians, 16 Tegeatae, and 52 Athenians (9:41-89). The same day, the Grecians obtained another victory at Mycale in Ionia, over the Persian fleet. The Greeks killed most of the Persians, burned their ships and got an immense booty. Xerxes on his retreat home, rifled the temples of Babylon taking spoil from the golden images alone to the extent of $40,000,000 dollars, but as Arrian relates, he utterly destroyed the temple of Bel, or Belus, of which Herodotus had given such a glowing description, in accordance with the prediction of Jeremiah 51:44,52 which says, "I will punish Bel in Babylon; I will do judgment upon her graven images, and through all her land the wounded shall groan." Xerxes himself was murdered while he slept in 465BC.
Mordecai Saw a Vision in the Reign of Xerxes (485–465 BC) (Ahasuerus) Who Ruled "From India even unto Ethiopia" (Esther 1:1)
and Herodotus Says Ethiopia Paid Tribute to Xerxes (3:97).
The name Ahasuerus, mentioned in the Book of Esther, is, in one of its Greek forms, Xerxes, which is explained by Herodotus (6:98) to mean a warrior. But the LXX wrongly calls him Artaxerxes: "In the second year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Great, on the first day of Nisan, Mordecai ... of the tribe of Benjamin, had a dream. He was a Jew and lived in the city of Susa, an important man, in attendance at the royal court; he was one of the captives that Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, had brought from Jerusalem, with Jeconiah, king of Judah. And this was his dream: behold, noise and tumult, thunders and earthquake, uproar on the earth. And here came two great DRAGONS, both ready to wrestle (Mordecai and Haman -- 10:7), and they uttered a great roar. And at their roar every nation made ready for war, to fight against the nation of the UPRIGHT ("Israel" -- 10:9). And behold, a day of darkness and gloom, affliction and anguish, distress and great tumult, upon the earth. And the whole upright nation was troubled, fearing their own hurt, and they prepared to perish; and they cried out to God. And at their cry there arose as though from a tiny spring, a great RIVER, with abundant water ("the river was Esther" -- 10:6); light came, and the sun rose, and the humble were exalted and consumed the glorious." (Esther 11:2-11 LXX)
"Amalek" shall "perish forever" (Num. 24:20) was a prophecy fulfilled when Haman and his ten sons were destroyed.
"Cambyses, and afterwards Xerxes, from good shepherds became base wolves, fleecing the flock." (Max. Tyr. diss. 40)
Jaddua the High Priest Showed Alexander the Book of Daniel Before the Battle of Arbela in 331 B.C.
Plutarch records that the temple of Diana at Ephesus was maliciously burnt by Erostratus the same day that Alexander the Great was born (July 1st, 356 BC). All the Magi who were then at Ephesus looked upon the fire as a sign which forecast a much greater misfortune: they ran through the city, beating their faces, and crying, "This day hath brought forth the great scourge and destroyer of Asia." Due to Daniel, the arch-Magus, they were aware of the ram and goat prophecy.
Daniel was given a vision regarding a goat that ran from the west and attacked a ram coming from the east. "The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king" (Dan. 8:20-21) -- Alexander the Great. King Darius was defeated three times -- from 334-331 B.C. -- at the Battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugemela (Arbela). This vision was given about 538 B.C.
Two hundred years later Alexander of Macedonia, the "first king" of united Grecia, was coming swiftly from the west against Medo-Persia. Already he had won the decisive victories of the Granicus and Issus, and Persia lay prostrate. Between these two victories, while in Phrygia, he cut the famous Gordian knot; a feat which an oracle had reserved for the conqueror of Asia.
As Alexander approached Jerusalem, he was determined to punish the city. It had refused him supplies during the siege of Tyre and had been slow to transfer its allegiance from Persia to Grecia. But Josephus says that as Alexander drew near the city, the gates were flung open, and a procession of priests and citizens moved out to meet the great conqueror. The priests bore in their hands the books of the prophet Daniel
According to Antiquities 11:8:5: "And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests, and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha: which name translated into Greek signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple: and when the Phenecians, and the Chaldeans that followed him thought they should have liberty to plunder the city, and torment the High Priest to death: which the King’s displeasure fairly promised them: the very reverse of it happened. For Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the High Priest in purple and scarlet clothing; with his miter on his head; having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the High Priest. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander; and encompass him about. Whereupon the Kings of Syria, and the rest were surprized at what Alexander had done; and supposed him disordered in his mind. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him, “How it came to pass, that when all others adored him, he should adore the High Priest of the Jews?” To whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but that God who hath honoured him with his High Priesthood. For I saw this very person, in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia. Who, when I was considering with my self how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay; but boldly to pass over the sea thither: for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians. Whence it is that having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembring that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians; and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.” And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the High Priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him; and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the High Priest’s direction: and magnificently treated both the High Priest, and the priests. And when the book of Daniel was shewed him, wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present: but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favours they pleased of him. Whereupon the High Priest desired, that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers: and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they intreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would list themselves in his army, on this condition that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him; many were ready to accompany him in his wars."
The fall of the House of Israel and its capital, Samaria, was in 721 BC. Adding 390 years (Ez. 4:5) brings us to 331 BC. when Alexander the Great conquered Persia at the Battle of Arbela or Gaugamela on October 1, 331 B.C. King Darius III of Persia had offered Alexander half the Persian kingdom if he would sign a peace agreement, but the offer was refused. Alexander's general, Parmenion, told him "If I were you, I would accept Darius' very generous offer." Alexander replied, "I would too if I were Parmenion!" Nothing would stand in the way of the complete and total conquest of Persia. Alexander overslept on the morning of battle, and was awakened by his concerned generals. He told them not to worry because the battle was already won! Alexander was inspired with the belief that he had a Divinely-ordained mission to overthrow Persia. He was correct! This conquest was predicted in Daniel chapter 8 and Ezekiel Chapter 4 long before. This large Persian force of over 250,000 soldiers was defeated by only 47,000 Greeks, who were outnumbered over 5 to 1.
The lost ten tribes of Israel were largely held captive by Assyria, Babylon and Medo-Persia till the alotted time of punishment ended with the conquest of the Persian Empire in 331 B.C. (exactly 390 years after their kingdom collapsed -- Ez. 4:5). Still, it was the Scythian Massagetae (who were Israelites), ranging free on the Asian steppes west of the Caspian Sea, who killed the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great when he tried to conquer them. It should also be mentioned that there were still Israelites dwelling under the dominion of Alexander and then of his successors, the Seleucids. These would gain their independence the next century as the Parthians. "Your seed shall be as the dust of the earth. You shall spread abroad to the west, to the east, to the north and to the south. In you and in your seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 28:14). "Israel wandered like a flock" (Zechariah 10:2).
When Alexander invaded India, and Porus was about to engage with him in battle, the elephant on which Porus rode "Spoke with a human voice, and said, O king, attempt nothing against Alexander." (Plutarch de Fluv. 1)
Alexander was correctly described as a "leopard" with "WINGS" (Dan. 7:6). In 326 BC, Alexander set out on his Indian expedition. Seeing his army much burdened with baggage, he set fire to his own baggage and that of his friend, and then ordered all the baggage of his army to be destroyed likewise. In sixteen days he marched from the Oxus to the Indus. In 328 BC, in Sogdiana, when an enemy mountain garrison was told to surrender, they asked in derision if he had WINGED soldiers, for they feared no other. Alexander provided rope and iron tent pegs to those soldiers who first scaled the steep, unguarded, rock cliff. They attempted this climb at night and reached the summit by morning. Then Alexander sent a herald to summon the besieged to surrender without delay to the WINGED soldiers on the top of the rock. Terrified at the sight of these few Macedonians, they surrendered (Arrian 4:18-19). Alexander died at Babylon of Malaria while trying to rebuild the temple of Belus (Arrian 7:17; Against Apion 1:22). He was unaware of the prophecy that the goat horn would be "broken" when "strong" (Dan. 8:8) or that Babylon would not be rebuilt (Isa. 13:20; Jer. 51:64). Then the young prince Aegus, and Roxana were murdered by Cassander; the just reward of her wickedness, in putting to death Statira, the daughter of Darius, the wife of Alexander, shortly after his death, for fear Statira might be with child. The remaining son of Alexander by Barsine was called Hercules who was murdered by Polysperchon in 309 BC. Thus, the kingdom of Alexander was "plucked up, and given to others" (Dan. 11:4). This was righteous retaliation since Alexander's sword had made many parents childless. At the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, his empire was divided among his four generals (Dan. 8:8; 11:4): Ptolemy in Egypt, Cassander in Macedon; Lysimachus in Thrace and Seleucus in Syria and Babylonia.
Then Antiochus IV Epiphanes interrupted the Temple sacrifices and set up a statue of Jupiter Olympus upon the altar, in the Second Temple in Jerusalem and sacrificed swine on it around the year 168 BC. (1 Maccabees 1:62; Dan. 9:27; 11:31; 12:11). This was one fulfillment of the abomination of desolation.