God's Hand in History

(Part 1)

Benjamin Franklin, speaking at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in June, 1787, asserted: "The longer I live the more convincing proofs I see that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice [Matt. 10:29], is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid?" Winston Churchill clearly perceived God's hand in history. In an address before the U.S. Congress December 26, 1941, the British prime minister asserted that "he must indeed have a blind soul who cannot see that some great purpose and design is being worked out here below." On another occasion in Britain some 10 months later, he said, "I sometimes have a feeling of interference. . . . I have a feeling sometimes that some Guiding Hand has interfered."

The following is a miniature history course -- "His Story 101" -- the way it should have been taught in grade school to every child growing up. But historical evidence to support God's hand in history has been LEFT OUT of our history classes. MIRACULOUS intervention and circumstances with PRECISE TIMING at crucial dates in the story of nations and empires point unmistakably to the GUIDING HAND of God. But God has been "kicked out" of school text books. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge (persona non-grata), God gave them over to a reprobate mind" (void of judgment) (Romans 1:28). "For the material man rejects spiritual things, for they are foolishness to him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).


The Dinosaur World Drowned in a Flood Before Man Was Created

God originally created the earth "to be inhabited" (Isa. 45:18) at an unknown date in the distant past. It was populated by dinosaurs. He didn't create the earth "in vain" [tohu] (45:18) but it became that way. "The earth became without form [tohu] and void [bohu]" (Gen. 1:2). Scientists believe a meteor collided with earth causing the extinction of the age of dinosaurs. Satan and his angels had sinned (Isa. 14:12; Ez. 28:12; 2 Pet. 2:4; Jude 6). This collision caused a worldwide flood. "And darkness was upon the face of the deep ... waters" (Gen. 1:2) which drowned the dinosaur world (except aquatic varieties). Then God RENEWED "the face of the earth" (Ps. 104:30) and commanded man to "REPLENISH the earth" (Gen. 1:28). It had supported life once before. Then 1656 years later, another worldwide flood occurred (Gen. 7:12), initiated by another meteor colliding with earth, and God again instructed man to "REPLENISH the earth" (Gen. 9:1). The pre-flood world had been drowned due to wickedness and rebellion.

Many in the scientific community now believe in the reality of ancient, global catastrophes due to a layer of iridium which can be found in widely scattered parts of the earth. "This iridium-rich clay lay right at the boundary between the Cretaceous period, when there were dinosaurs, and the Tertiary, when there were none. Because iridium is rare on earth but common in meteorites ... [three Berkeley scientists] proposed that earth had been hit by an asteroid ten kilometers (six miles) across ... the proposal has since been backed up by abundant and convincing evidence from around the globe. Most scientists now concur that at least one great extraterrestrial object struck the planet around the time the dinosaurs died out." (National Geographic, "The March Toward Extinction," June, 1989 Issue, p. 665).

It is significant that the iridium layer is found within a layer of clay. Since clay is typically deposited on sea-bottoms (Collier's Encyclopedia, Vol. 5, Heading entitled "Clay," p. 345), a layer of clay indicates that an ancient worldwide flood occurred as a result of a meteoric collision. Since this iridium layer marks the end of the dinosaur age and many other forms of prehistoric life, it seems evident that meteoric collisions precipitated a series of catastrophic events which led to the earth becoming (in the Bible's words) "tohu - without form and bohu - void." The fact that this layer of destruction is followed by a world of mammals indicates there was a "clean break" in the types of life on earth. The hostile world of dinosaurs was eliminated, and was followed by a world of mammals which were far more compatible with mankind. This is consistent with the Bible's account that the prehistoric earth experienced a global catastrophe which was followed by a new creation featuring mammal species.

The National Geographic article also catalogues evidence that more than one mass extinction has occurred in the earth's history. It says: "scientists know that the story of life on earth has been punctuated by mass extinctions...no matter what causes them, mass extinctions do occur. They force a new perspective on the history of life." (National Geographic, "The March Toward Extinction," pp. 666, 673). This scientific view states that one ancient catastrophe: "was abrupt, worldwide, and occurred during the midst of a long warm spell. 'At most we are dealing with 20,000 years -- and maybe just one stormy night,' says Willi Ziegler, director of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt." (Ibid, p. 684) For thousands of years, the Bible has been telling man that at least two ancient global catastrophes occurred: the Flood of Noah's time, and the destruction of an inhabited earth prior to Adam's creation. Interestingly, in recent years man's ability to analyse objectively the earth's past has finally advanced to the point that it confirms what the Bible has said from the beginning.

"Stone Age Prehistoric Man"?

The word "prehistoric" means no written record exists. How then do we know "prehistoric man" existed at all? There is no history to support it. But men continue to try to prove that cavemen COEXISTED with dinosaurs. But the world of the dinosaurs and the modern world of mammals are NOT INTERMIXED in the fossil record. Realistically, they are not even compatible. Yet historians try to extend the history of mankind. Manetho summarized the history of Egypt under the rule of 30 dynasties and tried to make them appear consecutive. But the truth is that Egypt was ruled by several kings at the same time (2 Ki. 7:6). The famous "AGES" of man known as Paleolithic (Old Stone), the Mesolithic (Intermediate Stone), the Neolithic (New Stone), the Chalcolithic (Stone and Copper) and the Bronze and Iron -- were CULTURES, not ages. Civilized man did not descend from primitive tribes using stone tools. Instead, it was degraded and degenerate men that descended from civilization -- "driven forth from the midst of men" (Job 30:1-8). Such cultures of head-hunters and cannibals exist today in places like New Guinea alongside modern civilization. But Adam was created 6000 years ago with a brilliant mind that was "very good" (Gen. 1:31). He was not in any way degenerate or primitive. Did not Zipporah, the wife of Moses (Ex. 4:25), and Joshua (5:3) both avail themselves of stone knives in order to perform the rite of circumcision, long after the stone age is supposed to have passed away? In fact, the very stone knives which were used on the occasion were buried in the tomb of Joshua according to the LXX of Joshua 24:30. Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, in his Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians 3:262, gives an account of flint knives found in their tombs, the use of which was retained for certain religious purposes long after bronze and iron had been familiar to them. Herodotus 2:86 mentions that the Egyptians made an incision in the body of a dead person, when brought to be embalmed, "with an Ethiopic stone."

Adam and Eve Were Created in 3960 BC -- "He Sendeth Forth His Spirit, and They Are Created, and He Reneweth the Face of the Earth" (Ps. 104:29)

The six days of creation symbolized 6000 years of human history (Ps. 90:4; 2 Pet. 3:8; Rev. 20:1-7; Heb. 4:1-11). "One DAY is ... as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one DAY" (2 Pet. 3:8). "The life of man is but of a DAY." (Max. Tyr. diss. 40). For instance, on the first day the light was divided from darkness just as in the first thousand years there was a clear division between Cain's and Seth's descendants. On the second day waters were divided from waters just as after Noah's Flood and the division at Babel in Peleg's generation. On the third day the earth brought forth fruit trees just as Abraham's descendants became a huge nation producing good fruit. On the fourth day the sun and moon gave light upon the earth just as our Lord came to earth to bring us light which is reflected by his church. The lamb was killed four days after selecting it (Ex. 12:6). On the fifth day God created birds and fish to "be fruitful and multiply" just as the church multiplied in the fifth millenium. On the sixth day, God made man in his image to subdue his creation. With the advent of the printing press, electricity, the light bulb, plane and automobile, men have conquered the earth. On the seventh day God rested. The seventh day Sabbath pictures the Millenium when peace and righteousness will prevail at the Second Coming. We are fashioned into God's moral image on this day. As Horace said, "Keep Nature's great original in view, And thence the truthful images pursue."

In 3960 BC Adam and Eve were created. When they sinned, a "lamb" was "slain" (Rev. 13:8) to provide them each with "a robe of righteousness" (Isa. 61:10). That was the Gospel message at the very beginning. Humans and animals were vegetarian (Gen. 1:29-31; cp. Isa. 11:7 & 65:11). "Spring was forever ... earth, unplowed, brought forth rich grain" (Ovid Metam. 1:108) from pole to pole. Men lived to be nearly 1000 years old (Gen. 5:27) due to a water vapor canopy which protected earth's inhabitants from harmful cosmic rays and ultraviolet radiation, so the aging process was much slower. It will be that way again in the Millenium (Isa. 65:22). At one hundred years, a man was still a child (Hesiod Works and Days 109). Plants and animals grew larger than they do today (Gen. 6:4). It was also like a giant hyperbaric chamber. According to Time magazine, when analyzed in a vacuum chamber, the oxygen content of encased air bubbles in ancient amber (fossilized tree sap) is 50% higher than the atmosphere is now (Time magazine Nov. 9, 1987, p.82). In a hyperbaric chamber, cuts healed quickly. Furthermore, the sun and moon were in synchronization. Twelve 30-day months coincided with a 360-day year (Augustin de Trin 4:4). No remainder. In short, "it was very good" (Gen. 1:31). There was no rain. Instead, a "mist went up from the ground and watered" the plants (Gen. 2:4-6; Job 38:4,9). Noah is praised for believing a warning about rain -- something "not seen as yet" (Heb. 11:7). Rainbows also were first seen at the time of the Flood (Gen. 9:13-16). But the rest of the people "could not abstain from mutually inflicting violence on eachother, nor would they worship the immortals, nor sacrifice to the blessed ones on their altars. Therefore Zeus (in Latin Jove, which is short for Jehovah) removed them, because they would not give honor to the blessed gods who inhabit Olympus" (Hesiod, Works and Days, v.126-128). Each cherub came to be called a sphinx, the Garden of Eden was renamed the Garden of the Hesperides, and the fruit became golden apples. How long did Adam and Eve live in this Paradise? Since tradition labels it a "Golden Age", we believe it was longer than a day, or a week, or a year. A more likely guess would be 100 years to qualify as an "Age." Since Cain was born after the expulsion (Gen. 4:1), and murdered Abel as an adult, who was then replaced by Seth who was born when Adam was 130 years old (Gen. 5:3), we believe 100 years is an outer limit for this "Golden Age."

Genesis 4:8 says, "Cain talked with (said unto) Abel his brother" after which there is a blank space left in Hebrew copies, as if something was missing. The Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint version supply this, by adding the words "Let us go into the field," but the Jerusalem Targum, and that of Jonathan ben Uzziel, have given us the whole conversation. Cain said, "There is no future judgment, nor judge, nor life after this, nor reward for the just, nor punishment for the wicked: the world was neither created, nor is governed, by the mercy of God; forasmuch as thy oblation was accepted, and mine rejected." Abel responded, "There is a future judgment, and a judge, and a life to come: there is both a reward for the just, and a punishment for the unjust: the world was created, and is governed, by the mercy of God. And because my works are better than thine, therefore was my oblation accepted, and thine rejected." Then Cain murdered Abel. "And Cain said to the Lord God, My crime (not my punishment) is too great for me to be forgiven (or to bear)" (Gen. 4:13; Brenton). "I wish that any person that finds me may kill me" (4:14) is an alternate translation.

Before the seas, and this terrestrial ball,
And heaven's high canopy, that covers all,
One was the face of nature - if a face;
Rather a rude and indigested mass;
A lifeless lump, unfashioned and unframed,
Of jarring seeds; and justly Chaos named.
No sun was lighted up, the world to view;
No moon did yet her blunted horns renew;
Nor yet was earth suspended in the sky;
Nor poised did on her foundations lie:
Nor seas about their shores the arms had thrown;
But earth, and air, and water were in one.
Thus air was void of light, and earth unstable,
And water's dark abyss unnavigable.
No certain form on any was impressed;
All were confused, and each disturbed the rest.
For hot and cold were in one body fixed;
And soft with hard, and light with heavy mixed.
But God, or Nature, while they thus contend,
To these intestine discords put an end:"
(Ovid's Metamorphoses 1:7-26; Dryden)

"Blest is the man who pays the gods above
The constant tribute of respect and love."
-- Homer (Iliad)

"A hundred years beheld the boy
Beneath the mother's roof, her infant joy,"
-- Hesiod Oper. et Dier. 129
But that old time which we the golden call,
Was blessed with every useful fruit, and all
Those flowery herbs which beautify the ground,
By Nature's hand were thickly strewn around.
no land was then defiled with human gore,
The birds unhurt through airy space might soar;
The timorous hare might widely, dauntless, roam,
Gambol its fill, make every field its home;
No wily fisher snared the finny tribe,
Lured from their homes by his deceitful bribe;
Fraud and deceit were wholly yet unknown,
On every land peace raised her golden throne.
-- Ovid's Meta. 50:15

"No walls were yet, nor fence, nor moat, nor mound;
Nor drum was heard, nor trumpet's angry sound;
Nor swords were forged; but, void of care and crime,
The soft creation slept away their time.
The flowers, unseen, in fields and meadows reigned;
And western winds immortal spring maintained.
From veins of valleys milk and nectar broke,
And honey sweating through the pores of oak"
-- Ovid Metamorphosis 1 (Dryden)

Zeno (apud scholiast. Apollon. Argon. 4) and Plutarch (aquane p.955) took the chaos of Hesiod to have been water (2 Pet. 3:5).

"May you return to the earth and water of which you were made." -- Homer Iliad 7:99

"God moulded clay in the likeness of a modest maid ...and a deceitful nature ... And he called this woman Pandora ... a plague to men"
(Hesiod, Works & Days, 54)

"The name Pandora to the maid was given;
For all the gods conferred a gifted grace
To crown this mischief of the mortal race.
The woman's hands an ample casket bear,
She lifts the lid, she scatters ills in air;
Hope sole remained within, nor took her flight,
Beneath the casket's verge concealed from sight."
(Hesiod Works & Days, 59-100)

The Garden of the Hesperides contained a tree with golden apples. The "Apple of Discord" led to the Trojan War. (Apollodorus E 3:2; Hyginus Astronomica 2:3; Colluthus, Rape of Hellen, 59ff)

Savages of Papuan Islands perform the rite of circumcision up to the present day and have a tradition that "The first man, who had previously been a stone, thought one day he would make a woman. He collected the light earth on the surface of the ground in the form of a human body, with head, arms, and legs. He then plucked out one of his left RIBS, and thrust it into the breast of his earth model. Instantly the earth became alive, and up started the woman. He called her Ivi ... which is their word for RIB." (Nineteen Years in Polynesia, by G. Turner, p.323)

The denunciation of God against Adam that "In the SWEAT of thy face shalt thou eat bread" (Gen. 3:19) implies that "the fruits of the earth sprung up SPONTANEOUSLY and abundantly" (Hesiod's Works & Days 109) up until that time. The curse may have consisted of an ice ring around the globe. The presence of a dark icy "swaddling band" (Job 38:9) encircling earth in pre-flood times may have resulted in lack of rain (Gen. 2:5). Noah's flood would have removed this curse (Gen. 5:29; 8:21-22). The very name "Noah" means "Comfort," because the ice ring condensed out of the sky as rain. Rainbows became visible for the first time after the flood was over.

"The golden age was first, when man, yet new,
no rule but uncorrupted reason knew;
And, with a native bent, did good pursue.
Unforced by punishment, unawed by fear,
His words were simple, and his soul sincere:
Needless was written law, where none oppressed,
The law of man was written in his breast.
"The teeming earth, yet guiltless of the plough,
And unprovoked did fruitful stores allow:
Content with food, which nature freely bred,
On wildings and on strawberries they fed;
Cornels and bramble-berries gave the rest,
And falling acorns furnished out a feast.
The flowers unsown in fields and meadows reigned;
And western winds immortal spring maintained.
In following years the bearded corn ensued
From earth unasked, nor was that earth renewed;
From veins of vallies milk and nectar broke,
And honey sweating through the pores of oak."
-- Ovid Meta. 1:89

"All tended then the flock or tilled the soil,
And milk and fruit repaid their easy toil"
-- Aratus Phoenom. 105

"Earth corn, and wine, and oil at first did bear,
And tender fruit, without the tiller's care:
She brought forth herbs, which now the feeble soil
Can scarce afford to all our pain and toil:
We labor, sweat, and yet by all this strife,
Can scarce get corn and wine enough for life:
Our men, our oxen groan, and never cease;
So fast our labors grow, our fruits decrease!"
-- Lucretius de rer. nat. 2:1156

"The Sire of gods and men, with hard decrees,
Forbids our plenty to be bought with ease;
And wills that mortal man, inured to toil,
Should exercise with pains the grudging soil."
(Virgil Georg. 1:121)

"Formerly corn of all sorts abounded as plentifully as dust does at present; and the fountains poured forth streams, some of water, some of milk, some of honey, some of wine, and some of oil. Owing to this luxurious abundance, man became corrupt, and fell into all kinds of wickedness; insomuch that Jupiter, disgusted with such a scene, abolished the ancient order of things, and permitted the necessaries of life to be obtained only through the medium of labour" (Strabo book 15:1:64).

"God is never in any respect unjust, but as just as possible; and there is nothing that resembles Him more than the man amongst us who has likewise become as just as possible." (Plato Theatet. 85)

Hindu ages of the world are similar to the Greek golden, silver, brass and iron ages "according to the (declining) ... proportions of virtue on earth" in the language of Surya Sidhanta, their oldest astronomical treatise.

Joint testimonies of sacred & profane writers agree that before the flood they lived nearly 1000 years: Josephus mentions Manetho, Berosus, Mochus, Hestiaeus, Jerom the Egyptian and the writers of the Phoenician antiquities. He says also that Hesiod (In Oper & Dieb 130), Hecataeus, Acusilaus, Ephorus, and Nicolaus wrote that the ancients lived a thousand years (Ant. 1:4). We only have the records of Hesiod & Josephus at present.

The Pagan Gods Were Merely Deified Mortal Men -- Ancestor Worship -- As "Men Began to Profane God's Name" (Gen. 4:26) (c. 3725 BC)

Genesis 4:26 is mistranslated in the KJV. It says "then began men to call upon the name of the Lord." Yet we know Seth "was a virtuous man" (Jos. Ant. 1:71) and Abel was murdered for his righteous piety (Gen. 4:4) before this time. The verse should read, "then men began to profane God's name" or "to call themselves by the name of the Lord." The word halal denotes also to profane as in Leviticus 19:12. How? Perhaps sun worship or ancestor worship.

Hesiod says that "the gods were the souls of MEN who were afterwards worshipped by their posterity, on account of their extraordinary virtues" (Hesiod, Opera et Dies 1:120-125). Hermes Trismegistus asserts that "Aesculapius, Osiris and Thoth were all holy MEN, whose souls were worshipped after their death by the Egyptians" (Herm. Apud. Mede's Apost. of Later Times 1:4). The Egyptian priests expressly taught "that Cronus, Osiris, Horus, and all their other principal deities were once mere MEN, but that after they died their souls migrated into some one or other of the heavenly bodies, and became the animating spirits of their new celestial mansions" (Plutarch De Iside, p.354). Diodorus Siculus says that "Osiris, Vulcan, and other cognate deities were all originally SOVEREIGNS of the people by whom they were venerated" (Diodorus, Bibl., book 1, pp.13-15). Herodotus also relates that the Egyptian priests admitted that their gods had once been KINGS of Egypt and that the last God king was Horus, the son of Osiris, who had deposed Typhon (Herod. 2:144).

Seth became THOTH, born of the forehead of SET, whom all tradition says invented astronomy and discovered the Sothaic astronomical period of "600 years" for the return of the celestial orbs to their same places (Josephus 1:2-3). Noah became URANUS. Tubal-Cain, the metal-smith, became VULCAN, the god of the forge (Gen. 4:22; Dio. Sic. 5:74). Naamah, his sister, became MINERVA; or NEMESIS (Gen. 4:22) the goddess of retribution and revenge. Jubal, "the father of all such as handle the harp and organ" (Gen. 4:21) became APOLLO, the god of music. Japheth, son of Noah (Gen. 6:10) became JAPETUS, one of the Titans; or JUPITER, father and king of the gods. Ham, the son of Noah (Gen. 6:10) became CRONUS; or AMUN, the god of Ethiopia, Egypt and Libya. In Egyptian mythology, Ham's son Phut (Gen. 10:6) became PTAH or PHTHA, god of craftsmen and architects (called PYTHIAS in Greek). Misor (Mizraim) is Sanchoniatho's ISIRIS (OSIRIS) since brother of Chna, the first Phoenician (Ancient Fragments, p.9 by Cory). Mizraim's son called Naphtuhim (Gen. 10:13) became NEPTUNE, god of the sea. Nimrod became MARDUK, the god of Babylon. Asshur became THOR, the hammer-wielding god associated with thunder storms. Javan is JANUS the ancestor of the Greeks. Raamah, son of Cush (Gen. 10:7) became the Hindu god RAMA. Etcetera. "The reputation of a man is like his shadow; it sometimes follows and sometimes precedes him; it is sometimes longer and sometimes shorter, than his actual size." -- French proverb

Ten Antediluvian "Kings" Were Corrupted By Fallen Angels and Cannibalistic Giants Starting in 3500 BC

There were TEN generations from Adam to Noah (Gen. 5:1-32). Sanchoniathon, though he makes no mention of the Flood, enumerates TEN generations (p.41, Cumberland). "In Chaldea Berosus (also Polyhistor and Abydenus) enumerates TEN antediluvian kings (from Alorus [Adam] to Xisusthrus [Noah]). The legends of the Iranian race commence with the reign of 'TEN Peisdadien kings, men of ancient law, who lived on pure homa (water of life), who preserved their sanctity.' In India we meet with the nine Brahmadikas who, with Brahma, their founder, make TEN, and who are called the TEN Petris or Fathers. The Chinese count TEN emperors, partakers of the divine nature, before the dawn of historical times; and finally the Germans and Scandinavians believed in the TEN ancestors of Odin, and the Arabs in the TEN mythical kings of the Adites, the primordial people of their peninsula." (Lenormant, Ancient History of the East, vol. 1 pp.12-13)

Rebellious angels ("sons of God" -- Job 1:6; 38:7; Ps. 82:6) DISROBED (oiketerion) from their heavenly bodies. This term is used only twice in the Bible (2 Cor. 5:2 & Jude 1:6). "And the angels who kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day" (Jude 1:6). "These angels then assumed human form (Gen. 19, Mark 16:5, etc.) and appeared as males when they DESCENDED (Heb. "Jared" means "descend") in 3500 BC. Then they had sexual relations with human women in Genesis 6:1-4. The children from these unions were giants. Jude 14-15 quotes 1 Enoch 1:9 which says, "Behold, he comes with ten thousand saints". But more than that, Jude 6-7 and 2 Peter 2:4 allude to the SEXUAL LUST of fallen angels for human women paralleling Enoch who says: "And when the angels, the sons of heaven, beheld them, they became enamored of them, saying to each other, Come, let us select for ourselves wives from the progeny of men, and let us beget children” (1 Enoch 7:2). The resulting children are called nephilim in Hebrew (fallen ones) or gigantes (giants) in Latin and Greek. "Even as Sodom and Gomorrah ... GOING AFTER STRANGE FLESH" (Jude 7). Evil angels before the Flood left their proper abode (i.e. heaven) and came to Earth and had children by human women. For this reason, these particular angels have now been bound in Hell ("Tartarus" -- used by Enoch and 2 Peter 2:4). The resulting children became the Nephilim – a cross between angels and the human species. They were the mighty TYRANTS of "the world that then was." The mixing between fallen angels and women was so extensive that by the time of the Flood only Noah (Gen. 6:9) was found to be "perfect in his generations" (i.e. PUREBRED IN HIS ANCESTRY). "All flesh" had "corrupted" its physical genetics (Gen. 6:12). These angels taught humans "potions and spells" (SORCERY), "to make swords and armour" (WAR), "COSMETICS" and jewelry (LUST), "ASTROLOGY", "DIVINATION" and "LEWDNESS" and after this, "the giants began to devour the flesh of men" (CANNIBALISM) (Synkellos Chronography 1:12-13, 25). The birth of the giants, according to 1 Enoch, is the reason for Noah's Flood -- to destroy the angel-human HYBRIDS. Greek "mythology" records that the Titans were a threat to the rule of Zeus and so Kronos and many Titans were banished to Tartarus. The Titans were the antediluvian Nephilim.

Sanchoniathon mentions that from Genos (Cain) were descended "sons of vast bulk and height, whose names were given to the mountains on which they first seized" This was an era of SHAMELESS DEPRAVITY since "the women of those times ... WITHOUT SHAME lay with any man they could light upon" (p.24, Cumberland's Sanchoniathon). Ovid mentions the giants trying to invade heaven (Metamorphosis 1:151). Apollodorus mentions those many-handed giants, Briareus, Gyas, and Ceus; who waged war with heaven, and who, for their crime, were thrust down into Tartarus (Appol. de Dis. 1:3). Then immense giants Otus and Ephialtes made war against heaven, and attempted to scale it by piling mountain upon mountain. At length, through a strategem of Diana, they fell by eachother's hands, and their design was aborted (Appol. de Dis. 1:25-29). "A tribe of the Ethiopians who are known as the Syrbotae exceed eight cubits in height." (Pliny Nat. Hist. 7:2) Homer speaks of the Laestrygonians as "Not like men, but like giants." (Odyss. 10:120) "The Africans tell us the body of Antaeus lies there, and Sertorius, not giving credit to what the barbarians reported of his gigantic size, opened his tomb for satisfaction. But how great was his surprise when ... he beheld a body sixty cubits long." (Plut. Sert. 9)

"Ye, of your sires a vile, degenerate race,
Your offspring you, their fathers, will disgrace.
War will soon desolate these fruitful lands;
A brother's blood will stain a brother's hands:
Rising to view I see a ghastly train --
Revenge -- oppression -- woe -- despair -- and pain."
-- Aratus Phaenom. 123

"Vulcan, they say, found out the working of iron, brass, silver, and gold, and other metals that require forging by fire; and the general use of fire was shewn by him to artificers and other men. Therefore all cunning workmen offer their sacrifices chiefly to this god, and both they and all others call fire Vulcan." -- Diod. Sic. 5:74
"Through All the world prevails each horrid crime;
That still more heinous grows with growing time.
All modesty has left both age and youth;
Integrity is gone, and fled is truth.
Deceit, fraud, perfidy, supply their place:
Force, avarice, rapine, sway the human race.
To guests none hospitality allow:
No brother shares fraternal friendship now.
This his wife's father to destroy contrives:
Wives slay their husbands; husbands slay their wives.
Nefarious stepdames poisonous draughts prepare:
Sons of parental health impatient are."
(Dryden's Ovid)

"Here (in Tartarus) I beheld the ancient offspring of the earth, the Titan race, cast down by bolts from heaven." -- Virgil Aeneid 6:582

"We ought not to describe in fables ... the battles of the giants" -- Plato de Rep. 2:17

"With mighty Jove equality they claimed;
But vengeful shafts their wild presumption tamed"
-- Apollonius Rhodius Arg. 1:481

Homer speaks of the giants Otus and Ephialtes, who, at the age of nine years, were nine cubits about, and thirty-six in height (Odyssey 11).

"Aerial spirits, by great Jove designed
To be on earth the guardians of mankind;
Invisible to mortal eyes they go,
And mark our actions, good or bad, below;
The immortal spies with watchful care preside,
And thrice ten thousand round their charges glide.
They can reward with glory or with gold;
Such power divine permission bids them hold."
(Hesiod's Oper.et Dies 1:121)

Cain's line only worldly pursuits desire,
Seth's line also godly principles admire.

A Jewish tradition says that Lamech, growing blind, killed Cain while hunting, ignorantly believing that he killed an animal. Afterwards he slew his own son, Tubal-Cain, who had caused this murder by directing Lamech to shoot at a certain place in the thicket where he heard something stir. Hence the speech of Lamech to his wives, "I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold" (Gen. 4:23-24).

"Now Nothing Will Be Withheld From Them, Which They Have Imagined to Do" (Gen. 11:6)
Many Advanced Technologies Were Probably Known to the Antediluvians That Were Lost After Babel and Which We Can't Duplicate Even Today

"As in the days of Noah were, so shall the coming of the Son of Man be" (Matt. 24:37). What does our modern society uniquely have in common with antediluvian society? We know the earth was "corrupt" (Gen. 6:12). This implies antediluvians created environmental POLLUTION just like our industrial society. They must have had a POPULATION EXPLOSION since "men began to multiply" (Gen. 6:1) just as we have that same problem today; They must have had a "KNOWLEDGE EXPLOSION" just like our day today when "knowledge shall be increased" [multiplied] (Dan. 12:4). "Ever learning, and never able to come to a knowledge of the truth" (2 Tim. 3:7). Furthermore, men were "WICKED" "VIOLENT" and "CORRUPT" just like our society today. But the most outstanding characteristic of our age is ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY which implies antediluvians possessed great advancement in technology also. Men lived 900 years on average, and had at least 1,656 years to advance their technology before the Flood. They even had the assistance of fallen angels (See Gen. 6:2, 4; Jude 6), with whose help, "nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do" (Gen. 11:6-8). Just like today we seek after "space alien" technology. They were all of one language -- no language barrier. In 1500 years (from the Fall of Rome in 476 to the Apollo moon landing and beyond in 1976), modern humankind, limited to a 75-year life span, and speaking many languages, advanced from the dark ages to developing telecommunications and sending men to the Moon. Antediluvian civilization could easily have achieved the same results. Sand turned from silicon into glass in the Indian Desert could be caused only by a nuclear explosion -- known as a "brahmastra". The face on Mars may indicate ancient space technology. Erich von Daniken documented a number of "ancient mysteries" in his books Chariots of the Gods and In Search of Ancient Gods to determine just how advanced ancient civilizations were. See also The Puzzle of Ancient Man by Chittick and Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt by Dunn. Also Technology of the Gods by Childress, Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts by Corliss, Crystal Sun by Temple, Mysteries From Forgotten Worlds by Berlitz and Lost Ancient Technology by Foerster.

For instance, Puma Punka's perfectly carved and intersecting stones in Bolivia are works of precision with smooth bore holes. Laos has a Plain of Jars -- 3000 huge stone jars -- each weighing well over a ton and standing up to ten feet high. Lip rims suggest they once had lids. Legend says giants once lived there and used the jars to store their rice wine. Cuzco Peru's Stone Walls of Sacsayhuaman with stones up to 150 tons each so precisely cut they fit together with no adhesive and with rounded corners and leaning inward showing advanced building techniques. Baalbeck's 1000-ton shaped blocks -- largest granite blocks in the world -- forming the foundation of the Temple of Jupiter built on top of them by the Romans. How were they moved into position? The Serapium of Sacara are 24 black boxes more than 100 tons each, carved accurately from solid Aswan Granite. Miniscule copper-and-tungsten coils from 1/10000" to 1" considered nanotechnology buried 40' below the surface of a river in the Ural Mountains. Stone cutting hole saws. Vimana aircraft. Where did the technology of the post-flood world come from, such as the more recent Antikythera mechanism, Chinese compass, electro-plating, and Bagdad batteries? The ancient Egyptian wooden airplane in a tomb at Saqqara dated about 200 BC. Optical lenses with one adjusted for astigmatism; and a telescope. Dentistry.

Secular History Confirms Noah's Flood in 2304 BC -- "The Mountains Rose; the Valleys Sank Down To the Place Which You Established for Them" (Ps. 104:8; NASB)

The name Methuselah means "When he dies, the flood will come." So 1656 years after the Creation of man, Noah's Flood occurred in 2304 BC (Gen. 7) resulting in "this present evil world" (Gal. 1:4) with "seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter" (Gen. 8:22) due to the earth's axis now being tilted 23.5 degrees. "Jove made the springtime shorter, added winter, summer and autumn" (Ovid's Meta. 1:116-117). The water-vapor canopy condensed out of the sky and rained down "forty days and forty nights" (Gen. 7:12). The earth was no longer a greenhouse. Longevity decreased with more radiation entering the atmosphere (Gen. 11:10-26). Rain and rainbows became common (Gen. 9:13). Eight people were saved (1 Pet. 3:20). We read in 2 Esdras 6:42 that "Upon the third day thou didst command that the waters should be gathered in the seventh part of the earth: six parts hast thou dried up and kept them, to the intent that of these some being planted of God and tilled, might serve thee." In other words, today's world of vast oceans has covered up many land bridges and former continents of Atlantis, Mu and Lemuria of the ante-diluvians. Our post-flood Earth's surface is about 71% water, while the other 29% consists of continents and islands.

The Chaldean account of the Flood, copied by Berosus from the archives of the temple of Belus at Babylon says "After the death of Ardates (the ninth sovereign), his son Xisuthrus reigned ... In his time happened a great deluge ... a flood by which mankind would be destroyed. (God) ... therefore enjoined him ... to build a vessel, and take with him into it his friends and relations ... together with the different animals ... Xisuthrus sent out birds ... which ... returned to him again.... he sent them forth a second time ... a third time ... but they returned to him no more ... the earth had appeared above the waters. He therefore made an opening in the vessel, and, upon looking out, found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain ... Xisuthrus then ... constructed an altar, offered sacrifices to the gods ... the place wherein they then were was the land of Armenia ... they returned to Babylon" (Cory's Fragments, pp.26-29).

The Hindu account is found in the ancient poem of the Bhagavat where we read about a flood that destroyed all mankind, except a pious prince, with seven of his attendants and their wives. The whole race of men became corrupt, except the seven Rishis and Satyavrata, who then reigned in Dravira. Vishnu appeared to him in the shape of a small fish and warned him that in seven days all creatures who have offended me shall be destroyed by a deluge. Take medicinal herbs, grain and pairs of all animals and enter the ark. They did and were saved. The deluge lasted a day of Brahma (i.e. a year). Also, Manu, warned, built a ship, in which he alone escaped from a deluge which destroyed all creatures. He lived during the golden age.

The Greek account was preserved by Lucian, Plutarch, Ovid and others. Lucian says, "all those of that former generation perished.... Being of a violent and ferocious temper, they were guilty of every sort of lawlessness (cp. Gen. 6:5). They neither regarded the obligation of oaths, nor the rights of hospitality, nor the prayers of the suppliant; wherefore a great calamity befell them.... the whole world was inundated ... Deucalion alone was left ... on account of his extraordinary wisdom and piety.... he caused his sons and their wives to enter into a large ark which he had provided ... while he was embarking, swine, and horses, and lions, and serpents, and all other animals ... came to him in pairs.... they injured him not; but, on the contrary, the greatest harmony subsisted between them through the influence of the Deity. Thus they all sailed together ... so long as the waters prevailed.... Deucalion ... erected altars" (Lucian De Dea Syra 12). Plutarch adds that "Deucalion sent a dove out of the ark; which, when it returned to him, showed that the storm was not yet abated; but when he saw it no more, he concluded that the sky was become serene again." (Plutarch De Solert. Animal.) Ovid says that "the gods, to punish the wickedness of man, destroyed the earth with a deluge. The destruction was so complete, that only Deucalion and Pyrrha escaped to the top of mount Parnassus" (Ovid's Meta. book 1:313-347) or Olympus when the waters subsided.

The Roman account was preserved by Varro who says, "in ancient times, there was a universal deluge, in which the human race were nearly all destroyed." He says that the flood took place 1600 years before the first Olympiad (776 BC). Many other similar accounts of Noah's Flood exist from around the world.

Melo, a bitter enemy of the Jews, relates that the person who was saved, along with his sons, from the waters of the flood, was afterwards driven away from Armenia by the natives, and expelled from his house and possessions. Upon this, he retired into the mountains of Syria (Euseb. Praep. Evang. 9:19). Herodotus 4:49 mentions the river NOAS in Thrace; it is a branch of the Danube. Pliny tells us there was a town of that name near the Red Sea. Suidas mentions the town NOAE in Sicily. Also NO in Egypt. The Egyptians had some reminiscences of the Deluge, as the hieroglyphic inscriptions show the name of "Noah," variously written as Nh, Nuh, Num, and Noa, who was worshipped as "the god of water," and who has been identified by Dr. S. Birch with the deified man who was entitled "the father of the gods," and "the giver of mystic life to all beneath him." According to Plutarch it would appear as if Egyptian tradition had represented Noah under this name, when Typhon, a personification of the ocean, enticed him into the ark, which was closed, and then forced out to sea through the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile. Plutarch says, "These things were done upon the 17th day of the month Atayr, when the sun was in Scorpio, in the twenty-eighth year of Osiris' reign." (Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, 13). Yes, it was "in the 17th day of the second month the foundations of the great deep were broken up" (Gen. 7:11).
"In tales of ancient lore 'tis said --
O'er earth, the whelming waters spread"
-- Pindar Olymp. 9:75

"Now land and sea no different visage bore,
For all was sea, nor had the sea a shore."
-- Ovid Metam. 291-292

"The frighted wolf now swims among the sheep;
The yellow lion wanders in the deep:
His rapid force no longer helps the boar:
The stag swims faster than he ran before.
The fowls, long beating on their wings in vain,
Despair of land, and drop into the main."
-- Ovid Metam. 1:293-312

"High on the summit of this dubious cliff,
Deucalion wafting, moored his little skiff.
He with his wife were only left behind
Of perished man; they two were human kind."
-- Ovid Metam. 1:316

"And every timorous native of the plain
High-floating swam amid the boundless rain."
-- Horace 1:2

"The water ceased, and the continual rain;
And rivers ran within their banks again."
-- Lucretius de rer. nat. 5:412

"Jove's wondrous bow, of three celestial dyes,
Placed as a sign to man amid the skies."
-- Homer Iliad 11:27

"Succeeding times a silver age behold,
Excelling brass, but more excelled by gold.
Then summer, autumn, winter did appear;
And spring was but a season of the year.
Then ploughs for seed the fruitful furrows broke,
And oxen laboured first beneath the yoke."
-- Ovid Meta. 1:114

"The great deluge of Deucalion drowned everything that had life; one ark, containing the remnant of the human race, alone being saved."
-- Lucianus de Saltat. 39

"In the deluge which happened in the time of Deucalion, almost all flesh died."
-- Diod. Sic. 1:10

"I remarked that shells are found on the mountains of Egypt" -- Herodotus 2:12

"Eratosthenes points out ... our finding, often quite inland ... from the sea, vast numbers of mussel, oyster, and scallop shells, and salt water lakes."
-- Strabo 1:3

According to the North Dakota Indians: "When the flood came and destroyed the world, a very great man, called Waesac-koochack, made a large raft, and embarked with otters, beavers, deer, and other kinds of animals. After it had floated for some time he put out an otter, which dived very deep without finding any bottom, and then a beaver; both were drowned. At last a musk brought up a little mud in its mouth, which he made into a new earth." (p.131, West Journal (of North American Indians)

The Indians of Cuba say an old man embarked in a canoe to escape a deluge (1 Clav. Mex. p.204). One of them told De Cabrera, that an old man, knowing that a flood was to come, built a vessel, and went into it, with his family and many animals. He sent out a crow, who first stayed to feed on the dead animals; but afterwards returned with a green branch. Herrera.

The Chinese say that Puoncu, with his family, escaped out of the general deluge (Vossius, ep. ad Andr. Colvium, p.409).

The Hindu poem Mahabharat relates that God warned King Manu of an inundation and ordered him to build a ship and to put seeds of all vegetables into it and enter it. Manu obeyed. The ship floated many years on the waters, till it grounded on the summit of the Himovan mountains. (Bepp, Diluv. Mahab.)

In the Hindu's 8th Book of the Bhagawata Purana, the fish god Vishnu says, "the sea will overwhelm the world. I mean to save you (pious King Satya Vrata) and the seven holy men from this deluge. Prepare for it. I will send you a vessel, in which you will put all sorts of seeds, fruits and roots. You will enter it and be in darkness and be carried on the waters.... I take the form of a fish to preserve you"
(Baga Vadam, p.213, in French 1788)

Humboldt quoted from the MSS. of Pedro de Los Reos, who in 1566, copied on the spot all the hieroglyphical paintings he could procure (in Mexico): "before the great inundation, which took place 4,800 years after the creation of the world, the country of Anahuac was inhabited by giants. All those who did not perish were transformed into fishes, save seven, who fled into caverns. When the waters subsided, one of these giants, Xelhua, surnamed the Architect, went to Cholollan; where, as a memorial of the mountain Tlaloc, which had served for an asylum to himself and his six brethren, he built an artificial hill in the form of a pyramid" (Humboldt's Researches1:96)

In Mexico, one man (Coxcox) and one woman (Xochiquetzal) saved themselves in the trunk of a tree covered with leaves and floating amid the waters. It came to rest at Mount Colhuacan (Ararat). He sent out a vulture which didn't return and a hummingbird which returned with a green branch in its beak (Humboldt Researches 2:23,65)

Where did the ark land? 1.) "The ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat." The name Ararat occurs four times in the Hebrew Old Testament (Gen. 8:4; Jer. 51:27; 2 Ki. 19:37; Isa. 37:38). In each case it is the name of a country -- Armenia. 2.) Nicolaus of Damascus, quoted by Josephus, says, "There is a mountain in Armenia, over Minyas, called Baris, upon which it is reported that many who fled at the time of the deluge were saved." Now this Minyas, mentioned in connection with Armenia, must be the same as the Minni mentioned by Jeremiah in connection with Ararat, for Minyas is merely Minni with the termination as; consequently, if Minyas is Minni, Armenia is the same as Ararat. Baris means barque or ship and Mount Baris means mountain of the ship in ancient Egyptian. Like the English name barge or bark. 3.) Berosus says, speaking of Xisuthrus' ship, "It is said there is still some part of this ship in Armenia at the mountains of the Cordaeans." 4.) Josephus himself says, "The Armenians call the place where Noah landed Apobaterion, or the place of descent; and that remains of the ark were shown there by the inhabitants." 5.) Abydenus, a Greek writer, also speaks of a personnamed Sisuthrus being saved, and says his ship rested in Armenia, and that pieces of the ark were used as charms. 6.) Two Chaldee versions of the Old Testament called Targums, use the word Kardu instead of Ararat in Genesis 3:4. Now the Kardu or Kirdi Mountains are in the southern part of Armenia, and were called by the Greeks Gordaean or Cordaean mountains. This agrees with Berosus. 7.) The Mohammedans have a prevailing tradition that the place where the ark rested was in the Jebel Judi, which is the name they give to the Kurdi or Gordaean mountains. Jebel means mountains, and Judi is a corruption of Gordi. 8.) Another reason why these mountains were the mountains of Ararat is, that they are situated to the west of the plain of Shinar, or Senjar, and so agree with the statement that they "journeyed east" (Gen. 11:2) to the plain of Shinar. 9.) The town of Themanin, which means "eight", situated at the foot of the Kurdu mountains, otherwise called the Al Judi mountains, was stated by tradition to have been built and so named in memory of the eight persons who came out of the ark on Mount Themanin. 10.) Noah built a city in Armenia at the banks of the Araxes, named Nachshevan (Noah's settlement). Ptolemy calls it Naxuanna and Moses Chorenensis calls Idsheuan; but at the place itself Nachidshevan. The Armenians have retained to the present day a tradition that this is city was built by Noah, and that it is one of the oldest in the world. 11.) The word Sepher signifies a book; Seppara, book-town. Berosus says Sisuthrus, previous to the flood, was ordered to bury some writings in the City of the Sun at Sippara (the Sephar of Moses). Afterwards, his descendants were ordered to dig up these writings from Sippara. Might not the place from this circumstance obtain the name of the City of Books? This city was near to where the ark rested, which Berosus says was one of the Corcyrean (Caucasian) mountains in Armenia.

Woolly Mammoths Flash Frozen in "Ice Age" Commencing 2304 BC

Noah was told to take "of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female" (Gen. 6:19). This clearly reveals why so many mammals became extinct. Noah took representatives of various mammal groups -- but definitely not every variety. From the limited number of creatures in the ark, the world of today has been repopulated. The varieties of elephants existing today, for example, are much more limited than before the flood. The wooly mammoth and mastodon, relatives of the modern elephant, died in the flood. Representatives of elephants which Noah took on board the ark simply have not diversified back into those earlier varieties. The same can be said of other species. Where are the saber-tooth tigers, the glyptodonts, toxodonts, macrauchenia, ground sloths, and wooly rhinoceros?

A 300 degree below zero Farehnheit ice meteor came flying toward earth and either broke up in space or actually hit the earth first and then broke up. (There is water everywhere in space.) As it was breaking up, some of the fragments got caught and became the rings around the planets, or the craters on the moon, or the craters on some of the planets, and what was left over came down and was splattered on top of the north and south pole. The impact made the earth wobble around for a few thousand years afterward. Either that or the fact that the ice particles settled mainly around the poles caused the earth to wobble. This super cold snow fell mostly on the poles, burying the mammoths standing up. They were flash-frozen. Estimates are that 5 million mammoths perished in this catastrophe. They were frozen with undigested food in their mouths and stomachs. They died of suffocation -- no water found in their lungs but small ice crystals found in their blood indicate they probably froze in less than 5 hours. That requires a colder temperature than 300 degrees Farenheit below zero. "These fossils of the Siberian permafrost present an insuperable difficulty for a theory of slow, gradual geology ... no gradualistic process can result in the preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole individuals, even if they died in the winter. They must have been frozen suddenly" (Harold E. Lippman, "Frozen Mammoths," Science, Vol. 137, August 10, 1962, p. 449). Heaps of tusks were found in Siberia. For example, in the few decades preceding 1899, one report stated that about 20,000 tusks had been exported for the ivory trade. These were in perfect condition. Mammoths are not designed for cold weather. In Barrow Alaska a drilling rig drilled into a 300-foot tall tree under the permafrost. On the New Siberian Islands, they find frozen bobcats, frozen lynx, bison, mammoths, camels, etc. They find coal under the ice in Antarctica where there are no trees. Admiral Byrd found frozen palm leaves near the South Pole.

After the earth was hit by the ice meteor, or after the dumping of ice on the north and south poles, the crust of the earth cracked releasing the fountains of the deep (Gen. 7:11). (The pre-flood world had water under the earth also.) The earth broke up into plates at fault lines such as the San Andreas Fault, the New Madrid Fault, etcetera. The water under the crust was hot and came shooting to the surface and continued for 150 days killing everything within a few hundred miles immediately. Everyone drowned eventually but that process may have taken 6-8 months to kill everyone during that flood. A 200-foot tidal change every 6 hours and 25 minutes caused the sorting into layers during the flood. Psalm 104:7-8 mentions this tidal action. Genesis 8:23 mentions "going and returning" or sloshing tides. Noah stayed in the ark for six months because of this tidal action and the ground was probably still muddy.

The spreading ice caused the "ice-age" effect and the glacier effects we see. Ice came all the way down to Kansas City, Missouri (Extent of Ice Age, Scott Foresman, Earth Science, 1990, p.316). The ice age really happened -- at the beginning of the flood. It caused the flood. The ice caps at the poles sent off a cold wave. This cold air hitting warm air caused it to rain, and it rained for 40 days and 40 nights. The canopy collapsed. All fountains of the deep broken open in one day. (see Jasher 6:11) Fragments of the ice meteor made the canopy collapse that used to protect the earth. More UV light entered.

During the first few months of the flood, the dead animals would settle out and the dead plants would settle out. Once buried, they would become coal if plants and oil if animals. Natural gas deposits also formed during the flood. Those are still found today in huge graveyards. During the last few months of the flood, the unstable plates of the earth would shift around. Some places would lift up forming mountain ranges, other places sink down forming ocean basins. "The mountains rose, the valleys sank down to the place which thou didst appoint for them. Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass, so that they might not again cover the earth" (Ps. 104:8-9). The fact that Mt. Ararat has salt crystals at the 14000 foot level which only form under water, and the fact that pillow lava is also found high on Mt. Ararat which only forms under water, both indicate that this mountain was lifted up from under the water. The runoff from all the mountain ranges would cause incredible erosion in a couple of weeks -- like Grand Canyon.

Over the next few hundred years, the ice caps would melt back retreating to their current size. The added water formed the continental shelf. Oceans became deeper, wider and colder as the water level rose. The cold water would also absorb more CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) out of the atmosphere which would allow more radiation to get in shortening the life span of people (Joktan means "Shorten"). Some of the greenhouse protection was removed. In the days of Peleg it finally took effect. The earth was "Divided" -- the meaning of Peleg's name (Gen. 10:25). The continents were divided when the water level rose. Peleg was born about 100 years after the flood. He only lived to be 209. His father, grandfather and great grandfather lived to be in their 400s. Why are unique species such as kangaroos, wombats and koalas only found in Australia? They walked there. Because originally the continents were all connected for the first few hundred years after the flood. Populations spread out across the globe, and became "trapped" on their continents by the rising water. Non-aggressive and less aggressive animals were constantly being pushed to the migratory fringes. They would rather run than fight. While this was happening, the waters were rising up because the ice caps were melting back. All of a sudden, Australia -- which used to be part of the mainland -- was a protected island.

Not only that, there are ancient Egyptian cities discovered under 30 feet of water in the Mediterranean Sea. The sea level was lower at some point in the past. Cities have been discovered under water in Cabo de San Antonio, Cuba (1/2 mile down) and Mahabalipuram, India (several square miles) and Bimini Road, Bahamas. The underwater road off the coast of Florida was paved with magnesium oxide. Yona Guni, a city off the coast of Japan, is two football fields wide and about eight stories high. In the north Atlantic are carved rock columns 6000 feet under the ocean. Also, miles of pillared temples, buildings and statues. Wide curving boulevards and roads radiating out like spokes from a wheel. Gibraltar was a spillway when the Atlantic got too high. Then Sicily was the next spillway and then the Bosporus. Skeptics are "willingly ignorant" of this evidence (2 Pet. 3:5).

Scientists have reported discovering the first set of dinosaur fossils ever to be found in the interior of Antarctica. The fossils are said to be the remains of a plant-eating dinosaur, 25 to 30 feet long, that lived about 200 million years ago in what geologists call the early Jurassic age. The bones were spotted at a small section of exposed rock alongside the mountain, which lies about 400 miles from the south pole (Chris Raymond, "Scientists Report Finding Fossils of Dinosaurs in Antarctica's Interior," Chronicle of Higher Education -- March 20, 1991, p.A11). Also "the discovery of thousands of well-preserved leaves in Antarctica ... enjoyed a near temperate climate." Tropical plant-eating dinosaurs have also been found in northern Alaska. Mammoths are not designed for cold weather.

When climbers got to the top of Mount Everest, they found petrified clams -- in the closed position. When a clam dies, it opens. How would you get millions of petrified clams in the closed position on top of mountains all over the world? Mount Everest is quite a way from the beach. Clams don't climb mountains. They were buried alive in huge beds sometimes. Oysters 11.5 feet wide are found in Peru two miles above sea level (Holt, Modern Earth Science, 1983, p.207).

Any spinning top behaves in a peculiar way whenever it is struck by anything. If you throw a rock at a spinning top, it will wobble around for awhile (gyroscope) and then it will slowly recover and stabilize -- usually at a new angle or axis. "Scientists studying underwater volcanoes have found evidence the earth may have wobbled like an out-of-balance ball 84 million years ago, relocating the poles and shifting the location of Washington to the tropics." (By Randolph E. Schmid APO Washington MSNBC, Jan. 20, 2000). Today the earth is tilted 23.5 degrees. But was it always that way? Stonehenge is an interesting stone structure. It was built to worship the sun at summer solstice. It tracks the solar solstice shadow. But today stonehenge doesn't line up. The temple of Amen-Ra was drawn by Napoleon's savants in 1798. The colonnade aimed at the summer solostice -- longest day of the year. But it doesn't line up. Same with Eudoxus, etcetera.

The famous Australian astronomer George Dodwell conducted a study of the solstice shadows recorded by the ancients. Eudoxus, Amen-Ra, Stonehenge, etc. The recorded tilt of the earth made a wavy line on the graph that was a match of the wavy line a spinning top makes when struck by an object. It appeared to him that something struck the earth about 4350 years ago (Its A Young World After All by Ackerman) and caused the earth to wobble for several thousand years. Today the earth is stable. The north pole doesn't move much. But a graph of the earth's tilt as recorded by ancient astronomers indicates an impact 4350 years ago (2350 B.C.). Today the earth is tilted 23.5 degrees. This is what causes the seasons. The first mention of cold weather in the Bible is Genesis 8:22: "while the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter ... shall not cease." (after the flood).

When a magnet floats above a superconductor, it is known as the Meisner Effect. A Japanese train operating on the Meisner Effect is suspended on superconducting coils causing magnetic levitation which gives no resistance and no friction. There are comets flying through space. These ice meteors are common in space and are normally -300 degrees to -400 degrees Fahrenheit (Holt, Modern Earth Science, 1983, p.51). An ice meteor flying through space would build up speed because of the inverse square law, as it got nearer earth. As it got going faster and faster, it would break up into a billion ice crystals. Those would then shower down on earth as a super cold snow. Huge polar ice caps formed at the time of the flood. Originally God formed the world to be inhabited (Isa. 45:18). But what we have today is uninhabitable in the arctic and antarctic regions.

Earth had a very strong magnetic field. At the time of the flood it was probably 15 to 20 times stronger than it is today. The magnetic field is weakening. Earth's magnetic field has lost 10% of its strength in the last 150 years (Astronomy and the Bible, Donald DeYoung p.18) and 40% of its strength in the last 1000 years. (If you go back 25,000 years, the magnetic strength would have been too strong for life to have existed here on earth, because of the heat generated, so evolutionists say it reverses.) The magnetic field would deflect most of the super cold ice crystals to the poles. Super cold ice is easily statically charged. The northern lights are caused because of the earth's magnetic field. The pre-flood world had a layer of ice or water suspended by the magnetic field using the Meisner Effect.

Noah's Prophecy and His Three Sons Mentioned in Secular History

Which son was oldest? We can eliminate Ham since Noah "knew what his YOUNGEST son (Ham) had done unto him" (Gen. 9:24; NIV). Furthermore, Shem was 100 years old when he begat Arphaxad two years after the flood (Gen. 11:10).  This indicates that Shem was 98 when the flood ended. But Genesis 7:6 and 11 both say the year-long flood began when Noah was 600 years old.  So Shem would only have been 97 when Noah was 600. Therefore Shem was born when Noah was 503. Yet Noah began having his sons when he was 500 years old (Gen. 5:32); and Ham was Noah’s "YOUNGEST son" (Gen. 9:24; NIV). Therefore Japheth must have been the oldest brother, born when Noah was 500-years old.  This supports translations of Genesis 10:21 which refer to Japheth as Shem’s ELDER brother. Early Aryans knew him as Djapatischta (chief of the race), Greeks referred to Japheth as Iapetos or Japetos, East Indians called him Jyapeti or Pra-Japati, Romans used Jupiter, the Saxons perpetuated his name as Iafeth.

Noah's prophecy was that "God shall ENLARGE Japheth, and He (God) shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan (Canaan's father -- Ham; the Arabic version says, "Ham the father of Canaan") shall be his SERVANT" (Gen. 9:27). Semitic races have influenced, far more than others, the history of the world's mental progress; and the principal intellectual revolutions which have taken place are traceable in the main to them." -- George Rawlinson. Melchizedek (Sydyc of Sanchoniatho) was probably Shem. The Jewish and Christian religions both came through the Semitic race and both Jews and Christians "are the light of the world" (Matt. 5:14). Shem is distinguished by a knowledge of the TRUE RELIGION to this very day (the Bible). Japheth was idolatrous and still is (Buddhist & Shinto). But Ghengis Khan and Tamerlane ENLARGED his empire. The children of Ham made little to no progress in civilization or religion and have remained the most primitive of the three branches (Hinduism & Voodoo). Noah actually cursed Ham.

Genesis 9:25 should be translated, "Cursed be Canaan's FATHER, a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers." Such relative words are often omitted and understood in Scripture, as in Matthew 4:21, James of Zebedee, for the SON of Zebedee; John 19:25, Mary of Cleopas, for the WIFE of Cleopas; Acts 7:16, Emmor of Sychem, for the FATHER of Sychem, as our English translation rightly supplies it from Genesis 33:19. Thus Goliath is put for Goliath’s BROTHER, as is evident by comparing 2 Samuel 21:19, with 1 Chronicles 20:5. So here Canaan may be put for the FATHER of Canaan, as the Arabic translation has it, that is, Ham, as the Septuagint here render it. Also Saadiah Gaon (882-942 AD) supplies it, as Aben Ezra relates. This makes sense since otherwise Noah addressed both Shem and Japheth while ignoring Ham his third son. Greek "mythology says KUMARBI or CRONUS (Ham) CASTRATED Uranus or Anu (Noah) so was cursed with being "a servant of servants" (Genesis 9:25-27).

We know that ALL of Ham's children became SLAVES, not just CANAAN. Egypt (Mizraim) is cursed in Ezekiel 29:15. God says, "I will DIMINISH them." Yes, after the Pharaohs were defeated, the Persians took over, then the Greeks, Romans, Mohammedans, Turks, French, and British. Egyptian rulers since 1953 have been Arabs. Egyptians (Mizraimites) are called 'SERVANTS" in Lamentations 5:8. Canaanites become "BONDMEN" in Joshua 9:23. Solomon also made them BONDSERVANTS (1 KI. 9:21). Later known as Phoenicians and Carthaginians, they were SUBJECTED by the Persians, Macedonians and Romans. Romans captured Carthage in 146 B.C. and made SLAVES of many thousands of Carthaginians. Canaan was bought and sold -- human "merchandise" -- the meaning of Canaan. The Phoenician Empire never rose to power again. Just as their father Ham had dishonored Noah's nakedness, so also Ethiopia (Cush) and Egypt (Mizraim) are made "NAKED ... with their buttocks UNCOVERED" as SLAVES according to Isaiah 20:4.

Libyans (Put) and Ethiopians (Cush) are UNDER the AUTHORITY of Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel 11:43. "Thus saith the Lord: The ... merchandise of CUSH (India and Ethiopia) and of the SABEANS, men of stature, shall come over (the Atlantic) unto thee, and they (black men) shall be THINE (slaves); they shall come after thee; in CHAINS they shall come over , and they shall fall down unto thee ... saying, Surely God is in thee, and there is none else" (Isa. 45:14). Yes, the Bible predicted the slave trade. Not Canaanites, but CUSHITES are mentioned here.

Some commentators argue that Noah cursed Ham's fourth son because Ham emasculated his father to preserve his own inheritance. If Noah had had a fourth son or more, Ham would only get one quarter of the world or less rather than a third. The early Jewish commentator Rashi paraphrased Noah's rebuke of Ham: "You have brought it about that I cannot bear a fourth son to serve me; cursed, therefore, be your fourth son to serve under the descendants of these elder ones upon whom the duty of serving me will devolve from now on." It is related in the Padma-Pooraun that Satyavrata, whose miraculous preservation from a general deluge is told at large in the Matsya, had three sons, the eldest Jyapeti, or Lord of the Earth; the others were Charma and Sharma, usually pronounced Cham and Sham in the vulgar dialect. Satyavrata gave all the regions north of Himalaya, or the snowy mountains, to Jyapeti. To Sham he alotted the countries south of these mountains. But he cursed Cham, because when the old monarch was accidentally inebriated with strong liquor made of fermented rice, Cham laughed; and it was in consequence of his father's curse that he became a slave of slaves to his brothers (Hist. Hind. 2:45).

After the Flood, Noah was "a preacher of righteousness" (2 Pet. 2:4-5) and therefore preached the commandments since "All thy commandments are righteousness" (Ps. 119:172). In India, Vishnu the Preserver is celebrated as having saved one righteous family when the world was drowned. He is identified with Noah himself since Vishnu is the Sanskrit form of "Ishnuh" -- "The Man Noah."

The Sibylline Oracles speak of Cronus (Ham), Japetus (Japheth) and Titan (Shem) as the three sons of Noah (Cory's Fragments, p.52). Similarly, in the Hindu Mythology, "Sama," (Shem) "Chama," (Ham) and "PraJapeti" (Lord Japhet) are said to be born of Menu (Noah) or Satyavarman (Noah) (Asiatic Researches, vol.8 p.255; Moor's Hindu Pantheon, p.173). Horace calls men "Japeti genus" (Horace Ode 3). Hesiod represents Japetus as the father of Promethius who formed the first woman (Theogony vv. 507,515,543). Pindar also mentions the brazen "race of Japetus" (Olyn. v.66-82).

"The gods divided the universe into three shares, and each was content with that which fell to his lot." (Plut. Pomp. 53)

"There is, according to Homer, a threefold division of all things, the sea being assigned to Neptune (Shem), the dark and subterraneous parts to Pluto (Ham), but the heavens to Jupiter (Japhet)." (Max. Tyr. diss. 16)

According to Homer's Iliad, Neptune (Shem) says, "We are from Cronus (Saturn or Noah) and from Rhea sprung, Three brothers (Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto); When the universe was into three parts divided, each an equal share obtained, on casting lots. My lot it was thenceforth in hoary sea to dwell (middle regions to Shem which Canaan violated by settling in Palestine and Cush violated by settling in Babylon): to Pluto (Ham), next, did fall the gloomy shades below (southern regions: Africa & India. Egypt is called the land of Ham -- Ps. 105:23): Jupiter's (Japheth's) lot, the spacious sky in air and clouds." (northern regions: Asia & part of Europe) (Iliad 15:184-193). "The priests of Egypt, in the mysteries of Isis, call their country Chemia." (Ham) (Plutarch de Isis. et Osirid. 33) Abulfaragi the Armenian historian dates the actual division of the earth in the 140th year of Peleg.

Bochart produces fourteen points of resemblance between Noah and Saturn (Faber's Horae Mosaicae 1:142). For instance, 1.) the suthr in Xisuthrus (Chaldee), the sithr in Sisithrus (Chaldee), and the satyaur in Satyaurata (Hindoos) is equivalent to satur in Saturn (Latin). So also is Seater (standing on the back of a fish) of the Germans. All these names are apparently connected with with Zutar, the ancient Chaldee name for a flood. 2.) Jupiter being the same as Japhet, shows that Saturn, the father of Jupiter, must be the same as Noah, the father of Japhet. 3.) The ancients state that in the days of Saturn all men were of one language, and that freedom and equality prevailed on the earth, for which reason they distinguish his reign as the Golden Age. Scripture tells us that in the time of Noah all men were of one language and that Noah was "a preacher of righteousness" (2 Pet. 2:4-5). 4.) Saturn is always represented as an old man with a scythe who taught his subjects agriculture. He introduced a new method of manuring the ground; hence he was called Stercutius by the Romans. Noah also is portrayed as a gardener who would "comfort us concerning our work, and the toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed" (Gen. 5:28). Remarkably, the sythe was anciently spelled sithe -- like Si-sithr-us. Did Noah invent the scythe? 5.) Alexander Polyhistor says that Saturn foretold that there should be great quantities of rain, and an ark built, in which men and animals should sail together. 6.) All high places were sacred to Saturn, and this agrees with Noah, for as he was saved in a ship which lodged against a mountain, so it is natural that high places would be dedicated to him. 7.) The ancient coins of Italy had stamped on one side a ship, in commemoration of Saturn, which agrees with Noah and his ark. 8.) Saturn made a law that nobody should see the gods naked. Ham saw Noah naked and was cursed. 9.) The seventh day of the week was named Seaterday, or Saturday just as the name Noah means "rest." Noah must have preached Sabbath-keeping.

The Persian account of the three sons of Noah are Oromasdes, Mithras (Mediator or middle) and Ahriman. They are again repeated in the mythology of the Scandinavians where Bore was the great father, and the three sons Odin, Vile and Ve (Edda, fable 3). The son of Ham (Ammon) was Cush (Saturn) and the son of Cush was Nimrod (Marduk)

"Three brother deities from Saturn came,
And ancient Rhea, Earth's immortal dame:
Assigned by lot, one triple rule we know;
Infernal Pluto (Ham) sways the shades below:
Over the wide clouds, and over the starry plain
Ethereal Jove (Japheth) extends his high domain:
My court beneath the hoary waves I (Neptune-Shem) keep,
And hush the roarings of the sacred deep."
(Homer's Iliad 15:187)

"Wisdom was alotted to the Chaldeans and Hebrews alone, Worshipping the self-existing King, God Himself." (Greek Oracle called The Clarian founded before the Trojan War)

"Jove was, Jove is, Jove will be: O Great Jove!"
(Sibylline Oracles quoted by Pausanias)

Yet in the future, "Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands to God" (Ps. 118:31).

India's Vishnu is the Sanskrit form of the Chaldee "Ish-nu"
meaning "the man Noah". Vishnu "the preserver" miraculously preserved one righteous family when the rest of the world was drowned.
Since Noah lived 950 years (Gen.9:29: 2904-1954 BC), 1. he was contemporary with Fohi (Yao), the first emperor of China who began to reign 2952 BC. (add 600 yrs - 7:11) Both died same year. 2. Fohi had no father (Noah's ancestors perished in Flood), and 3. his mother was said to have conceived him encompassed in a RAINBOW (Gen. 9:13) and 4. he raised SEVEN kinds of animals for sacrifices to the Great Spirit (cp. Gen. 7:2). 5. Fohi was "very virtuous" (Bedford's Scripture Chronology, p.287) just as Noah was "a preacher of righteousness" (2 Pet. 2:5). 6. Also a great flood is said to have happened in Yao's time. (Medhurst on China) 7. Fohi settled
in the province of Shensi, which is the most NW
province of China (nearest to Ararat). The Bible says little about Noah's 350 years after the flood.

The first two Chinese dynasties (Hea & Shang)
commenced in 2207 B.C. and extended down to 1123 BC according to Confucius (Gutzlaff, A Sketch of Chinese History, pp.58-60).

Yao, their most ancient sovereign, acknowledged by Confucius, is introduced abruptly as saying to his ministers, "Alas! the deluging waters are spreading destruction. They surround the mountains. They overtop the hills. They rise high, and extend wide as the spacious vault of heaven." (Chou-king by Confucius, translated by De Guignes, pp.1-2; and Dr. Morrison's citation from it, in his preface to the Chinese Dictionary.)

Fong-sou-long says, "Niuhoa conquered the waters by wood, and made a vessel fit for a long course." (Mem. Ch. i.p.157)

One Chinese writer "Kong-in-ta adds that the waters overwhelmed the animals and all habitations" (Ib. 158). Another Chinese writer, Mong-tsee, remarks, "Under Yao, the empire was not yet formed. The stagnant waters of the Deluge still covered the plains, and what was not under water was covered with trees." (Ib. 159). By cutting large canals, Yao made the country habitable (Ib. 160).

Was Naamah the Wife of Ham? Did She Make Noah Drunk? Did Ham (Thammuz) Castrate Noah?

Cain was a sun-worshipper (p.236, Cumberland's Sanchoniathon's History). Naamah is singled out as a direct descendant of godless Cain and sister of Tubal-Cain (Gen. 4:22). This is because she is the wife of some person of importance. Ham is identified as Chronus (Diodor. Sic. 4:108). Plutarch says the wife of Cronus (Ham) was "Nemaus" which would be just the Greek form of the Hebrew "Naamah" (p.107, Cumberland's Sanchoniathon's History). Originally she was Noah's wife (Bereshit Rabba, sect. 23, fol. 20.3 Jarchi in loc. Shalshalet Hakabala, fol. 1.2). But she made him drunk (Gen. 9:21; Rev. 17:4); and became his Naamah-Isis or NEMESIS as the wife of Ham. To "UNCOVER" his "NAKEDNESS" (9:21-22) means to lie sexually with his wife (Lev. 18:7; 20:11; Deut. 22:30; 27:20). This is what Ham had "done to him" (9:24). Ham had committed INCEST with Noah's wife. "The man who LIETH with his FATHER'S WIFE hath UNCOVERED his father's NAKEDNESS" (Lev. 20:11). Supposedly Ouranus (Noah) was "injurious to his wife, and that she therefore excited Cronus (Ham) to avenge her quarrel on his father" (p.153, Sanchoniathon). Saturn (Ham) CASTRATED Ouranos (Noah) (pp. 34, 103-104, Sanchoniathon) and as a result, Noah bled to death (p.341, ibid.). Cronus used a sickle to CASTRATE Uranus who then died (Hesiod's Theogony 154-166). Ham committed "slaughters and murders ... against his brother and children, yea and his own father, and observing that from hence arose a pestilence, and the death of his subjects ... Cronus (Ham) offered up his only begotten son a burnt offering to the offended Manes (Noah) of his father" (p.149, ibid.). He began the practice of HUMAN SACRIFICE. Cain's religion of IDOLATRY was "RESTORED by Ham after the Flood" (p.259, ibid.). He "apostasized" from Noah's religion (p.236, ibid.) and became known as THAMMUZ (Universal History, 1:274). NEMESIS preserved IDOLATRY, MAGIC and OCCULT knowledge through the Flood so men could communicate with the spirit world. She corrupted the post-flood world (Rev. 17:4) just as Solomon's wives corrupted him (1 Ki. 11:4). "Ye shall not go in unto them, nor they to you, for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods" (1 Ki. 11:2; Ex. 34:16; Deut. 7:3-4). Ham's descendants were cursed (Gen. 9:25) because of their moral corruption. They practised religions that were SHAMELESS, REVOLTING, OBSCENE and DEPRAVED. Was Canaan the result of the incestuous union?

Naamah-Isis may have been known as Astarte (p.332, Sanchoniathon) (Astarte in Greek is Ashtereth in Hebrew), mentioned in Genesis 14:5 where Chederlaomer and his allies smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Carnaim (from Cronus which is Ham), and the Zuzims in Ham. These giants were Ham's children, or descendants from him, and their two cities seem to bear their father's and mother's name. Thus they both -- Ham (Cronus) and Astarte (Naamah?) -- must have lived before Abraham's time.

Belus, the chief god of the Assyrians and Babylonians, was the first king of Babylon according to Berosus (Chaldean Dynasties, Cory's Fragments, pp. 70-71). Castor says, "Belus was the first king of the Assyrians, and after his death was worshipped as a god." (Castor, Cory's Fragments, p. 65). Who was Belus? There is a passage of Eupolemus which states that Belus (or Cronus) was the father of Canaan, Misr, Cous and of another son who later took the Chaldean title Belus also when he succeeded his father on the throne (Praep. Evang. 9:17 p.419). The other son was Phut. This indicates that the first Belus was Ham. The Tower of Belus was the Tower of Ham, who was the first king of Babylon. Phut was the second king of Babylon.

Myrrha, wife of Hammon, and mother of Adonis, having her son in her company, found Cynistas sleeping in his tent, all uncovered, and in an indecent posture. She ran immediately, and informed Hammon of it; he gave notice of it to his brothers, who, to prevent the confusion which Cynistas might be in to find himself naked, covered him with something. Cynistas, understanding what had passed, cursed Adonis, and pursued Myrrha into Arabia; where, after having wandered nine months, she was changed into a tree which bears myrrh. Hammon and Ham are the same person. Adonis and Canaan are the same person. (Calmet's Dictionary, art. "Ham")

Cush Caused Chaos at the Tower of Babel -- He Bred Giants and Practised Cannibalism -- Resulting in Confusion of Tongues

Evechous (Cush) was the first Chaldean king after the deluge (Syncellus, p.90). Saturn (Cronus or Cush) is said to have obtained the kingdom of Coelus or Ouranos (Noah's world empire), by the consent of his brother Titan (Shem or Set), on the condition that he did not bring up any more male children, and that, in order to conceal them, he DEVOURED them as soon as they were born. We know that it was the universal custom for the priests to EAT the sacrifices. "Are not they who EAT of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?" (1 Cor. 9:12-13; 10:18). In order to saftisfy his demon gods, and probably in obedience to their teaching, he offered his sons in sacrifice to them, and since he was the sacrificing priest, ATE the sacrifice thus offered. HUMAN SACRIFICE and CANNIBALISM originated with Cush (p.37, Sanchoniathon) and spread to the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Hindus, Mexicans and Celtic nations. The author of Nimrod says, "The tyrant Zoroaster (Nimrod), of the line of Cham (Ham), was one of the founders of the Tower of Babel; he sacrificed innumerable victims to the demons" (Nimrod, vol.1, p.146). Therefore we find that the sacrifice of the FIRSTBORN to the Sun-god Osiris (Nimrod) was one of the most notorious of the Egyptian rites (Transactions Victoria Institute, vol.14, p.113). Baal and Moloch were other names for Nimrod. The Greek story of Saturn devouring his CHILDREN goes on to say that Rhea (Naamah), the wife of Saturn (Cush), in order to save her CHILD, gave him a stone instead of Jupiter (Nimrod), when he was born. Jupiter, like Osiris, was the son of Saturn. Since babies were first killed, then burned, it was not difficult to deceive the father. She presented Cush with a stone bound in swaddling bands to represent a CHILD. (Hesiod Theogonia, lines 485, etc. pp.,38,41). When Shem discovered the birth of Nimrod, he made war against Nimrod and overpowered him (Lempriere, Titan). Cush lost his kingdom and escaped to Latium, Italy 

The first two kings of the Egyptian monarchy, Menes "the Thebanite" (in south Egypt near Ethiopia) (Cush or Mizraim) and Athoth (Nimrod), were also the first two kings of Babylon, and founders of a great Cushite Empire. They began a dynasty of Theban kings (p.81, Sanchoniathon). Menes (Cush or Mizraim) was worshipped as a god called Meon (Nu. 32:38; 1 Chr. 5:8; Ez. 25:9; Jer. 48:23). Meon was the first king of Lydia and Phrygia (Diodorus; p.468, Sanchoniathon). Manes was the founder of the Lydian monarchy (Herodotus, p.45). Minos was the first king of Crete also. Every nine years he made king Aegeus pick seven young boys and seven young girls to be sent to the labyrinth to be EATEN by the Minotaur. All these "Menes" were the same person (p.471, Sanchoniathon). Cush was also known as Belus, Hermes, Cronus, Seb, Saturn and Janus. Berosus calls the founder of the first dynasty of Chaldea Evechous (man of Cush -- p. 349, Lenormant). Nimrod was known as Ninus, Osiris, Tammuz, Bel Merodach, Marduk, Bacchus and Mars. According to Herodotus, "The priests said that Menes was the first king of Egypt" (Hist. 2:99). According to Syncellus, "The first king (of Egypt) was Mestraim, also known as Menes" (p.127, Chronography). Diodorus and Eupolemus also call Misraim by the name Menes. Josephus calls the first Pharaoh, the founder of Memphis, Minaeus. The Turks call Memphis by the Hebrew name Mitzir rather than to the Greek Menephis (p.452, Sanchoniathon) (see also Herodotus 2:99). There is a passage of Eupolemus which states that Belus or Cronus (derived from the root Keren, a horn, his Phoenician title) was the father of Canaan, Misr, Cous (or Chum) and of another son (Praep. Evang. 9:17 p.419), who must have been Phut who succeeded to the Chaldean office with the title of Belus (or Baal meaning lord, his Chaldean title) after his father died. But Ham was the first Belus or Cronus. Eusebius well says, "It must be confessed the ancient writers have very much confounded these ancient names with one another." 

But this empire was overthrown. Manetho wrote, "There was a king of ours whose name was Timaus (Tammuz -- Cumberland's Sanchoniathon, p. 359-360). Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was averse to us, and there came in a surprising manner men of ignoble birth out of the eastern parts, and had boldness enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them. (This parallels the overthrow of Osiris by Typhon, who overcame him "not by force or open war" -- Wilkinson's Egyptians 4:330-332) So when they had gotten those who governed us (Tammuz and his father) under their power, they afterwards burned down our cities and demolished the temples of the (false) gods (cp. Num. 33:52; Deut. 7:5, 25-26), and used all the inhabitants in a most barbarous manner, nay, some they slew and led their children and wives into slavery. The whole nation was called Hyksos, that is, Shepherd Kings" (Manetho, from Josephus, Contr. Apion 1:14-15) whose domination is said to have lasted 518 years (Against Apion 1:14-15) from Shem who was the first Shepherd king till Apophis who was the last. "The king Apepi (Apophis) chose the god Sutekh (Set or Shem) as his Lord, and did not serve any other god in the whole land" and also commanded a vassal king to repudiate his gods (Sallier Papyrus in Br. Museum). Thus Apophis warred against Osiris (Plutarch S.36; Cumberland's Sanchoniathon, p.165). Syncellus says that it was a tradition, "received by the whole world," that Joseph ruled the land in the reign of King Apophis or Apepi" (Brugach, Hist. of Egypt, 1:260). Therefore Apepi (Agag) was being grateful to the God of Joseph and Shem who saved Egypt from famine. Incidentally, the Israelites who later joined these Shepherd Kings in Egypt were also "shepherds" (Gen. 47:3). 

"For many ages men lived under the government of Jove (Jehovah) without cities and without laws, and all speaking one language. But after Mercury (Hermes means "son of Ham" -- Cush) interpreted (divided) the speeches of men, the same individual distributed the nations. Then discord began" (Hyginnius, p. 114). Thus the name of Cush became synonymous with "CONFUSION" -- Chaos. Proof that Cush was also known as Bel can be found in Jeremiah 1:2 where we read, "Bel is confounded" or "CONFUSION is CONFUSED." This father of the gods, also known as Janus, says, "The ancients called me CHAOS." (Ovid, Fasti book 1, verse 104; vol.3 p.19). "CHAOS is CHAOTIC" (Jer. 1:2). 

"There were FALLEN ONES in the earth in those days (before the Flood), and also after that (after the Flood), when the sons of God (the FALLEN ANGELS) came in unto the daughters of men (temple priestesses) and they bare children to them; the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown" (Gen. 6:4). How did this happen? Is there any secular historical confirmation? According to Herodotus, on top of the tower of Belus at Babylon was the temple of Belus (Cush) in which was "a handsome couch and table of gold." "No mortal" he says, "passes the night there, except one woman chosen by the god (FALLEN ANGEL) out of the whole nation. He adds that the priests "assert that the god (FALLEN ANGEL) himself comes to the temple and reclines on the bed in the same manner as the Egyptians say happens at the temple of Thebes in Egypt, for there also a woman lies in the temple of the Theban Jupiter, and both are said to have no intercourse with men." So also he says that the priestess of the oracle at Paterae in Lycia is "shut up during the night in the temple with the god." (FALLEN ANGEL) (Herodotus 1:181-182). The purpose of these tower temples may have been to BREED nephilim GIANTS -- "greater in power and might" (2 Pet. 2:11). "The angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day" (Jude 6). They "went after strange flesh" (Jude 6). Greek "mythology" is full of accounts of affairs between gods and mortals. Babel originally meant "Gate of God." Pausanius mentions in his Attics finding men's bones in Milesia that were 15 feet long. Anciently Milesia was called Anactoria after the Anakim (p.477-478, Sanchoniathon).

The resulting CONFUSION produced certain strange races of GIANTS in Palestine, the Rephaim, Enim, Anakium and Zuzim. They were not Canaanites, as there is no mention of them in the geneologies in Genesis 10:15-19. They were the result of intercourse between fallen angels and women of Canaan. They were irredeemably evil since "the man that wanders out of the way of understanding shall remain in the congregation of the Rephaim" (Pr. 21:16) and the woman "which forsaketh the guide of her youth and forgetteth the covenant of her God, inclineth to the Rephaim" (Pr. 2:17-18). Spiritually dead. "The Rephaim shall not rise" (Isa. 26:14). The KJV doesn't do justice to these verses. Look in a Hebrew-English Interlinear. 

HUMAN SACRIFICES were offered to Baal and the word "CANNIBAL" is derived from Cahna Bal -- the priest of Bel (Cush). Cush was the originator of HUMAN SACRIFICES. Belus (Cush) was the first king of Babylon and Assyria (Cory's Fragments, pp. 65, 70-71). "The tyrant Zoroaster, of the line of Cham (Ham), was one of the founders of the Tower of Babel; he sacrificed innumerable VICTIMS to the demons" (Nimrod vol.1, p.146). "It was the custom among the ancients in time of great calamity, in order to prevent the ruin of all, for the rulers of the city, or nation, to SACRIFICE to the avenging deities the most beloved of their CHILDREN as the price of redemption" (Sanchoniathon, from Porphyry, Cory, Fragments pp. 16-17). Aristomenes sacrificed 300 , one of whom was the Spartan king, to Jupiter. The Carthaginians, when defeated by Agathocles, offered 200 youths to Saturn. 20,000 human victims annually polluted the altars of Mexico. Elian records a happy mother's joy at sight of a divine crocodile devouring her honored child. The Druids offered several human victims inclosed together in a vast statue composed of wicker.


Nimrod (Marduk) Was An Ethiopian Giant and A Tyrant Who Rebelled Against God

Varro reckons the interval between the Flood (2304 BC) and the first Olympiad (776 BC) to be about 1600 years (p.84, Sanchoniathon). Josephus also says that "more than one thousand three hundred years" elapsed from Menes (Cush or Misraim) until Solomon (Ant. 8:6:2). If Solomon was born in 990 BC, then 1300 years before that, brings us to 2290 BC. and Cush or Misraim reigned 62 years making Nimrod's accession about 2228 BC. More precisely, several independent methods of reckoning place the beginning of Nimrod's reign at 2234-2233 B.C. (Garnier's Worship of the Dead, pp. 280-285; see also Pliny NH 7:56 and Rawlinson's Herodotus vol. 1, essay 6, pp.434-435). Callisthenes, a relation and disciple of Aristotle, who accompanied Alexander the Great on his eastern expedition, was told by the priests of the temple of Belus in Babylon, that they had preserved a series of Chaldean astronomical calculations, which extended over a space of 1903 years before that time. Alexander conquered Babylon in 330 BC. These records therefore must have begun 2233 BC. From Ninyas (son of Nimrod and Semiramus) to Sardanapalus, the Assyrian Empire continued 1360 years (Diodorus Siculus 2:77). Since Sardanapalus died in 747 BC, that would place Ninyas reign at 2107 BC. There were in fact two Assyrian Empires: Ninyas to Sardanapalus was the first. It was divided between Arbaces of Media and Belesis of Babylon; and from then till the destruction of Nineveh by Nabopolassar was the second. Diodorus Siculus 1:29 says that after the time of Menes (Misraim) 52 kings reigned a space of over 1400 years (actually 1370 years from Menes to Sesostris according to Sir John Marsham's tables of the Theban Kings) where nothing historically noteworthy occurred. That time period ended with Sesostris or Shishak raiding Jerusalem (2 Chr. 12:9) in the fifth year of Rehoboam (926 BC) since Diodorus says Sesostris performed the most illustrious actions, far exceeding all before him (1:34). For Herodotus says "the other kings, they gave no account of their deeds, nor ... were in any degree of renown, except one, the last of them, Moeris" (2:100-104) -- who constructed a lake. Moeris was the immediate predecessor of Sesostris. Then Herodotus talks in detail about the conquests of Sesostris. Josephus agrees that Sesostris was Shishak (Antiq. 8:4 p.368). 

Syncellus (and Ctesias -- 400 BC) says the reign of Ninus or Nimrod (Athothes) was 52 years. Manetho gives Athothes (Nimrod) a reign of 57 years, and Eratosthenes gives him a reign of 59 years. If we subtract 57 years from 2234 BC we get 2177 BC for Nimrod's death and the accession of Shem as Shepherd king. Scaliger, speaking of the Babylonian kings, says that "Belus reigned sixty-two years, Ninus fifty-two years, and Semiramis, called Rhea, on account of her manifold atrocities, forty-two years" (Cory, Fragments, p.76). In accordance with this, we find in the list of Egyptian kings, that both Manetho and Eratosthenes give Menes, like Belus, a reign of sixty-two years, and Athothes, who must be the same as Ninus, is given a reign of fifty-seven years by Manetho and fifty-nine years by Eratosthenes (Egyptian Dynasties, Cory, pp.84,94). Semiramis was slain, in the forty-second year of her reign, by her son, for courting him in her embraces (Justin 1:1-2).

The Semitic root "marah" (MR) in Hebrew means BITTERNESS as well as DISOBEDIENCE. From this root is derived "marad" (MRD), or REBELLION, which is the original both of Nimrod (the Babylonian Nin-Mir-Rud), or (NMRD), as well as Marduk/Merodach (MRDK). Nimrod (or Marduk) conquered all nations as far as Libya (Bryant, Mythology vol.2, p.377). This means that Egypt was included since it was between Babylon and Libya. Nimrod protected the Sumerians (Miller's Ancient History in Bible Light, p.51) from wild animals by building walled cities (Gen. 11:4). One such city was NINEVEH meaning "the habitation of NIN" (Gen. 10:11). "Ninus is Nimrod" (Appollodoros, Fragments 68). Diodorus and Pompeius also confirm that the biblical Nimrod was Ninus, the first of the kings of Assyria (Babylon included). He also protected the Egyptians by building THEBES. "Osiris having married Isis, in many ways promoted the good of that (Egyptian) kingdom, but especially by building the chief city thereof, called by the Greeks Diospolis (THEBES), but called by the Jews 'Hamon No,' and erected a temple to his parent, whom the Greeks called Zeus and Hera, but the Egyptians Ammon, and the Jews Hamon and HAM" (History of Sanchoniathon, p.99). In the Jerusalem Targum it is said, "he was a hunter of the chidren of men in their languages, and he said unto them, Depart from the religion of Shem, and cleave unto the institutes of Nimrod."

Josephus says, "Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an AFFRONT and CONTEMPT of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, -- a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it was through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into TYRANNY, -- seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a CONSTANT DEPENDENCE upon his power. He also said he would be REVENGED on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world again; for that he would BUILD a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! and that he would AVENGE himself on God for destroying their forefathers!" (Ant. 1:4:2)  

Notice EIGHT PARALLELS between Nimrod and Gilgamesh. Just as (1.) Nimrod or Gilgamesh was "11 cubits tall" (16 feet) (tablet 1) -- a "GIANT" (Gen. 10:9 Septuagint), (2.) a "king of URUK" (tablet 1) or Erech (Gen. 10:10), (3.) "two-thirds god and one third man" (tablet 1) (one of the NEPHILIM -- Gen. 6:1-4) (4.) "OPPRESSING his people" (tablet 1) (a tyrant -- Gen. 10:8-9) (5.) by "FORCING men to labor" (tablet 1) on BUILDING projects ("builded" -- Gen. 10:11) and (6.) "RAPING WIVES on their wedding nights" (tablet 1) ("they took them wives of all whom they chose" -- Gen. 6:2). (7.) He HUNTED lions (tablet 9) -- a "mighty hunter" (Gen. 10:9), and (8.) claimed to have VANQUISHED the one who sent the Flood (tablet 5) according to the Epic of Gilgamesh. He was "against the Eternal" (10:9). 

Ninus and Semiramis were the first rulers of the Babylonian Empire (Cory's Fragments p.66). "Ninus is Nimrod" (Appollodoros, Fragments 68). He became the HUSBAND of his MOTHER (Bunsen's Egypt vol.1, pp.438-439; Rawlinson's Herodotus vol.1 essay 10, pp. 625,626). Persians say he (Ghemschid - Nimrod) married the daughter of a demon implying Semiramis had a Nephilim father, and that from this marriage sprang "the BLACK and IMPIOUS RACE" (Smith's Dict. of the Bible, "Giants"). Egyptian tradition shows that their god Osiris (Nimrod) was BLACK (Plutarch's De Isid, et. Os. vol.2, p.359), not reddish like the Misraim population generally. He was clothed in LEOPARD skin (Bunsen vol. 1, p.425). The name "Nimrod" means "subduer of the LEOPARD " -- from Nimr, a "LEOPARD", and "rod" "to subdue." This name seems to imply that Nimrod subdued the LEOPARD and used it in hunting (Hislop, p.44). In India hunting with leopards has been a custom (Wilkinson vol.3, p. 171). Persian legends show that Hosang (Cush) the father of Tahmurs (Nimrod) who built Babylon, was the "first who bred dogs and leopards for hunting" (Sir William Jones' Works vol.4, pp. 341,353). The Egyptian high priest's robe of office was the LEOPARD'S skin. Nimrod, by the same spotted covering, is identified as being the Greek god Bacchus (Bar = son + Chus = Son of Cush). Leopards were employed to draw Bacchus' chariot. He was represented as attired in leopard skins and his priests were attired in the same manner or with the spotted skin of a fawn. This latter seems to have come from Assyria (Vaux's Nineveh, ch. 8, p.233). 

Diodorus Siculus said, the rites of the Egyptian Osiris and the Grecian Bacchus are the same, and those of the Egyptian Isis (Semiramis) and Greek Ceres (Semiramis) exactly resemble each other (Bibliotheca book 1 p.9). Nimrod instigated the discord and the apostasy after the Flood. "He was a MIGHTY (Heb. "gibbor" meaning "TYRANT" or "GIANT") hunter BEFORE (Heb. "paniym" means "AGAINST") the Eternal" (Gen. 10:8-9). Nimrod was AGAINST God. The Septuagint calls him a GIANT. Conspiracy and sedition were carried on by Nimrod (Epiphanius book 1 vol. 1, p. 7). He was a "hunter" of men's souls (cp. Jer. 16:16). 

Diodorus Siculus says, "Ninus, the first of the Assyrian kings mentioned in history, performed great actions. Being naturally of a warlike disposition, and ambitious of glory that results from valour, he armed a considerable number of young men that were brave and vigorous like himself, trained them up a long time in laborious exercises and hardships and by that means accustomed them to bear the fatigues of war and to face dangers with intrepidity" (Diodorus, Bibl. vol.2, p.63). Trogus Pompeius says, "Ninus, king of the Assyrians, first of all changed the contented moderation of the ancient manners, incited by a new passion, the desire for conquest. He was the first who carried on war against his neighbors, and he conquered all nations from Assyria to Lybia, as they were as yet unacquainted with the art of war" (Justin's Trogus Pompeius, Hist. Rom. Scrip. , vol. 2, p.615). Nimrod invented MAGIC arts and ASTROLOGY used them to impress his converts (Epiphanius Adv. Heres. 1:1:1: p.7; Justinius Historia book 1 volume 2, p.615).

The Dagon-Oannes (FISH-GOD) MITER, worn by the pope, began in Babylon. Sacred temple prostitutes called NUNS originated in Babylon (Her. 1:199). The church STEEPLE with BELL began as phallic worship in a high place. Semiramis parallels "a woman" (church -- Eph. 5:23) who now sits on seven hills (Rome -- Rev.17:9,18; Pliny NH 3:66) and has the number 666 (Filii Vicarvs Dei) (Rev.13:8). She has Protestant-daughter harlot churches (Rev.17:5). Her Babylonian cardinals wear bright RED GARMENTS (Dan. 5:16; Ez.23:14-15) or are BLACK-ROBED Baal-worshippers (Zeph.1:4) wearing vestments (2 Ki.10:22). Forbidden to marry (CELIBATE) and eating fish on Friday rather than meat (1 Tim.4:3), called "FATHER" as a religious title (Judges 17:10; 18:19; Matt.23:9), cutting bald TONSURES upon their heads (Lev.21:5), they worship the "QUEEN OF HEAVEN" (Jer.44:17-19) using HOT CROSS BUNS (Jer.7:18-20), GRAVEN IMAGES (Ex.20:4; Deut. 4;16) and PICTURES (Num.33:52). They kiss Baal STATUES (1 Ki.19:18) and carry them around (Isa.46:6-7). They give money for their dead in PURGATORY (Deut.26:14) and recite "VAIN REPETITIONS" (Matt.6:7) such as "Hail Mary." But only Jesus is mediator between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 4:14). After CONFESSING every thought to an instructor who asks VILE QUESTIONS to the young and innocent which frequently cause their ruin, they are sprinkled with holy water. Why confess to a priest (cp. James 5:16)? Why worship angels (Col. 2:18)? God is our Rock -- not Peter (Ps. 18:31). They celebrate ISHTAR SUNRISE SERVICES (Ez.8:16) and pollute God's name with their X-Mass (Ez.20:39) and X-MASS TREE (Jer.10:1-5). They weep for Tammuz at LENT (Ez.8:14) and have changed God's festivals and oppressed Jews and Protestant Christians (Dan.7:8,25). God says, "Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the CHALDEANS; for thou shalt no more be called, The lady of kingdoms ... But these two things shall come to thee ... in one day: the loss of children (Protestant Reformation in 1517), and widowhood (Loss of Papal States in 1870) (Isa. 47:5,9).

Shem (Melchizedek) Executed Nimrod (Marduk) for Idolatry

At the Tower of Babel different ethnic groups were given different languages. Since nobody could understand eachother, Nimrod, Semiramis and Horus were each given a different name in each different language. What thereafter appeared to be polytheism was actually just the same ruling family of Babylon under multiple names. Many nations around the world -- Japan, China, India, Scandinavia, Ireland and Iceland -- each WEEP for their dead god (Marduk, Osiris, Balder, Tammuz, Bacchus, Nin, Mithra) hoping for him to be restored to life. This practice is still found today in the LENT season. Bacchus actually means "the BEWAILED One" or "LAMENTED One" (Hislop, pp. 55-57). Even Israelites in their time wept for the death of Tammuz: "There sat women WEEPING for Tammuz" (Ez. 8:14).

Shem was regarded as the foe of Osiris and all the gods of Egypt (Bunsen's Egypt 1:456). "When the false prophet named Thammuz (Nimrod) preached to a certain king that he should WORSHIP the seven STARS and the twelve SIGNS of the ZODIAC, that king ordered him to be put to a terrible death ... And hence arose the custom every year, on the first day of the month Thammuz, to mourn and to weep for Thammuz" (Maimonides, More Nevochim, p. 426). 

Who executed this giant Nimrod? His name was "Sem" (Wilkinson, vol.5, p.17) who killed him "by the power of God" and then cut his body into pieces (vol.4, pp.330-332) or tearing him limb from limb (p.81, Sanchoniathon). Shem was also known as "Sheth" (Num. 24:17). Typho was called Seth (Epiphanius, Adv. Haeres., book 3). Plutarch gives to Typhon the titles of "Seth" and "Smy", and the latter in Greek would be "Smu" which is evidently the same as "Semu". Therefore, another account reads: "Set, the brother of Osiris, rebelled against him and cut his body in pieces" (Rawlinson's Egypt and Babylon). Both Seth and Shem are synonymous and mean "the appointed one" (p.65, Hislop). He was called Sydyc (Melchizedek -- p. 47. Sanchoniathon). Just as Nimrod was torn in pieces in Babylon by the hand of Shem when his body was dismembered and the pieces distributed throughout the cities of Nimrod's dominion, so also Orpheus was torn to pieces in Thrace, and Bacchus was torn to pieces in Greece, and Osiris was torn to pieces in Egypt.

As further proof that Typhon was Titan, or Shem, it is related by Plutarch that when Typhon was subsequently conquered, he fled away and begat Hierosolymus and Judaeus (Plutarch De Iside, S. 31; Cumberland's Sanchoniathon, p.108). That is Hierosalem, or Jerusalem, and Judea. This is a mystical way of saying that he was the founder of Jerusalem and the ancestor of the Jews. This tends to identify Shem with Melchizedek, whose name means "righteous king," and who was king of Salem or Jerusalem. As "priest of the Most High God" (Heb. 7:1), he was evidently the origin of the name Jerusalem, or Hierosalem, "Hieros" or "Hiereus" meaning "priest."

Typhon overcame Osiris "not by force or open war, but, having entered into a conspiracy with SEVENTY-TWO of the LEADING MEN of Egypt, he got him into his power and put him to death, and then cut his body into pieces and sent the different parts to so many different cities throughout the country" (Wilkinson's Egyptians 4:330-332). This agrees with Diodorus who reported that Egypt was divided into SEVENTY-TWO Nomes and each had a JUDGE (Diodorus 1:48-58; Hislop, p.64 note). Ancient Greeks recognized Shem as Typhon of Egypt and he was also recognized as such by Herodotus (485-425 B.C.) and Plutarch (46 B.C.). Plutarch says that Shem was a fair person with a red complexion. “TYPHON HAD RED HAIR” (De Iside et Osiride , 362. xxx). Shem (Typhon -- a derogatory name applied to him by the Egyptians) “was red in complexion” and “had red hair.” For an account of Nimrod’s death at the hands of Shem (Typhon) see Diodorus of Sicily, Vol. I, Book 1, para. 21, and para. 88. Notice the following interesting quote: “RED oxen, however, may be sacrificed, because it is thought that this was the colour of TYPHON (Shem), who plotted against Osiris [another name for Nimrod] and was then punished by Isis [Semiramis] for the death of her husband. Men also, if they were of the same colour as Typhon, were sacrificed, they say, in ancient times by the kings at the tomb of Osiris; however, only a few Egyptians are now found RED in colour, but the majority of such are non-Egyptians” (Diodorus of Sicily, Book I, para. 88).


Secular History Confirms Tower of Babel Dispersion in 2203 BC or After

The Tower of Babel is said to have been built in “a plain in the land of Shinar” ( Gen 11:2). Sennaar of Babylon is mentioned by Hestiaeus the Milesian (Ant. 1:5 & Eusebius de pr. ev. 9:15) and the city of Singara in Mesopotamia is mentioned by several (Ptolemy table 4; Pliny Nat. Hist.; Amm. Marc.). As for the difference between the words Shinaar and Singar, it is very small, considering in the Hebrew, the same character stands for the Ain and the Ghain. For instance either Gomorrah or Amorrah is correct. Either Gazah or Azzah (Gen. 10:19).

The first names in the Bible, whether given to men or places, were all Hebrew. The explanation or meaning of those names was also in Hebrew. Thus, Adam ("Red Mud"), Eve ("Living"), Cain ("Get"), Seth ("Appointed"), Noah ("Rest"), Nimrod ("Rebel"), Babel ("To Confound"), Abraham ("Father of a Multitude") etcetera all had Hebrew names. The wonderful names by which God has revealed Himself to us -- Jehovah-Jireh ("The Lord Will Provide" -- Gen. 22:13), El Shaddai ("Lord God Almighty" -- Gen. 17:1), and El-Roi (Gen. 16:13 -- "The One who Sees") -- were also Hebrew. Jerusalem is a combination of Jireh, when Abraham offered Isaac, and Shalom, the residence of Melchizedek (Beresh. Rabbah 9). The confusion of tongues occurred among those who had forsaken God, leaving the original language with His obedient Heber children who were "separate from sinners" in Babylon. Hence it was called Hebrew. The confusion was in "pronunciation" (Young's Literal Trans.), which accounts for the existence of Hebrew roots in every language. Pronunciation, not words or roots, were altered.

"They journeyed eastward" (miqedem) (Gen. 11:2) is the correct translation based on the same phrase found in Genesis 13:11 where Lot journeyed "eastward" (miqedem) from Bethel to the Jordan plain. Henry Rawlinson shows that the chronology of Ctesias makes the beginning of the reign of Ninus (Nimrod) 2231 B.C. (Rawlinson's Herodotus vol.1, pp.434-435). Then at the Tower of Babel mankind was divided into linguistic groups around 2203 BC when Peleg ("Division") was given his name, "for in his days was the earth divided" (Gen. 10:25). Psalm 55:9 uses the same root to describe a moral division -- not a physical one. Undaunted by the dispersion of his followers, Nimrod obstinately remained upon the spot, when a violent wind overthrew the tower, and crushed the tyrant as it fell (Syncellus, Chronog., p.42; Cedrenus Comp. Hist., p.11). Then the "square pyramid" (Strabo) Tower of Babel ziggurat became the model for Hindu pagodas, solar temples of Mexico, the pyratheia of Persia and even the pyramids of Egypt. A perpetual signal fire at the top provided a LANDMARK "lest we be scattered abroad" (Gen. 11:4) -- to prevent dispersion of mankind and aid in navigation. They were after all living in a vast, undistinguished plain and neede to travel far and wide for pasture, etcetera. The name "shem" should not be rendered "name", but "SIGN," so the passage reads, "Let us make us a SIGN (beacon), lest we be scattered." The ziggurat tower fire was used to worship the sun, moon and stars. The king studied their movements before making any important decision or going to war (ASTROLOGY). The ritual of HUMAN SACRIFICE was performed at the top, while royal BURIAL CHAMBERS were hidden deep inside. A woman spent the night in the top temple and had SEX with the "god" (fallen angel) (Her. 1:181-182; Gen. 6:4) TO PRODUCE GIANTS. The Babylonian harlot sat on seven hills (cp. Rev. 17:9). The tower, it is supposed, afterwards became the tower of Belus in that city. Herodotus visited this tower, and described it as a square pyramid 660 feet in length and breadth, or half a mile in circumference at the base, from which arose eight towers one above another, decreasing in size to the summit, which was reached by a broad road winding up around the outside, wide enough for carriages to pass eachother, and even to turn. Strabo says it rose to the same height -- 660 feet. Its ruins are supposed to be Birs Nimroud.

Berosus, as quoted by Abydenus, informs us: "They say that the first inhabitants of the earth, glorying in their own strength and size, and despising the gods, undertook to raise a tower, whose top should reach the sky, in the place in which Babylon now stands; but when it approached the heaven, the winds assisted the gods, and overthrew the work upon its contrivers: and its ruins are said to be still at Babylon: and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men who, till that time, had all spoken the same language" (Cory's Fragments, p.34). Eupolemus wrote to the same effect: "The city of Babylon owes its foundation to those who were saved from the catastrophe of the Deluge. They were the giants, and they built the tower which is noticed in history. But the tower being overthrown by the interposition of God, the giants were scattered over all the earth" (ibid., p.57; Euseb. Praep Evang. 9:18). Ancient Sibylline oracles also testified: "When the tower rose to the skies upon Assyria's plain, and all mankind one language only knew; A dread commission from on high was given to the fell whirlwinds, which with dire alarm beat on the tower, and to its lowest base shook it, convulsed. And now all intercourse, by some occult and over-ruling power, ceased among men: by utterance they strove perplexed and anxious to disclose their mind; but their lip failed them, and in lieu of words, produced a painful babbling sound: the place was hence called Babel; by the apostate crew named from the event. Then severed far away, they sped uncertain into realms unknown: thus kingdoms rose, and the glad world was filled" (Bryant's Ancient Mythology, vol. 4, p.103; Antiq. 1:5). Hestiaeus says, "The priests who escaped" (from the Deluge) "took with them the implements of the worship of the Enyalian Jove, and came to Senaar in Babylonia. But they were again driven from thence by the introduction of a diversity of tongues; upon which they founded colonies in various parts, each settling in such situations as chance or the direction of God led them to occupy" (Cory's Fragments. p.50). Josephus cites a declaration of one of the Sibyls to the following effect: "When all men spoke one common language, some of them built a most lofty tower, as if with an intention of scaling heaven: but the Gods, sending a violent wind, overthrew it, and gave a different mode of speaking to each person; for which reason the city was called Babylon" (Ant. 1:4; Euseb, Praep. Evan. 9; Syncel. 44).

Nimrod, (the Belus of profane history) the grandson of Ham, built Babylon on the Euphrates and Asshur, son of Shem, built the city of Nineveh (capital of Assyria) on the Tigris. Menes (Mizraim) was the first king of Egypt. Sometime later Shepherd Kings ruled for 259 years in Egypt. Justin mentions "Phoenicians driven to Tyre by an earthquake" (Philip. 18:3) which probably subverted Babel. These emigrants were descendants of Canaan, who, as Eupolemus informs us, was the founder of the Phoenicians. The Phoenicians (Canaanites) colonized Greece, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain and western coast of Africa.

"Jove sent a flood to destroy the men of the brazen age" (Homer's Iliad 1:10. Didym.) (this was Deucalon's flood c.1548 BC - Parian Chronicle; Herodotus 7:129; Aristotle's Meteorology 1:12;
Apollonius Rhodius 3:1085-9; Pindar Olymp.v.76;
Ovid's Metam. 1:187)

"Babylon brought to subjection, [small] and great he confounded their speech. their strong place [tower] all the day they founded; to their strong place in the night entirely he made an end. In his anger also word thus he poured out: [to] scatter abroad he set his face he gave this? command, their counsel was confused" (Assyrian fragment col. 1:7-14; Smith, Chald. Acct of Gen., p.160).

"To this came next, in course, the brazen age:
A warlike offspring, prompt to bloody rage."
(Ovid's Metam. 1:160)

"Semiramis is said to have surrounded the city
(Babylon) with baked bricks."
-- Ovid Meta. 4:58

"Struck by the smoking bolt he headlong fell,
and scorching lightning hurled him down to hell"
-- Lucian Tragopod 312

In Humboldt's "Researches" he says that "According to the ancient traditions collected by the Bishop Francis Nunez de la Vega the Wodan of the Chiapanese (of Mexico) was grandson of that illustrious man who at the time of the great deluge, in which the greater part of the human race perished, was saved on a raft together with his family. Wodan cooperated in the construction of the great edifice which had been undertaken by men to reach the skies: the execution of which project was interrupted: each family received from that time a different language: and the great spirit Teotl ordered Wodan to go and people the country of Anahuac." (Wodan was grandson of Noah and
it was Cush who was known in Babylon as "the Lord" -- Baal or Adon [Wodan]).

"He (Jupiter) seized him (Vulcan-Ham) by the foot, and headlong threw From the high tower of Belus" (Homer's Iliad 591)

"Nor were the gods themselves secure above;
Against beleagured heaven the giants move:
Hills piled on hills, on mountains mountains lie,
To make their mad approaches to the sky.
Till Jove, no longer patient, took his time
To avenge with thunder their audacious crime."
-- Ovid Metam. 1:151

"Giants ... built the tower... But when this had been overthrown by the act of God, a diversity of tongues was introduced among men, and the giants were dispersed over the whole earth" (Eus. Praep. 9:17; Syncel. Chron. 44; Eusebius Chron. 13)

Proud Nimrod first the bloody chase began,
A mighty hunter -- and his prey was man.

Seventy-Two Nations Correspond to Seventy-Two Israelites

There are SEVENTY-TWO nations mentioned in Genesis 10 (see LXX) (not counting the three sons of Noah). Japheth's 14; Ham's 30; and Shem's 28. Horus Apollo says, "It is reported that the world was formerly in SEVENTY-TWO divisions:" Epiphanius adopts SEVENTY-TWO nations. Hippolytus' Chronicle refers to SEVENTY-TWO nations (pp. 50, 52, 331). Syncellus mentions SEVENTY-TWO languages. Clement of Alexandria says there were only SEVENTY-TWO languages (Strom. 1:21; 142:2). Enoch agrees to SEVENTY-TWO languages of the world (3 En. 17:8; 18:2; 20:2). As Moses said, "When the Eternal divided to the nations their inheritance; when he separated Adam's sons, he set the boundaries of the people, according to the number of the children of Israel" (Deut. 32:8) because there were also SEVENTY-TWO Israelites. "And the sons of Joseph, who were born to him in Egypt, were TWO souls: all the souls of the house of Jacob, who came into Egypt, were THREESCORE and TEN" (Gen. 46:27) -- a total of SEVENTY-TWO. "He cast out the heathen also before them, and divided them an inheritance by line, and made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents." (Ps. 78:55).

Other instances where the Bible mentions this number are: SEVENTY left the camp and TWO remained in the camp (Nu. 11:16). SEVENTY-TWO cattle (Nu. 31:38) and lambs (1 Esd. 8:65). Later, the number SEVENTY-TWO would also be the number of Hebrew scholars who translated the Scriptures into Greek, six from each of the twelve tribes requested by King Ptolemy II Philadelphus (282-246 BC), which they accomplished in SEVENTY-TWO days. (Letter of Aristeas 32) Also "The Lord appointed SEVENTY-TWO others and sent them two by two" (Luke 10:1).

After the Flood, Noah and Japheth settled in northern Armenia at the banks of the Araxes, in a town named Nachshevan (Noah's settlement). He married a nymph named Asia. Shem settled in Sham (Damascus) and may have been Melchizedek (King of Righteousness), and Ham settled in Babylon as its first king -- Belus.

At the dispersion of mankind, Cush retained possession of Babylon, and his descendants populated Chusistan (called Cusha Dwipa within by the Hindus), Arabia, the southern shores of Persia, and southern India. Hindoos are descended from Cush and Phut (Hindoo Kush mountains; Kashmere; Brahma-Putra). The Arabians divide the country of the Hindus into two parts: Sind (west - Indus) and Hind (east - Ganges). The Greek name for CUSH was "AETHIOPS" (cp. Jer.13:23). Egyptian monumental inscriptions call the land south of Egypt "KEESH" (modern Geez). Tell el Amarna tablets call this land "KASHI" (Ethiopia). The Meroitic Ethiopians are called KASU (9:847a). The "Ethiopians ... are even at this day, both by themselves, and by all men in Asia, called CUSHITES" (Ant. 1:6:2). Eusebius says the Ethiopians came and settled in Egypt in the time of Amenophis (Chron. ad Num. 402). He places Amenophis's reign so as to end about 431 years after Abraham's birth. According to Philostratus, there was no such country as Ethiopia below Egypt until this migration (Vit. Apollon. Tyanei 3:20); these people came, according to Eusebius, from the river Indus (Chron. ubi sup.), and planted themselves in the parts beyond Egypt southward. Thus began the kingdom of Ethiopia. Homer mentions two Ethiopian nations "in twain are divided ... Some toward the setting sun, and some toward the land of his rising" (Odyss. 1:23). See also Herodotus 7:70. Apollodorus says the African Ethiopians came from India (Argonaut. 6:1,4,6). Eustathius hints that the Ethiopians came from India (Dionys. p. 35). "'Abyssinian' ... is derived from the Arabic Habesh, 'mixed' and was a derisive name applied by the Arabs to the heterogenous inhabitants of the Abyssinian plateau.... The majority ... may be described as a mixed Hamito-Semitic people ... hair long and straight or somewhat curled and in colour dark olive, approaching to black" (1:88ab).

Misr migrated to Egypt (Gen.13:10; Isa. 19:6). From him came the Caphtorim (Gen. 10:14) who named Egypt "Ai capt" or "covered land" because according to Herodotus "the delta was originally a marsh covered with water, and so was all the lower Egypt" (Her. 2:4). They became the Copts. The Naphtuhim moved to Algeria. Phut possessed the northern coast of Africa, specifically Libya (Ant. 1:6:2). Jerome notices a district in Libya, called Regio Phutensis, or "the land of Phut." Phut migrated to northwestern parts of India -- in Rajah Putana; on the banks of the Puddah or Ganges; in Bhutan; and in Bhuto or Tibet. Canaan settled in Phoenicia and Palestine. The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah were Canaanite. Tyre and Sidon were also cities of Canaan. "The Phoenicians themselves say, that they formerly dwelt on the Red Sea, and passing from thence, stationed themselves on the sea coast of Syria. All this region of Syria, up to Egypt, is called Palestine." (Herodotus 7:89) Sanchoniatho says that Chna was the first who was called a Phoenician (Apud Euseb. praep. evang. 1:10 p.39).

Elam became the Persians (Ant. 1:6:4). Elymis, the capital city, was later called Persepolis (2 Macc. 9:2). Southern Persia was called Elymais. Asshur moved to Assyria where he built Nineveh (Ant. 1:6:4). These Karman Persians became known as Germans (Her. 1:125) who migrated to Europe and were called Prussians. The Egyptians called the Assyrians Rutennu. This name may have been derived from the "great city" of Resen built by Asshur (Gen. 10:11), with the commonplace interchange of a dental and a sibilant frequent in Shemitic languages. Arphaxad settled in the province of Arrapachitis as Chaldeans (Ant. 1:6:4). The Assyrian S, when it comes before a dental, was generally pronounced as an L. The Hebrew Khasdim became Assyrian Khaldi. Xenophon's Anabasis generally calls them Khalubes, but when negotiating with the men of Sinope (5:5:17) he terms them Khaldaioi, and Strabo expressly identifies the two races as one (12:3:19). The ancient capital of Armenia was named Artaxiasata and the Arpatchai River is in the south Caucasus. The father of Abraham went forth with his family "from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came unto Haran and dwelt there" (Gen. 11:31). Haran was the karrhai of Ptolemy, which lay between the Khabour and the Euphrates, in the district called Padan-aram (Gen. 25:20). As Canaan was southwest of Haran, it follows that Ur was northeast. In this direction, in the highlands drained by the eastern arm of the Euphrates, was a place called Ur (Amm. Marc. 25:7-8), and in its neighborhood were settled the Khalubes of Xenophon, who, as Strabo tells us (12:3:19), were the same people as the Khaldaioi. Hence we have "Ur of the Chaldees." Abraham and Isaac (Saxons) descended from this branch mixing with Arameans of Shem. Lud founded the Lydians of Asia Minor (Ant. 1:6:4) and Herodotus calls them Etrurians. Arabic legends found in Abulfeda's Historia Ante-Islamica say that Amalekites ruled in Egypt, that Joseph's pharaoh was an Amalekite and that Amalekites descended from Lud (Abulfeda, Hist. Ante-Islamica, p.16). This is why Amalek was "first of the nations" (Hyksos) (Nu. 24:20). Amalekites were called Maachath (Malaka -- 2 Sam. 10:6-8 Onomasticon & LXX) or Makedones (Esther 9:24 LXX) who settled in Lydia and Thrace (pp.202, 222, Origines Celticae; Strabo 13:4:5; Pliny 5:31) (Macedonia). Haman is called the Agagite (Esther 8:3; 3:1) and Josephus makes him an Amalekite by descent (Ant. 2:6:5). The Septuagint in Esther 9:24 calls him the Makedon. Asclepiades the Egyptian historian published a book on Ogygian Egyptians (Hyksos?). The Oguges of Greek legend and Agagi in Persia (Origines Celticae, p.242) in all probability represent the Scriptural name of Agag (Nu. 24:7). Hence we may infer that the name Agag, which is twice given to the king of the Amalekites (Nu. 24:7; 1 Sam. 15:8), meant simply the Amalekite. Steph. Byz. informs us that Boeotia and Thebes were called Ogugia from Oguges son of Termera, who also gave the Lycians the name Ogugioi. The same writer quotes the Chronicles of Charax as his authority for saying that the whole of Attica was once called Ogugia. The Ludoi under Tursenos their leader, sailed from Smyrna, and after traversing many countries landed among the Ombrikoi where they were called Tursenoi (Her. 1:94). -- the Etrusci of Roman history. Virgil gives the Etruscans the name of Tyrrheni, according to the later Roman fashion (pp.254-255, Origines Celticae). Aram migrated to Padan-Aram; and crossed the Euphrates westward inhabiting Syria (Aram) (Ant. 1:6:4); and inhabiting Aramenia (or Armenia). Homer's Iliad mentions Arameans (2:783). Aram had four sons: Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus; Chul founded the Chaldeans; Kurds; northern Syrians (around the ancient city of Chalybon -- now Aleppo, and the river Chalus); Cholobatene and Colthene, provinces of Armenia; and the Chalybians and Colchians; Gether founded Bagetria, or Bactria (Ant. 1:6:4). Pliny says "the Massagetae were originally Arameans" (6:17). He became the Getes; Agathersi; Massagetes; Goths; and Scythians; finally becoming the the Gothic peoples of Europe: Norwegians, Swedes, Danes and English. Mash founded the district of the Masian mountains in central Armenia; the province of Moxoene, or Moush, in Armenia. Called Meshech in 1 Chr. 1:17. Joktan is called Kahtan by the Arabs. They descend from him. Their country of Arabia derives its name from Jarab, one of his sons. Ishmael's son Nebajoth became the Nabateans (Diodorus 2:48). Peleg may be the Pelasgians of Greece and Italy. The south of Spain was at a very early period inhabited by a people called IBERIANS and an EBRO River in Spain -- both taking their name from Eber. Also the Gaudalquiveir River (anciently called Wadi-al-HIBRI), as well as the island of HIBERNIA (Ireland today) and HEBRIDES (off Scotland) may take their names from him.

Japheth became the Latin Jupiter or the Greek Iapetus. Gomer gave his name to the Umbri of Italy (later called Latins when Aeneas and his Trojans united with them) and the ancient town of Comari, or Comara, in Galatia (Ant. 1:6:1). Then around the Caspian Sea, on the Jaxartes, in Tartary and in Sogdiana as Gomerians. Ptolemy 6:17 calls them Comerians between Paropamisus and Mount Imias and between the confluence of the rivers Oxus and Oby. Their capitol was Chomar. Ashkenaz gave his name to a river and bay called Ascanius in Bithynia. See Iliad 2:862 for a place called Askania. Pontus Euxine (Black Sea) was originally called Axinus; and the city of Tashkend and Assaceni and river Etchine sound similar. According to the Tartars and Orientals, the Chinese are descended from Tchin, the son of Japheth, and brother of Tarag, or Turk, from whom came the Turkmans (Togarmah). Tchin is therefore Ashkenaz. The orientals call all grandsons, sons. The proper name of the Siamese and the Schan States, or Laos, is Schans -- derived from Aschanaz. The name Siamese is corrupted from that of Scianese (Askenaz). The people of Cochin-China and Siam, as well as the Arabs, call China, Tcin, from which Europeans call it Sino-, and the people Sinese. The Atchenese of the empire of Atcheen, in Sumatra, are the descendants of Aschenaz. The capitol was Atcheen. Japan is named Sacaia (Pausan. 6:519). The letters T and S are often substituted for eachother. Riphath moved first to Paphlagonia (Ant. 1:6:1). Meala (book 1) assures us that anciently the people of Paphlagonia were called Riphataei, or Riphaces. He is called Diphath in 1 Chr. 1:6 because the resemblance of Resh and Daleth is very close. Pliny speaks of the Riphaei as the inhabitants of Paphlagonia. North of Hungary are Carpathian mountains. Rhone River in France.

The name Togarmah must have been transposed mistakenly since the r comes before the g in the Septuagint: Thorgama; and in Josephus: Thruggramma. And Trocmi in other writings. Also the Turkmans and some of the Tartars (Turkomania in Tartary and Scythia) state that they are descended from Torg, the son of Japheth and brother of Tchin, who founded the Chinese. The monkish historian Moses of Chorene derived the Armenians from Haik, son of Togarmah. Furthermore, the ancients state that some of the inhabitants of Scythia were descendants of Targitaus, son of Jupiter. The Orientals, Persians and others state that the Turkomans and Turks are descendants of Tarag, son of Japheth. All have r before g. Togarmah first migrated to Phrygia (Ant. 1:6:1) and Galatia (Her. 7:73). Thrygamians probably became corrupted into Phrygians. A river in Phrygia was the Gallus, so the people were called Galli. These Phrygians and Galatians migrated to the south coast of France (Phraggoi) or Gaul and Belgium as Galati or Celts (or Gaels or Keltoi). In the 9th centurty, King Joseph of Khazaria wrote: "We have found in the family registers of our fathers that Togarma had ten sons, and the names of their offspring are as follows: Uigur (the Uighurs of W. China -- Brit. 27:469c; 20:359c), Dursu (the language of NE China is "Daur"), Avars (known as Avari peoples of Russian Georgia today), Huns (of Hungary), Basilii (named the Basilan Islands, Philippines?), Tarniakh, Khazar (Kazakhstan -- Brit. 15:774c; some Ashkenazi Jews came from Khazaria), Zagora, Bulgars (Bulgaria), Sabir (Siberia)." (Koester's Thirteenth Tribe, p.64). "It was from the ... Ugrian Finns that the Magyars came ... who in 889 and onward finally settled in ... Hungary (Ugri, Wengri, Ungri, Ungari, Hungari, Hungary) (p.260, Bliss, Peopling the Earth).

"Gomer, that is Gaul" writes Jerome and Eustathius (Comment. ad Ez. 38). "The Celts or Galatae are the descendants of Gomer" (Origin. 9:2) explains Isidore. The Gauls of Asia Minor inhabited part of Phrygia and later moved to France (as Phraggoi) or Gauls. Galatia was occupied by the Trogmi, Tectosages and Tolistoboii. Bochart observes that certain Gauls, under the conduct of Trocnus, made a settlement in Cappadocia, and were called Trocmi, or Throgmi. The Toorgmans inhabit the country beyond the Caucasus mountains extending from the river Kuban to the Caspian Sea. The river Terek runs into the Caspian Sea. Also the city and province of Astrakan. Another division of the Toorgmans, or Trukhmans, inhabit the territory east of the Caspian Sea, extending southwards to the river Attruck. The largest division of Toorgmans inhabit Turkestan proper, bounded on the west by the Aral Sea. Its chief cities are Turkestan and Tashkend. Tartars say their proper name is Toorgman, or Turk, otherwise Trukhman. All Tartar and Turkman races say they are descended from Toorg or Turk, the son of Japheth, who was first khan or king of all the nations now known as Turks, Turkomans, and Tartars; that he reigned in Central Asia, or Turkestan, and lived to the time of Abraham. The Armenians call the propagator of their nation, and the first ruler of their country, Haig or Haik whose father they believe to have been Torgama. A manuscript chronicle in the Georgian language, compiled by order of Tachtang, late Prince of Georgia, from the archives preserved in the mountains of Galatia, near Cutais, says, "In the year of the world 1792, BC 2208, there dwelt in a fortress on Mount Ararat, a man named Targamos. He lived 600 years, and was father of eight sons: 1. Aos, from whom descended the Armenians; 2. Kartelos... Georgians; 3. Baidos ... Shirvan; 4. Moakan ... Erivan; 5. Lekas ... Lesguis; 6. Eros ... Mingrelians; 7. Kaukas ... Caucasians; and 8. Egros ... Imeretians and Caketians."

Magog became the Scythians (Ant. 1:6:1), Georgians, Caucones, Kirghizes (Kyrgyzstan), Mogols or Mongols (Mongolia), Manchus (Manchuria) and Magyars (Hungary). North of the Great Wall of China are the Mogul Tartars from Magog -- whom Arabs call Majuj and Yajuj. Madai became the Medes. Pliny mentions "the river Don, where the inhabitants are the SARMATAE, said to be descended from the MEDES" (6:7) (UKRAINE). Herodotus tells us that "originally the Medes were called by all people Aryans" (7:62). Meshech migrated first to Cappadocia in Asia Minor (Ant. 1:6:1). Then into Muscovy where he built the city of Moscha, now called Moscow, on the river Moscha, now Moskwa. Tiras became the Thracians. His descendants also settled in Samothrace and Dacia. Tiras gave his name to the river Tyras (Dniester). He also gave his name to the river, bay and haven of Atyras in Thrace (now Glycynero); the town Tiristasis, the river Trausus, and a people called Trausi on its banks, in Thrace; the promontory Tiristria, and the town Trissae; and the river Tearus. Tiras became the "red" Thracians (Ant. 1:6:1; Astron. 1:1) and Etruscans we know as American Indians.

Javan became Ionia. Homer mentions the Iaones (Iliad 13). Javan in Scripture is translated Greece (Dan. 8:21; Joel 3:6). He had four sons. The first was Elisha (Elis, Hellen; Halizones, Lycians, Aeolians, Alisium). Olympia was a city of Elis where the Olympic games began in 776 BC and repeated every four years thereafter. The second was Tarshish (Tarsus Cilicia, Tartessus Spain, Tartary). The (Spanish) coast is called Tarseion by Polybius (L.3. Rosen. p.83). Holofornes went into Cilicia and destroyed all the children of Tarshish (Judith 2:12-13). The third was Kittim (Cyprus with capital Citium, Macetae of Macedonia, two town in Latium called Cetia and Echetia, a river near Cumae called Ketus). Homer mentions a people called "Cetii" (Odyssey 11:520; Strabo 13) (from the river Cetius). Eusebius says that the Latins sprang from the Kitioi, and the Romans also. Macedonia is called "land of Chetiim" (Maccabees 1:1; 8:5). Suidas mentions the "Latini, now Romans; for Telephus, the son of Hercules, who was called Latius, changed the name of those who before that were dominated Ketii into Latini" (Suidas, Voc. Latinoi, vol.2, p.13). The ships of Chittim (Dan. 11:30) refer to the Roman fleet persuading Antiochus to desist his plans against Egypt. In Ptolemy, we find two provinces in Cilicia called Cetis and Citis. Josephus says Cyprus is Kittim with town called Citium (Ant. 1:7). Korea's capitol was King-Kitao from Kittim. Strabo's Cathea, though west of the Ganges, seems to be China. The fourth son of Javan was Dodan. The letters d and r are scarcely to be distinguished in the Hebrew. Dodan or Doran settled in a country called Doris in Asia Minor and on the island of Rhodes off the southern coast of Doris. Dodona Greece was named after him. Dorians colonized the Peloponnessus and Sicily and the sea coast of Italy, the latter hence called Magna Grecia. The river Rhone in France -- anciently called Rhodanus -- may be named after him.

According to Varro and Dionysius Hal. Italy was first colonized from Greece, and the first Greeks who settled there were from Arcadia. And Reineccius and Sir Walter Raleigh are inclined to think, from several passages in Strabo, Dion. Hal., Pliny and Justin, that Italy derived its name from a colony of the Aetolians, who settled there: for the Greek name Aitolia, in the Aeolic dialect, used by the Aetolians, and which is the basis of the Latin tongue; was pronounced Aethalia (as Aetolians) whence Italia was easily formed; and the lower part of Italy, in the neighborhood of Tarentum, which was founded by a colony from Lacedaemon, was called Magna Graecia, in which the Greek language prevailed for a long time.

Tubal settled in Armenia, Albania, Iberia, Colchis and Pontus -- all in Asia. The Tybareni, or Tibareni mountains, were so called from Tubal. Also the country of Tibarene (eastern Pontus) and Iberia derived from Tubal. He gave his name to Thabilaca, a town of Albania. Tubal migrated to Siberia and named the river Tobol and its capital city Tobolsk. As Tubal increased in population, he sent colonies to Europe -- a European Albania and a European Iberia (Ant. 1:6:1; Polybius 3:37). The city of Se-tubal, a fortified seaport of Portugal, was called by the Latins Setobriga, after Tubal or Tubar. The Cantabri of Asturias and Artabri around Cape Finisterre, both in Spain, derive their names from Tubar. The Paniardi (Tubal) lived near a river anciently called Hypanis (now Kuban) which ran into the Black Sea. When they migrated to European Iberia, they named it Hyspania, or Hispania, named after the river of Asia, from whence the Paniardi, or Spaniards, first came. (see Ethnology by Painter for more)

Herbelot, from the oriental writers, presents this view of Japhet's posterity, as their traditions transmit it: "Japheth had eleven male children, Gin or Tchin (or Sin), from whom the Chinese came; Seklab, whence the Sclavonians; Manschuge, from whom issued the Goths, or Scythians, called Jagiouge and Magiouge; the Hebrew Gog and Magog; Gomari; Turk; Khozar, the ancestor of the Khozarians; Rous, the father of the Russians; Soussan: Ghaz and Tarage, from whom came the Turcoman." (D'Herb. Bib. p.470. voc. Jafeth.)

Secular History Confirms the Identities of Eight Pharaohs of Scripture Beginning With Menes (Mizraim) Who Colonized Egypt in 2198 BC

Eratosthenes, in Syncellus and Eusebius (Chron. Graec., p.17) affirms Menes was Mestraim. Misraim is identified with the first Egyptian pharaoh Menes (George Syncellus quoting Manetho's Book of Sothis) said to have built Memphis (Mene-phis; called by Arabs "Mesa") after the dispersion at the Tower of Babel about 2203 BC. Misraim also seems to correspond to Misor (Isa. 19:6 -- "canals of Misor"), said in Phoenician Mythology (Sanchoniathon) to have been father of Taautus,  to whom was given Egypt, just as Menes' son or successor was said to be Athothis (or Thoth).  This connects Misraim with Menes since both of their sons have similar names. How do we know Egypt was colonized 2198 BC? Eratosthenes gives 986 years from Menes to Pharaoh Nilus, whom Herodotus (2:3) calls the son and successor of Ramesses the Great. Dicaearchus, a Greek historian of the 4th century BC, says, "From the time of Pharaoh Nilus to the first Olympiad there were 436 years." (Dicaearchi Mess. de Sesos. Rege Frag. given in Egypt's Place, I. 680.) If Dicaearchus refers to the time when the Olympic games were first instituted in BC 776; this would give 1212 BC as the date of the death of Ramesses and the accession of his son. (776 + 436 = 1212) Adding 986, we obtain 2198 BC when Menes (Mizraim) commenced the kingdom of Egypt. Colonization of Egypt (2198 BC) therefore followed five years after dispersion at Babel (2203 BC). Champollion declared that "no Egyptian monument is really older than the year 2200 BC." The papyrus of Turin gives 355 years as the duration of the first six dynasties of Egypt.

Other pharaohs can also be identified. Agag, a king of Amalek, mentioned by Balaam (Nu. 24:7) is Apophes (Manetho), the fourth Hycsos Shepherd King of the Second Dynasty. "Zerah the Ethiopian" (2 Chr. 14:9) is identified with Sera (Tomai), who reigned 26 years from 949-923, of the Dynasty of Menelik (from Solomon and the Queen of Sheba) (see In the Country of the Blue Nile by C.F. Rey - 1927). The Shishak of Scripture identifies with Shoshenq (943-922 BC), who invaded Rehoboam in 943 BC (1 Ki. 14:25; 2 Chr. 12:1-12). The So of Scripture identifies with Sabaco (727-715 BC) or Osorkon IV (730-715 BC), the Ethiopian who reigned in Egypt about 730 BC (2 Ki. 17:4). Another king is “Tirhakah king of Ethiopia” (2 Ki. 19:9) who identifies with Taharqa (690-664 BC). And the Necos of Herodotus (2:159) or the Pharaoh Necho of Scripture identifies with Necho II (610-595 BC) in 609 BC (2 Ki. 23:29, 2 Chr. 35:20–24). The Hophra of Scripture (Jer. 44:30) is Apries (589-570 BC) of Herodotus 2:165.

Diodorus tells us that one of the first and most prudent kings of Egypt, finding the Egyptians very prone to SEDITION, enjoined to each province the worship of some particular ANIMAL DIFFERENT from all the rest, and likewise to use a DIFFERENT DIET; so that the Egyptians being by this means divided into so many distinct societies, PREJUDICED AGAINST EACHOTHER in religious matters, and mutually DESPISING ONE ANOTHER on account of their DIFFERENT CUSTOMS in the ordinary affairs of life, there was no likelihood of their ever uniting again (Diodorus ubi supr. p.80). This is how POLYTHEISM overran Egypt. They came to bestow divine honours on ANIMALS and even VEGETABLES such as leeks and onions; and that with so great variety, that except for some of the principal gods over all Egypt (Osiris, Isis, Serapis, Neith), the worship of every lesser deity was confined to one or two cities. Thus it came to pass, that a great number of the chief cities of Egypt, were by the Greeks named after the gods or ANIMALS that were worshipped there. As Diospolis or the city of Jupiter; and Heliopolis (On), or the city of the sun. Other cities bore the names of Pan, Apollo, Latona, Hermes, Hercules and Venus. Also the apis, the dog, the cat, the lion, the wolf, the hawk, the ibis, the crocodile, the fishes latos, oxyrynchus, phagrus, etcetera. The worshippers of one city were held in the greatest abhorrence by their neighbors since one deity ANIMAL was a natural predator of another deity. This resulted in unending quarrels and wars. Those of Heracleopolis who worshipped the MONGOOSE quarrelled with those of Arsinoe who worshipped the CROCODILE. The city of Oxyrynchus whose inhabitants sacrificed and ate dogs but worshipped a FISH, quarrelled with the city of Cynopolis whose inhabitants worshipped the DOG but ate the fish (Plutarch ubi sup. p.380). One can only imagine the hostilities between the GOAT-worhippers of Mendes and Thmuis and the LION-worshippers of Leontopolis. If a person killed any of these sacred animals deliberately, he was punished with death.

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