God's Hand in History
Benjamin Franklin, speaking at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in June, 1787, asserted: "The longer I live the more convincing proofs I see that God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice [Matt. 10:29], is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid?" Winston Churchill clearly perceived God's hand in history. In an address before the U.S. Congress December 26, 1941, the British prime minister asserted that "he must indeed have a blind soul who cannot see that some great purpose and design is being worked out here below." On another occasion in Britain some 10 months later, he said, "I sometimes have a feeling of interference. . . . I have a feeling sometimes that some Guiding Hand has interfered."
The following is a miniature history course -- "His Story 101" -- the way it should have been taught in grade school to every child growing up. But historical evidence to support God's hand in history has been LEFT OUT of our history classes. MIRACULOUS intervention and circumstances with PRECISE TIMING at crucial dates in the story of nations and empires point unmistakably to the GUIDING HAND of God. But God has been "kicked out" of school text books. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind" (void of judgment) (Romans 1:28). "For the material man rejects spiritual things, for they are foolishness to him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).
In 3960 BC Adam and Eve were created. Then 1656 years later came Noah's Flood in 2304 BC. (Gen. 7). Henry Rawlinson shows that the chronology of Ctesias makes the beginning of the reign of Ninus (Nimrod) 2231 B.C. (Rawlinson's Herodotus vol.1, pp.434-435). Then at the Tower of Babel mankind was divided into linguistic groups around 2203 BC. Later, Abraham entered Canaan when he was 75 (Gen. 12:4) in 1876 BC. Isaac was born 25 years after that when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. Joseph was "seventeen years old" (37:2) in 1683 B.C. when he was sold into Egypt. Furthermore, Joseph was born in 1700 B.C. when God "opened her (Rachel's) womb" (29:22) and Jacob was age 91.
Dynasty III and Dynasty IV of Manetho mention Joseph under the name Suphis (or Souphis or Saophis) -- different Greek spellings from Manetho's commentators. Joseph in Hebrew, is not pronounced with an English "J" sound, but with a "Y" sound. In Manetho's Egyptian transcription of the name only the consonents "s" and "ph" appear -- hence the Greek Souphis or its variant forms. Eratosthenes wrote that the Egyptians had designated Suphis as a "money-getter" or "trafficker" (Fragment 17, "Manetho", by W. G. Waddell, page 219). Dynasty III in Manetho is made up of many rulers which do not appear in the Turin Papyrus. Only the two Djosers appear in each list, and in each case the full length of reign is preserved in Manetho. In Dynasty IV Suphis or Joseph is given 66 years by Manetho. This makes it clear that Dynasty IV -- a foreign dynasty -- parallels Dynasty III. The two records together tell the full story. Only the latter portion of Joseph's reign is preserved in the list of rulers in Dynasty III. The entire period of Joseph's public service is contained in the parallel account. The 66 years of Joseph's public service cover the years 1670-1604. The famine ended in 1656 after the rise in Upper Egypt of the new Nile during the summer of 1657 in Djoser's 18th year. He thus served till 96 years of age, and died at 110 (50:26).
The Exodus in 1446 B.C. was 430 years after Abraham entered Canaan in 1876 B.C. "Now the sojourning (in Canaan and Egypt -- 215 years each) of the children of Israel (which here includes Abraham, Isaac and Jacob -- see footnotes in both the Companion Bible and Jerusalem Bible), who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt" (Ex.12:40-41). Josephus says the same thing: "They left Egypt ... on the fifteenth day of the lunar month (Num. 33:3), four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan" (Ant.2:15:2). Both the Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint add "and in Canaan" in verse 40. The Septuagint, quoted by Paul in Galatians, says "the sojourning of the sons of Israel who dwelt in the land of Egypt and Canaan was 430 years" because they dwelt in Canaan before they dwelt in Egypt.
The (Seven) "Times of the Gentiles" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24) Begins With Babylon
All ancient nations began to reckon their separate histories from the Tower of Babel when mankind was divided into linguistic groups around 2203 BC (Gen. 10:25;11:10-16,32). Ptolemy's Canon only goes back as far as the king of Babylon known as Nabonassar who ascended the throne Feb. 26, 747 B.C. (Ptolemy's Almagest). If we add 1222.5 solar years (1260 lunar years x 354.37/365.24 = 1222.48), we arrive at the fall of Romulus Augustulus, Aug. 22nd, 476 A.D. Adding 1260 lunar years more brings us to 1698 when the two treaties that limit the two "little horns" are bisected: the completion of the Protestant Revolution at the Peace of Ryswick Sept. 20, 1697 and the Peace of Carlowitz Jan. 26th, 1699 A.D. If we add 1260 solar years to 747 B.C., we arrive at the accession of Hormisdas in 514 A.D., the first d (Gen. 10:25; ope to speak of papal supremacy. Adding 1260 solar years more brings us to 1774 -- the royal accession of Louis XVI who lost his life in the French Revolution. Also the defeat of the Turkish army by Russia resulting in the Peace of Kainarge occurred in 1774; and the Roman Catholic Jesuits were banished by Clement in 1774.
Isaiah Foretold Cyrus Conquering Babylon -- 539 B.C.
Isaiah predicted the Babylonian Empire would fall to the Medes and the Persians (Isaiah 13; 21:1-10). He also called Cyrus by name (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1-5), and said the protective waters of the Euphrates would "dry up" (Isa. 44:27) (Herodotus 1:185–191) and Babylon's "two-leaved gates" would "not be shut" (Isa. 45:1). "That I may open before him the valves; and the gates shall not be shut" - The gates of Babylon within the city descending from the streets to the river, were providentially left open, when Cyrus's forces entered the city in the night through the channel of the river, in the general disorder occasioned by the great feast which was then celebrated. Otherwise, says Herodotus, 1:191, the Persians would have been shut up in the bed of the river, and taken as in a net, and all destroyed. And the gates of the palace were opened imprudently by the king's orders, to inquire what was the cause of the tumult without; when the two parties under Gobrias and Gadatas rushed in, got possession of the palace, and slew the king (Xenophen's Cyropedia. 7:22-23 p. 528). Herodotus 1:179 says, "In the wall all round there are a hundred gates, all of brass; and so in like manner are the sides and the lintels." "The gates likewise within the city, opening to the river from the several streets, were of brass; as were those also of the temple of Belus" (Herod. 1:180, 181).The Chaldean scribe who recorded the story on a clay tablet (which was secured by the British Museum in 1879) closed his record with these words: "On the sixteenth day, Gobryas, pasha of the land of Gutium, and the troops of Cyrus, without a battle, entered Babylon." -- From tablet "Annals of Nabonidus" quoted by C.J. Ball in "Light From the East."
The Lord will "subdue nations before him" and "loose the loins of kings" (Isa. 45:1). Xenophon gives the following list of the nations conquered by Cyrus: "the Syrians, Assyrians, Arabians, Cappadocians, both countries of the Phrygians, Lydians, Carians, Phoenicians, Babylonians. He moreover reigned over the Bactrians, Indians, Cilicians, the Sacae, Paphlagones, ldariandyni or Megadinians; likewise the Greeks that inhabit Asia, Cyprians and Egyptians." (- Cyrop.1:4), All these kingdoms he acknowledges, in his decree for the restoration of the Jews, to have been given to him by Jehovah, the God of heaven (Ezra 1:2). He was obliged to acknowledge this because Josephus says that Cyrus read this prophecy himself, which Isaiah had delivered: "This was known to Cyrus by his reading the book which Isaiah left behind him of his Prophecies. For this Prophet said, that God had spoken thus to him in a secret vision: 'My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed to be King over many and great nations, send back my people to their own land, and build my temple.' This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly when Cyrus read this, and admired the divine power, an earnest desire and an ambition seized upon him, to fulfil what was so written." (Antiquities 11:1:2) Herodotus says, that he ruled over all Asia (Clio, sive 1:130.). To "loose the loins of kings" such as Croesus king of Lydia, and Belshazzar king of Babylon, by divesting them of their dignity, power, and government" was not the full meaning. Belshazzar was thrown into such a panic that "the joints of his loins were loosed" literally (Daniel 5:6).
Amazingly, Isaiah’s prophecy was made roughly 150 years before Cyrus was born (Isaiah prophesied in about 700 B.C.; Cyrus took the city of Babylon in 539 B.C.). To add to Cyrus’ significance, Isaiah predicted that Cyrus would act as the Lord’s “shepherd” (44:28) to return Israel to their land a second time (Isa. 11:11-12; Isa. 51:9-11). The Exodus from Egypt was the first. Justin (Hist. ex Trogo 1:5) says, he had this name given him, while he was among the shepherds, by whom he was brought up, having been exposed in his infancy. Shepherd was an epithet which Cyrus took to himself. Cyrus himself compares a king to a shepherd, and observes a likeness between them (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8:18). In fact, Isaiah recorded these words of the Lord concerning Cyrus: “And he shall perform all My pleasure, even saying to Jerusalem, you shall be built; and to the temple, thy foundation shall be laid" (44:28). This is said with great exactness since only the foundation was laid in Cyrus's time; the Jews being discouraged and hindered by their enemies from going on with the building in his reign, until the times of Darius, king of Persia. (See Ezra 1:1).
Jaddua the High Priest Showed Alexander the Book of Daniel Before the Battle of Arbela in 331 B.C.
Daniel was given a vision regarding a goat that ran from the west and attacked a ram coming from the east. "The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king" (Dan. 8:20-21) -- Alexander the Great. King Darius was defeated three times -- from 334-331 B.C. -- at the Battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugemela (Arbela). This vision was given about 538 B.C.
The fall of the House of Israel and its capital, Samaria, was in 721 BC. Adding 390 years (Ez. 4:5) brings us to 331 BC. when Alexander the Great conquered Persia at the Battle of Arbela or Gaugamela on October 1, 331 B.C. King Darius III of Persia had offered Alexander half the Persian kingdom if he would sign a peace agreement, but the offer was refused. Alexander's general, Parmenion, told him "If I were you, I would accept Darius' very generous offer." Alexander replied, "I would too if I were Parmenion!" Nothing would stand in the way of the complete and total conquest of Persia. Alexander overslept on the morning of battle, and was awakened by his concerned generals. He told them not to worry because the battle was already won! Alexander was inspired with the belief that he had a Divinely-ordained mission to overthrow Persia. He was correct! This conquest was predicted in Daniel chapter 8 and Ezekiel Chapter 4 long before. This large Persian force of over 250,000 soldiers was defeated by only 47,000 Greeks, who were outnumbered over 5 to 1.
The lost ten tribes of Israel were largely held captive by Assyria, Babylon and Medo-Persia till the alotted time of punishment ended with the conquest of the Persian Empire in 331 B.C. (exactly 390 years after their kingdom collapsed -- Ez. 4:5). Still, it was the Scythian Massagetae (who were Israelites), ranging free on the Asian steppes west of the Caspian Sea, who killed the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great when he tried to conquer them. It should also be mentioned that there were still Israelites dwelling under the dominion of Alexander and then of his successors, the Seleucids. These would gain their independence the next century as the Parthians. "Your seed shall be as the dust of the earth. You shall spread abroad to the west, to the east, to the north and to the south. In you and in your seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 28:14). "Israel wandered like a flock" (Zechariah 10:2).
Our Lord Predicted the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
In 66 A.D. Cestius Gallus, the Roman governor of Syria, arrived at Jerusalem on Tishri 22, the 8th day sabbath after the festival of Booths (October A.D. 66), to restore Roman rule over the rebellious Jewish people. According to Josephus, the Jewish nation had refused to offer sacrifices and prayer at their temple for the emperor's well being. This sacrifice was a sign of subjection to, and acknowledgement of, the ruler. Therefore, Jerusalem (including Christians) was surrounded by the legions of Cestius Gallus. The "Abomination of DESOLATION" (Matt. 24:15) is defined in Luke 21:20 as "Jerusalem compassed with ARMIES" that cause "DESOLATION." Cestius took the temple wall on Heshvan 5, 66 A.D. He burnt three divisions of the city. At this time he (Cestius) constituted the abomination that caused desolation standing where it ought not in 'a holy place' in the temple and the daily sacrifice had been removed since no one felt like offering up a sacrifice in front of Cestius. The Roman armies carried the images of their gods and emperors on their standards also. The principal figures on their ensigns were gold eagles, which, however obnoxious to the Jews, were at length planted in the midst of the holy city, and finally on the temple itself. As our Lord said, "Wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together" (Matt. 24:28). At that time, on that very day, "It then happened that Cestius was not conscious either how the besieged despaired of success, nor how courageous the people were for him, and he recalled his soldiers from the place, and by despairing of any expectation of taking it, without having received any disgrace, he retired from the city, without any reason in the world" (Wars 2:19).
Jewish Zealots pursued and attacked the army ferociously, and, with little loss to themselves, slew of his army nearly six thousand men. On this day, Heshvan 5, 66 A.D. we have a fulfillment of the conditions for beginning the 1290 days of Daniel 12:11. Christians were given a brief opportunity to obey our Lord's advice and "depart out of the midst of" Jerusalem and "flee to the mountains" (Luke 21:20-22). "The whole body of the church at Jerusalem having been commanded by a divine Revelation ["Let us remove hence." -- Wars 6:5:3] ... removed from the city, and dwelt in a certain town beyond Jordan, called Pella" (Eusebius 3:5:2). After this calamity had befallen Cestius, many of the most eminent of the Jews SWAM away from the city, as from a ship when it was going to sink (Wars of the Jews, book 2 ch. 20). Returning Zealots didn't tolerate "deserters," so escaping had to be done that very day. Fleeing to the hills in the Bible occurs just before the great tribulation.
"Christ Jesus said ‘When you shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies (literally or in a supernatural sign), then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them who are in Judea (not just Jerusalem) flee to the mountains; and let them who are in the midst of it depart; and let not them that are in the countries enter into it’ (Luke 21:20-21). How can Christians flee Jerusalem when Jerusalem is completely surrounded with armies? How did Christians in other parts of the country even know that armies were surrounding Jerusalem?
"On the twenty-first of the month Artemisium (the last day of the 2nd Passover season In A.D.66), there appeared a miraculous phenomenon, passing belief. Indeed, what I am about to relate would, I imagine, have been deemed a fable, were it not for the narratives of eyewitnesses and for the subsequent calamities which deserved to be so signalized. For before sunset throughout all parts of the country [everywhere throughout Judea] chariots were seen in the air and armed battalions hurtling through the clouds and encompassing the cities" (Wars of Jews 6.5.3).
And then, about two weeks later, Josephus tells us: "Moreover, at the feast which is called Pentecost, the priests on entering the inner court of the temple by night, as their custom was in the discharge of their ministrations, reported that they were conscious, first of a commotion and a din, and after that of a voice as of a host, We are departing hence" (War, 6.209,300). With these two signs, what did the Christians in Jerusalem and Judaea do? Eusebius tells us that this is the time they began to leave the region because of the command of Christ and went to a city called Pella on the east side of the Jordan River (Ecclesiastical History, 3.5). They and the apostles obtained safety from the Great Tribulation that soon enflamed Jerusalem and Judaea.
Nero, having been informed of the defeat of Cestius, immediately appointed Vespasian, a man of tried valour, to prosecute the war against the Jews, who, assisted by his son Titus, soon collected at Ptolemais an army of sixty thousand men. From hence, in the spring of 67 A. D. he marched into Judea, every where spreading the most cruel havoc and devastation; For fifteen months Vespasian proceeded in this sanguinary career, during which period he reduced all the strong towns of Galilee, and the chief of those in Judea, destroying at least one hundred and fifty thousand of the inhabitants. In 69 A.D. Vespasian became emperor and returned to Rome. But Titus his son arrived in Jerusalem around 14th Nisan 70 A.D. (Antiquities 5.13.7). Titus besieged the city with four legions of soldiers. The time between October of A.D. 66 and April of A.D. 70 is three and a half years or the "time, times and a half" "to scatter the power of the holy people" (12:7). The day on which Titus encompassed Jerusalem, was the feast of the Passover; at this season multitudes came up from all the surrounding country, and from distant parts, to keep the festival. Titus allowed the pilgrims into the city, but refused to let them leave, in order to deplete the rebel food reserves. Our Lord warned, "Let not them that are in the countries enter into Jerusalem" (Luke 21: 21).
The Great Tribulation of the Jews, Matthew 24, occurred during the period from the exit of Cestius until the arrival of Titus and his siege. Three walls surrounded Jerusalem on every side, except that which was deemed inaccessible, and there it was defended by one wall only. Romans took the first wall on the 15th day of the siege -- Iyyar 7. Romans took the second wall indicated by a red radius line -- Iyyar 16. A siege wall of pointed stakes all around the city was built in three days by the end of Sivan 4. Escape was now impossible (Luke 19:43-44). Titus was able to make his inspection of this completed and fully garrisoned pointed-stake wall -- Sivan 5. Now Sivan 5, 70 A.D. is 1290 days after Heshvan 5, 66 A.D. Also, Sivan 4 was the last day of possible escape, before the wall was garrisoned and inspected by Titus. This was the first century fulfillment of Daniel 12:11. This pointed-stake wall was accompanied by a trench of 39 furlongs in circuit and strengthened with 13 towers. "Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round about, and keep thee in on every side" (Luke 19:43). As no supplies whatever could now enter the walls, the famine spread rapidly.
After this, Josephus, in the name of Titus, earnestly exhorted John and his adherents to surrender; but the insolent rebel returned nothing but reproaches and imprecations, declaring his firm persuasion that Jerusalem, as it was GOD'S own city, could never be taken: thus literally fulfilling the declaration of Micah, that the Jews, in their extremity, notwithstanding their crimes, would presumptuously "lean upon the LORD, and say, 'Is not the LORD among us? none evil can come upon us" (Micah 3:11). The third wall fell down -- Tammuz 2. Romans took the tower of Antonia -- Tammuz 5. Those who had defected to the Romans and had been saved in Gophna, by Caesar's decree, were paraded around the wall unharmed -- Tammuz 19. Counting 1335 days from Cestius' invasion of the temple, on Heshvan 5, 66 A.D., which was the beginning of the flight to the hills, we end up on Tammuz 19, 70 A.D. This was also the day when Titus ordered the final assault on the temple to start at the 9th hour of the night (which was in the next Hebrew day -- Tammuz 19). A Roman soldier, urged, as he declared, by a divine impulse, regardless of the command of Titus climbed on the shoulders of another, and threw a flaming brand into the golden window of the Temple, which instantly set the building on fire -- Av 10 (cp. Jer. 52:12,13). Jerusalem was finally taken after nearly 5 months (ending Elul 8, 70 A.D.) (135 days from Nisan 23). The above is taken from Josephus 'Wars of the Jews' 2:19 and books 5 & 6. In book 6 chapter 2, 'in the meantime' of section 7 is 7 days, and the 'in the meantime' of section 9 is that day. Notice that the significant dates in the siege of Jerusalem correspond to the significant dates of Daniel chapter 12. Our Lord pronounce a woe on "them that should give suck in those days" (Matt. 24: 19.). "Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but for yourselves and for your children; for, behold, the days are coming in which they shall say, 'Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the breasts that never gave suck" (Luke 23: 29). He was referring to cannibalism (Deut. 28:56-57). Finally, Elul 29 is traditionally the last day that Jews fast before Rosh HaShanah. Jerusalem survivors may have been given their first good meal on this date.
The gold melted and ran down through the crevices of the bricks so the Roman soldiers tore it down stone by stone to get the gold and the silver out. That fulfilled the words of Jesus when He said there wouldn't be a stone of the Temple left standing one on top of the other (Matt. 24:2). Then to further defile it, Titus, the Roman prince went to the high altar of the Temple, planted the standards of the Roman legions by it and then proceeded to sacrifice a pig on the altar in the Holy of Holies. He fulfilled Daniel 11:31 that he should defile the sanctuary, take away the daily sacrifice and place there the abomination. Romans then burned the Lower City. Approximately September 2, Romans assaulted Herod's Palace and entered the Upper City. Resistance ended on September 26. The 1290-day period (Daniel 12:11) runs from the abomination of Cestius (Heshvan 5, 66 A.D.) to finishing of the wall of pointed sticks ending escape (Sivan 4, 70 A.D.)(Luke 19:43 fulfilled). The 1335 days (Daniel 12:12) runs from the abomination of Cestius (Heshvan 5, 66 A.D.) to the parading of escapees from Jerusalem (Tammuz 19, 70 A.D. -- Eridanus).
This great city, which only five months before, had been crowded with nearly two million people, who gloried in its impregnable strength, was entirely depopulated, and levelled with the ground. Our Lord predicted that Rome would "lay her even with the ground," and "should not leave in her one stone upon another" (Luke 19:44). This fact is confirmed by Eusebius, who asserts that he himself saw the city lying in ruins. It is recorded, in the Talmud, and by Maimonides, that Terentius Rufus, captain of the army of Titus, absolutely ploughed up the foundations of the Temple with a ploughshare. "Therefore shall Zion, for your sakes (i.e. for your wickedness) be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the LORD's house as the high places of the forest" (Micah 3:12).
Josephus reckons not less than 1,100,000 Jews were destroyed during the siege, to which must be added, above 237,000 who perished in other places, and innumerable multitudes who were swept away by famine, and pestilence, of which no calculation could be made. Not less than 2,000 laid violent hands upon themselves. Of the captives the whole was about 97,000. Of the two great leaders of the Jews, who had both been made prisoners, John was doomed to a dungeon for life; while Simon, together with John, in triumph at Rome was scourged, and put to death as a malefactor. All above the age of seventeen were sent in chains into Egypt, to be employed there as slaves, or distributed throughout the empire to be sacrificed as gladiators in the amphitheatres; whilst those who were under this age, were exposed to sale. Our Lord foretold, generally, that they should "fall by the edge of the sword, and be led away captive into all nations; and that Jerusalem should be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles should be fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). During every successive age and in all nations, the Jews have been constantly persecuted, enslaved, contemned, harassed, and oppressed; banished from one country to another, and abused in all; while countless multitudes have, at different periods, been barbarously massacred, particularly in Persia, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt; and in Russia, Germany, Hungary, France, and Spain. Jerusalem only recently became a possession of the Jews. It has been successively occupied by the Romans, Arabs, Franks, Turks, and British. It has always been trodden down.
Our Lord stated that there should "be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world, no, nor ever shall be" (Matt. 24:21). Josephus declares its fulfillment in parallel language: "If the misfortunes," says he, "of all nations, from the beginning of the world, were compared with those which befell the Jews, they would appear far less in comparison;" and again, "No other city ever suffered such things, as no other generation, from the beginning of the world, was ever more fruitful in wickedness." These were, indeed, "the days of vengeance," that all things which are written (especially by Moses, Joel, and Daniel,) might be fulfilled" (Luke 21:22). Nor were the calamities of the Jews even now ended; for there were still other places to subdue; and our Lord had thus predicted, "wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together" (Matt. 24:28).
After the destruction of Jerusalem seventeen hundred Jews who surrendered at Macherus were slain, and of fugitives not less than three thousand in the wood of Jardes. Titus having marched his army to Caesarea, he there, with great splendour, celebrated the birthday of his brother Domitian; and according to the barbarous manner of those times, punished many Jews in honour of it. The number who were burnt, and who fell by fighting with wild beasts, and in mutual combats, exceeded two thousand five hundred. At the siege of Massada, Eleazer, the commander, instigated the garrison to burn their stores, and to destroy first the women and children, and then themselves. Dreadful as it is to relate, this horrid design was executed. They were in number nine hundred and sixty. Ten were chosen to perform the bloody work: the rest sat 'on the ground,' and embracing their wives and children stretched out their necks to the sword: one was afterwards appointed to destroy the remaining nine, and then himself. The survivor, when he had looked round to see that all were slain, set fire to the place, and plunged his sword into his own bosom. Nevertheless, two women and five children successfully concealed themselves, and witnessed the whole transaction. The period of time from the first attack of the Jews upon the Romans at Masada, in May of A.D. 66, to the final resistance of the Jews at Masada in April of A.D. 73, encompassed seven years. “For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen ... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground” (Isaiah 3:8, 25-26). The mournful and desolate condition of Judea, at this time, is exactly described by the prophet Isaiah: "The cities were without inhabitant, and the houses without a man, and the land was utterly desolate, and the LORD had removed men far away, and there was a great forsaking in the midst of the land." (Isa. 6:11-12).
Battle of Ravenna in 476 A.D. -- Midpoint of The "Times of the Gentiles" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24)
The Battle of Ravenna took place on the 2 September 476 and was a minor confrontation between the Heruli under their King Odoacer and the remnants of the Western Roman Army in Italy. The Roman Empire had been in relative decline until 455 when the Vandals sacked Rome effectively destroying the empire. By 476 the Roman Emperor was little more than a warlord having very little de facto control of any territory outside of Italy. The Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, wasn't even recognized as a legitimate ruler outside of Italy.
Herulians were foederati of the Western Roman Empire; they were mercenary troops of the Roman Army of Italy. They envied the fortune of their brethren in Gaul, Spain, and Africa, whose victorious arms had acquired an independent and perpetual inheritance; and they insisted that A THIRD PART of the lands of Italy should be immediately divided among them (cp. Rev. 8:7-9:18). Orestes, the father of the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, rejected their demand causing their revolt. From all the camps and garrisons of Italy the confederates flocked to the standard of Odoacer, their leader; and Orestes retreated to Pavia. Pavia was pillaged and Orestes was executed.
The decisive battle was fought near Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire: it saw the Foederati defeat the heavily depleted Roman garrison. The city was captured swiftly and easily. Two days later the sixteen year old Emperor Romulus Augustulus was forced to abdicate by Odoacer ending twelve-hundred years of Roman rule in Italy beginning with the Roman Kingdom in 753 BC. Romulus was sent into retirement in Campania.
The first king of the Babylonian Empire represented by the image of Daniel 2 was Nabonassar who ascended the throne at noon, February 26, 747 B.C. This date has been determined with certainty through a series of exact astronomical observations given by Ptolemy. This is therefore the earliest date from which to measure the "seven times." If we add 1222.5 solar years or 446,503 days, to 747 B.C., we arrive at the fall of Romulus Augustulus, August 22nd, 476 A.D; while 1260 lunar years (or 15,120 lunations) contain 446,502.5 days, so that the difference, if any, is merely one of hours. Can any thinking mind regard this fact as mere chance coincidence? The duration of the four kingdoms of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome, from the era of Nabonassar B.C. 747, to the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the end of the Western Roman Empire in August 22, 476 A.D., all fit perfectly within exactly 1260 LUNAR years (1,222.5 solar years).
Omar the Turk (the "Desolator") Took Jerusalem in 637 A.D. and Set Up the "Abomination"-- Another Midpoint in "The Times of the Gentiles"
Nabonassar revolted against Assyria and drove the Assyrians out of Babylon in 625 B.C. and the Neo-Babylonian Empire was established with a Chaldean dynasty by Nabopolassar in 624 B.C. The four Gentile Empires of Daniel 2 have possessed the Holy Land for a combined total of "42 MONTHS" or 1260 days which symbolize 1,260 years (Num. 14:34; Ez. 4:6): Babylon possessed Palestine for 90 years, from 624 to 534 B.C. Medo-Persia for 200 years, from 534 to 334 B.C. Greece for 304 years from 334 to 31 B.C. (Battle of Actium) and Rome for 666 years from 31 B.C. to 636 A.D. Now 90 + 200 + 304 + 666 = 1,260 SOLAR years. From 637 to 1897 A.D. Jerusalem was trodden under gentile feet (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24; Rev. 11:2). From when Omar the Turk took Jerusalem in 637 A.D., we add 1,260 more SOLAR years to arrive at 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations with the object of again settling the Jews in the Holy Land. Just as the Gentiles "tread under foot" (Rev. 11:2) the physical Jerusalem for 42 months (1,260 days), so also Papal Rome was to continue for the second 1260 years (Dan. 7:25). "And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolator" (Dan. 9:27).
In 637, Omar captured Jerusalem and all Syria and in 638 a wooden mosque was erected on the site of Solomon's Temple, called the "Mosque of Omar." This was rebuilt in stone and called the "Dome of the Rock." "And the holy city shall they tread under foot forty and two months" (Rev. 11:2; Luke 21:24; Lev. 26:28). If we add 1260 SOLAR years, we arrive at 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations with the object of again settling the Jews in the Holy Land. Jews held their first Zionist Congress thereby becoming an organized body politic for the first time since their dispersion. Also in 1897 was the Turko-Greek War. The autonomy of Crete was determined by the Great powers. If we add 1260 LUNAR years (1222.5 solar years), we arrive at July 9th, 1860 when there was a Mohammedan Druze massacre of 3,300 Christians in Lebanon and Damascus followed by English and French intervention. Lebanon was placed under a Christian governor and British Protectorate, England and France having a veto on the appointment. Lord Dufferin, British Commissioner, entered Damascus. The Universal Israelite Alliance, whose headquarters were at Paris, was also formed in this year. Its objective was to labor for freedom and moral progress of Israelites and encourage colonization of Palestine. If we add 1260 PROPHETIC years (1241.889 solar years), we arrive at 1878. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877 resulted in Russia totally defeating the Ottoman armies in1877, followed in 1878 by British occupation of Cyprus and a Protectorate in Asia. The Berlin Treaty dismembered the Ottoman Empire and deprived the Porte of its most important possessions in Europe and bound it to introduce "necessary reforms" signed 13th July 1878. The office of Sultan-Caliph was abolished by Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) on March 1924. This is confirmed in Daniel 12:11, being 1290 solar years from 634 A.D., when Omar (the "desolator"), who set up the "abomination" here referred to, succeeded to the Caliphate. Exactly 1290 solar years after the Mosque of Omar was built in 638, Islam was abolished as the State religion of Turkey in 1928. In 1973 the Yom Kippur War occurred and Israel was victorious -- 1335 years after Omar Captured Jerusalem.
The date 637 A.D. is also tied in to the "FIVE MONTHS" mentioned twice (Rev. 9:5,10) in the 5th Trumpet, which comes to a total of 300 years (150 x 2). This is the full limit of the Arab supremacy from about 632 to 932 A.D. History bears this out. Through luxury and licentiousness the Arabs began to decline. The last Caliph of eminence was slain outside the walls of Baghdad near the Euphrates in 932 A.D. The Caliphate at Baghdad was stripped of its temporal power in 934 A.D. From the taking of Damascus and Jerusalem in 637 A.D., when Sophronius bowed before the Caliph and secretly muttered "The Abomination of Desolation is in the Holy Place" (Gibbon ch. 51), we add 300 years to get 937 A.D. In 936 A.D. Persia advanced on Bagdad and stripped the Caliph of his secular office of supremacy. Why not just say "ten months" instead then? Because natural locusts only appear FIVE MONTHS in the year.
Fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. After "an Hour, and a Day, and a Month, and a Year" (Rev. 9:15)
The Turkish power began when Togrul Beg, their first military leader, married the daughter of the Caliph of Baghdad on April 27th 1062 A.D. (the head of the Arab-Moslem religion), and became head of the Mohammedan faith, establishing himself in Islam. He died the same year and was succeeded by Alp Arslan, the "valiant lion" who, setting out from Baghdad, "passed (crossed) the Euphrates at the head of the Turkish cavalry" (Decline & Fall, Gibbon ch. 57, p.12) in 1062 A.D. and waged a holy war against Greek "Christendom" which by this time had once again become idolatrous because the Empress Irene convened the Second Council of Nicea which declared idols lawful and by the Ninth Century idolatry reigned supreme in both east and west. Finally Turkey completed the capture of Constantinople May 29, 1453 A.D. and slew the eastern Roman emperor. The Greek or Byzantine "THIRD" of the Roman Empire passed to the Turks under the 6th Trumpet. This THIRD was KILLED politically and religiously if not physically (cp. Hos. 13:1). The city named for the first Christian emperor was now in the hands of Islam and its Cathedral of St. Sophia, the center of Eastern Orthodoxy, was turned into a Moslem mosque. Other churches erected to departed spirits of saints (demons), were converted to mosques by the victorious Turks. The patriarch of the Greek Catholic Church, originally stationed in Constantinople, fled to Moscow, where he set up his power, and which became known as the Third Rome. The Goths already had the western THIRD under the first Four Trumpets and the Arabs the southern THIRD under the Fifth Trumpet. From 1062 A.D. to 1453 A.D. is the FIRST instance of 391 years, which agrees with the prophetic period mentioned in Rev. 9:15: An hour, day, month and year using the day-for-a-year principle represents one month, one year, thirty years and 360 years. Total is 391 years and one month.
"On the 22nd May 1453, at the first hour of the night, there appeared a wonderful sign in the sky, telling Constantine the worthy Emperor of Constantinople that his proud empire was about to end. The MOON rose, being at this time FULL, so that it should have risen in the form of a complete CIRCLE; but it rose as if it were no more than a three-day moon (CRESCENT-shaped), with only a little of it showing, although the air was clear and unclouded, pure as crystal. The moon stayed in this form for about four hours, and gradually increased to a FULL CIRCLE, so that at the sixth hour of the night it was FULLY FORMED. When we Christians and the pagans had seen this marvelous sign, the Emperor of Constantinople was greatly afraid of it, and so were all his nobles, because the Greeks had a prophecy which said that Constantinople would never fall until the FULL MOON should give a sign, and this was the reason for the fear which the Greeks felt. But the Turks made great festivity in their camp for joy at the sign, because they believed that now victory was in their hands, as in truth it was.
"On the 29th May, 1453, the last day of the siege, our Lord God decided, to the sorrow of the Greeks, that He was willing for the city to fall on this day into the hands of Mahomet Bey the Turk son of Murat, after the fashion and in the manner described below; and also our Eternal God was willing to make this decision in order to fulfill all the ancient prophecies, particularly the first prophecy made by Saint Constantine, who is on horseback on a column by the Church of Saint Sophia of this city, prophesying with his hand and saying, "From this direction will come the one who will undo me," pointing to Anatolia, that is Turkey. Another prophecy which he made was that when there should be an Emperor called Constantine son of Helen, under his rule Constantinople would be lost, and there was another prophecy that when the MOON should give a sign in the sky, within a few days the Turks would have Constantinople. All these three prophecies had come to pass, seeing that the Turks had passed into Greece, there was an Emperor called Constantine son of Helen, and the MOON had given a sign in the sky, so that God had determined to come to this decision against the Christians and particularly against the Empire of Constantinople" (Diary of the Siege of Constantinople, 1453 by Nicolo Barbaro).
"On May 22, 1453, the moon, symbol of Constantinople, rose in dark eclipse (with just a crescent showing -- comment mine), fulfilling a prophecy on the city's demise. Four days later (May 26), the whole city was blotted out by a THICK FOG, a condition unknown in that part of the world in May. When the FOG lifted that evening, a strange LIGHT was seen playing about the dome of the Hagia Sophia, and from the city walls LIGHTS were seen in the countryside to the West, far behind the Turkish camp. The LIGHT around the dome was interpreted by some as the HOLY SPIRIT departing from the Cathedral" (and going West). (Wikipedia, "Fall of Constantinople"). Therefore, it was probably on that very foggy night, May 26, 1453, that young Greek Orthodox scholars (Orion) fled Constantinople (came "down from heaven" or the government capitol -- Rev. 10:1) secretly ("clothed with a CLOUD" of the Milky Way FOG hiding their escape from Constantinople -- 10:1). This was certainly a real-life GREEK OLYMPIC GAME for these GOLD-MEDAL champions (The sun symbolized a GOLD MEDAL -- 1 Cor. 3:12; the light blue sky a BLUE RIBBON -- Nu. 15:38) RUNNING for their lives, as they must have been, behind enemy lines (1 Cor. 9:24; Gal. 2:2; 5:7; Philip. 2:16; 3:14; Heb. 12:1) carrying precious Greek manuscripts. After escaping, they probably lit these signal fires to let the citizens of Constantinople know they had escaped successfully. The Turks were darkening the sun (Christ, "the sun of righteousness" -- Mal. 4:2) creating the "Dark Ages" but the Scriptures were lighting up a dark world like a TORCH. They enlightened Christians, who read them, like a HALO illuminates Orion's face (The star chart predicted May 26 precisely to the very day). The pillars of fire (feet) and the cloud were leading Israelites -- themselves "A CLOUD of witnesses" (Heb. 12:1) -- westward from Constantinople (which fell to Moslem Turks on May 29th) toward the Promised Land (Britain). In one hand, Orion holds a Greek "open scroll" (Rev.10:2) high to preserve it from the flood. The sun's orb directly on the scroll makes it a TORCH. When the Bible is openly read, it becomes a TORCH. "Thy word is a LAMP unto my feet and a LIGHT unto my path" (Ps. 119:105; Greek Orthodox OLYMPIC TORCH). This ignited both the Renaissance and Protestant Reformation.
The Spanish Armada -- God "Breakest the Ships of Tarshish with an East Wind" (Ps. 48:7) in 1588 A.D. (30 years [Rev. 10:8-9] + 1260 months [Rev. 11:3])
"They that strive with thee shall perish ... they that war against thee shall be as nothing" (Isa.41:12). "The nations shall see and be confounded at all their (Israel's) MIGHT" (Micah 7:16). "The Eternal thy God will set thee on high ABOVE ALL NATIONS of the earth (Deut. 28:1-10; 26:19; 15:6; 7:6; 14:2). Jacob is the "CHIEF of the nations" (Jer.31:7). "NO WEAPON that is formed AGAINST THEE shall PROSPER, and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt CONDEMN. This is the heritage of the servants of the Eternal" (Isa.54:17). "For the nation ... that will not serve thee shall PERISH" (Isa.60:12). "And FIVE of you shall CHASE an HUNDRED, and an HUNDRED of you shall put TEN THOUSAND to FLIGHT" (Lev.26:8). "Thou art my BATTLE-AXE and WEAPONS of WAR; for with thee will I break in pieces the nations" (Jer. 51:20). "I will make all thine enemies turn their backs unto thee" (Ex.23:27). "I will contend with him that contendeth with thee" (Isa. 49:25). From 1453 till 1588 = 135 years or 30 years (Rev. 10:8-9) + 1260 months (Rev. 11:3).
Drake's Raid on Cadiz in April 1587 and the subsequent pursuit of his fleet, DELAYED the Armada preparations. Marquis de Santa Cruz, the intended commander of the Armada, DIED before it could sail. He was Spain's most distinguished admiral. Medina-Sidonia was his replacement, an experienced administrator who proved to be resolute and capable in action, but he had relatively LITTLE SEA EXPERIENCE. On May 29, 1588, the Spanish Armada sailed out with 130 ships. Drake's smaller fleet of 101 ships had only 28 properly equipped for fighting. But they were "RACE-BUILT" and had LONG-BARRELLED cannons on rollers to absorb the RECOIL. Spanish cannons were of many different calibers, hard to reload and often blew apart when fired. Due mainly to stormy east WINDS, and the GULFSTREAM, the Spanish fleet arrived back home with 53 shattered gallions. Of the 30,000 soldiers and crew in the Armada probably 20,000 died during the voyage; of wounds, by execution (by the English in Ireland), but mostly of starvation and disease. They continued to die after the Armada reached Spanish ports. It is said that there was no noble family in Spain that did not lose a son in the Armada. One hundred English sailors were wounded. The English fleet suffered little damage. God "breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east WIND" (Ps.48:7).
The Armada crossed the English Channel and anchored at Calais the night of 6 August. Drake sent eight blazing fire ships adrift among the anchored Spanish fleet at midnight August 7-8, causing the Spaniards to cut their anchors and put out to sea in confusion. Four Spanish ships were lost at this point. The Armada fled northward, pursued hotly by Drake. The hardest fighting of the entire naval campaign followed, and the Spanish lost heavily. But before Drake could deliver the knockout punch, the English ran out of ammunition. Both the west wind and the English fleet now prevented the Armada from rejoining Parma, and it was forced to make the passage back to Spain around the northern tip of Scotland. The English fleet turned back in search of supplies when the Armada passed the Firth of Forth and there was no further fighting, but the long voyage home through the autumn gales of the North Atlantic proved fatal to many of the Spanish ships. Whether through battle damage, bad weather, shortage of food and water, or navigational error, some ships foundered in the open sea while others were driven onto the rocky coasts of Scotland and west coast of Ireland and wrecked. They had cut their anchors at Calais and were unable to hold their ships off the rocks. For many days, fragments of Spanish vessels were cast by every tide upon the northern coasts of the isles. Of those ships that finally reached Spain, many of them were too badly damaged to be repaired.
A Troubling Dream Before the Battle of Zenta in 1697 -- "1600 furlongs" (Rev. 14:20) from 96 A.D. When John Wrote the Apocalypse
August of 1697, Sultan Mustafa II crossed the Danube near its junction with the Tisza (Theiss) River leading 100,000 troops. The second in command, Grand Vizier Elams Mehmed, had been troubled by a dream in which he met the former Grand Vizier who was killed at the Battle of Slankamen. Elams interpreted this as a prediction of his death, were he to go near the same area. He therefore urged Mustafa to move WEST toward the fortress of Peter-wardein on the Danube, away from Slankamen. The other pashas (high ranking officers) opposed him, however, and convinced Mustafa to march NORTH and pursue Eugene. This began a pattern of dissension and indecision within the Ottoman high command.
The Sultan thought Eugene was beating a retreat when he moved his main forces north away from the Muslim army. But the Field Marshall was not fleeing. He moved north to combine with other forces to increase his army to 50,000 men, then turned around to make a lightning-fast march SOUTH to pursue Mustafa. On 6 September, Savoy slipped his army under the Turks' noses to camp by the Peterwardein fortress, WEST of the Ottomans, where his men would be protected by its guns.
Mustafa was stunned by Eugene's return. The Grand Vizier, still shaken by his dream, pronounced God's condemnation on an assault against Peter-wardein. The Sultan listened to him and concluded it would be suicidal to expose his army to the fortress's artillery. Mustafa decided to change plans once again and march NORTH along the Tisza, to attack the city of Szeged. He did so over the objections of some factions within his council who insisted that Peterwardein should be taken immediately. Arguments between the commanders led to a state of indecision when the army began its march on 7 September.
Eugene received reliable intelligence from Hungarian light cavalry (hussars) that the Ottomans were committed to going NORTH. These horsemen captured Kiicsug Dzafer, a Turkish pasha and brought him to Eugene. Reports that the Field Marshall threatened to "hack him to pieces" if he did not reveal the Sultan's plans are highly dubious. The pasha's secretary mentioned no such coercion in his account and Eugene's version of the interrogation treated the matter similarly.
Eugene concluded that Mustafa had changed his tactics again. The Sultan had canceled attacking Szeged, fearing his army would get caught between the fortress and the Austrian army. He decided instead to cross the Tisza at Zenta, Hungary (now Serbia) to move away from Eugene and reprovision. Eugene saw the opportunity to catch the Turks at Zenta and pushed his men into an 18-hour forced march. In the mean time, Mustafa's French engineers erected a bridge over the Tisza. It was collapsible and portable, supported by 60 boats serving as pontoons. The Turks had to pass over it slowly to avoid damaging it, giving the Austrians time to catch up.
Standard procedure in a situation like this would be to convene a council of war to plan the next step, but Eugene preferred a rapid strike. Although there would be only two to four hours of daylight left, he pressed forward, saying "I trust my men, there are no cowards among them". Eugene organized his forces in a crescent to pin the Ottomans against the Tisza. His men moved past outer defensive trenches to surround the core of Turkish defenses. Before them, Janissaries took protection in trenches behind earthworks, which in turn surrounded the area in front of the bridge. These barricades enveloped Ottomans by extending along banks of the river in back of them. They created a second barricade with a semi-circle of wagons.
The mounds were buttressed by fascines, stacks of brush covered with mud. The Ottoman soldiers and artillery fired at the Austrians through embrasures, indented pockets between the walls looking out through protected slits. The shooters retired to the protection of the trenches afterward, where they would reload. Time had been cut so short, however, that these defenses were incomplete.
The Imperials assaulted their opponents after the sipahies and their heavy artillery had crossed over the river, denying them support from the Ottoman cavalry and heavy cannons on the east bank. General Guido Starhemberg led the left wing forward at 5:00 PM when his cannons began to shell the bridge. Panic broke out among the Janissaries when they saw the span damaged. It was their only hope of escape! Many stampeded to get to it, crushing the Grand Vizier and fulfilling his nightmare. Eugene exploited the confusion by ordering the rest of his army to attack. His cavalry took the unusual step of dismounting so they could join with the infantry and close with the Turks in hand-to-hand combat.
Meanwhile, Eugene noticed a bulge of land along the banks of the Tisza that paralleled the mounds in back of the Ottoman camp. He directed the left wing to use it to encircle the enemy from the rear. Though the Ottomans bombarded them with grapeshot, Starhemberg's men scaled the banks of the river and the walls looming overhead. It was such an incredible accomplishment that, in his later report, Savoy could not explain how they had overcome the sheerness of the heights!
The exact sequence of events vary from one observer to another, but the following happened: The Sipahies tried to cross over the bridge to reinforce the Janissaries, but only succeeded in trampling the fleeing soldiers to death coming from the opposite direction. Starhemberg's men raced to the bridge and sealed it off. Eventually, the span groaned under the strain of the men overloading it and disintegrated, spilling the soldiers into the river. The Tisza flows at this time of year with a strong, icy current and reaches depths greater than the Danube, making it a death trap for the Janissaries. Hypothermia froze their limbs as they vainly struggled to swim across it.
The remaining Janissaries on the west bank were surrounded by frenzied Austrians who showed them no mercy. Eugene described the situation, "The soldiers got worked up to such a pitch that they spared no one and butchered all who fell into their hands despite the large sums of money which the Pashas and Turkish leaders... offered them to spare their lives". Mustafa saw everything from the far bank of the river in a state of despair. He paced back and forth, cursed, tore his hair and threw himself on the ground. An estimated 22,000 of his men were cut down in front of the bridge, another 10,000 drowned. All he could do was to gather the sipahis and flee northeast to Temesvar. The battle concluded just before night fell. Most of the Muslim senior military officials were slaughtered. The Imperials lost 300-400 soldiers. The next day the Imperialist army crossed the bridge into what had been Mustapha’s camp. There it discovered nothing short of a treasure. In his panic, the sultan had left behind all of his artillery, a huge sum in money, roughly 9,000 baggage carts, and an astounding 60,000 camels. Eugene led his men away from the scene as quickly as possible to protect them from contracting diseases from the rotting corpses. The Tisza was choked with bodies for days.
Indecision defeated Mustafa and left him a broken man. He never led an army on the battlefield again and was overthrown by his own men in 1703. On the other hand, Eugene's victory gave him the reputation of being one of the best seven generals in history, by Napoleon's reckoning. The scrawny young man retrieved his family's honor and achieved lasting greatness. Rarely does a single battle result in the long-term consequences of Zenta. The defeat forced the Turks to submit for the first time to a treaty as a defeated power and accept Western mediation. The Battle of Zenta signaled the end of the Austro-Ottoman Great Turkish War of 1683-1699, forcing the Turks into signing the Treaty of Carlowitz, which ceded a large chunk of Hungary, the whole of Croatia and Slovenia, and most of Transylvania – all the territory that the Ottoman Empire had gained in central Europe since 1526 – to Austria. The interval from the fall of the Western Empire in A.D. 476 to a time 1260 LUNAR years later brings us to 1698 (1,222.5 solar years). What happened in 1698? The completion of the Protestant Revolution at the Peace of Ryswick in September 20, 1697 (commemorated at the opening of St. Paul's Cathedral on December 2nd of that year) and the Peace of Carlowitz in January 26th, 1699 A.D. The significant date of 1698 bisects the two treaties that limit the two "little horns."
Ezekiel 25:14 says, "I will lay my vengeance upon EDOM (TURKEY) by the hand of my people Israel." "And the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of ESAU for stubble" (Obad. 18). "The house of Jacob shall possess their possessions" (Obadiah 17). "Saviors shall come up on Mount Zion to judge the mount of ESAU ; and the kingdom shall be the Eternal's" (Obad. 21). Yes "the elder (ESAU) shall serve the younger (Israel)." (Gen. 25:23) because " Israel (Jacob) is ... my firstborn (not Esau)" (Ex.4:22). In that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins (Jerusalem rebuilt); and I will build it as in the days of old: That they may possess the remnant of EDOM, and of all the heathen, which are called by My name (Palestine's mixed population is called Israel), saith the Lord that doeth this" (Amos 9:12). From these verses we can easily identify EDOM with TURKEY-- the people who guarded the site of the tabernacle before Britain took over in 1917.
Deuteronomy 11:24 says, "Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and LEBANON, from the river, the river EUPHRATES, even unto the uttermost SEA shall your coast be." After the First World War, Britain held the mandate stretching across the Fertile Crescent through what was then known as Palestine, Trans-Jordan and Iraq. From 1919 and through the 1920s this prophecy received fulfillment. God promised Abraham "all the land of Canaan" (Gen.17:8) and it was promised "for an everlasting possession." Therefore, the Palestinians, who are being given control over the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in Israel today, do not belong there. Isaac prophesied about ESAU, "Behold, thy dwelling shall be ("far from" -- Bas) the fatness of the earth, and ("far from" -- Bas) ... the dew of heaven above; And by thy SWORD shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother" (Gen.27:37-40). Haman and Herod were both EDOMITES (see Josephus). ESAU lives in TURKEY and TURKESTAN. These areas lack most of the important industrial natural resources. ESAU became EDOM (Gen. 25:30) or IDUMEA. One son called "AMALEK" gave his name to the capital of Jagatai in central Asia called ALMALIK (Acad. Am. En. 2:255). The Tarim River in TURKESTAN used to be called YUMALAK-Darya (29:872). The Egyptians called the Amalekites "AMU." In TURKESTAN is the AMU River (called Oxus by Greeks). We also see the SYR River in TURKESTAN named after Mount SEIR. ESAU'S son KORAH named the KARA-Kum desert, KARA-Kul Lake, KARA-Tau Mts., KIRGHIZ and KHORASAN in TURKESTAN. It's called TURKESTAN because it is "inhabited by TURKISH races" (27:419b). TEMAN gave his name to the OTTOMAN Empire (cp. Gen.36:11 & Obadiah 9) which stands "in the crossway" (Obad.14) -- the Bosporus and Dardanelles area that the British, Australians and New Zealanders fought so hard for in World War One. Strabo mentions the ODOMANTES tribe in N. GREECE and the ODOMANTIS country in TURKEY (3:359 & 5:325). They practiced circumcision (Aristophanes Acharn. 157). Herodotus calls these same peoples the SIRO-Painones (5:15) which may refer to SEIR of Pannonia. Plutarch called the Strymon River, on which the ODOMANTI lived, the PALESTINE River (DeFluv. 11). Ptolemy 3:12 mentions the town of IDOMENE and the province of ODOMANTICA both in Macedonia and IDYMUS in Lydia (TURKEY) (5:2).
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian army took tribute from Jerusalem in 604 B.C. Jehoiakim was taken captive (cp. Jer. 25:1 & Dan. 1:1-2). From 604 B.C. till 1917 A.D. were the seven "Times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24; Lev. 26:28) which are bisected by the date 657 A.D. What happened in 657 A.D.? In the time of Ali Bin Abu Talib's reign, ruler of the Islamic Realm, Muawiya bin Abu Sufian was the governor of Syria (Al-Sham), and wanted to separate Syria from the realm, to be independent. At the battle of Seffeen, north of Syria, in the year 36 of the Hijri calendar, (some 657 A.D.), the two sides fought. After this battle there was a split in Islam. Those who supported Ali were called the Shiia'ats who were mostly in Iraq and Iran, and those who supported Muawiya are the Sunies. And so the Muslims were divided into two political factions.
Also on November 2, 1917, the Balfour Declaration gave Jews authority for "the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." On December 9th 1917, (during the Festival of Hanukkah which commemorates the recapture of the Temple by Judas Maccabeas) British General Allenby liberated Jerusalem from the Turks. It was the 24th day of the ninth month of the Jewish calendar. Jews lost their authority over Jerusalem for "SEVEN TIMES" punishment (Lev.26:28). Also we know that Benjamin was part of the Kingdom of Judah and so in 1918 Iceland (Benjamin) was granted full self-government a full 2520 YEARS later. On that day (24th day of ninth month), the word of the Lord came to Haggai saying, "I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms, and I will destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the heathen" (Hag. 2:20). Jesus said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled" (Luke 21:24). This scripture alone should be sufficient witness that Britain is Israel. The Babylonian image of Daniel 2 (which included an Ottoman eastern leg) had been smitten by the British Empire and that "stone" then "became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth" (Dan. 2:35) which included the United States. By the end of the First World War (1917-1918 A.D.) the great Gentile Empires all fell and broke into pieces: Germany, Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Czarist Russia and Italy.
By 1917 (622 + 1335 = 1917) on the 1335th LUNAR year (Dan. 12:12), (1295 solar years), Turkey was driven from Jerusalem and Palestine completely by General Allenby and Lawrence of Arabia from November 1917 to the Armistice in November 1918. This period on the Moslem calendar occupied the entire 1335th Moslem year since the Moslem calendar ran from September to September.
If we add 1260 LUNAR years (1222.5 solar) to 657 A.D. we come to 1879 A.D. In 1878 at the Berlin Conference, the wholesale dismemberment of the Turkish Empire occurred. If we add 1260 PROPHETIC years (1241.915 solar) to 657, we come to 1899 when Theodor Herzl established the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement in 1899.
God's Hand in HISTORY
Many more examples could be given. But we can summarize and conclude by saying that "God removes kings and sets up kings" (Dan. 2:21, RSV). Daniel affirmed to King Nebuchadnezzar that "the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory" (Dan. 2:37). The purpose of seven years' punishment of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 4) was so "that the living may know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the basest of men" (Dan. 4:17). Isaiah stated it is God who "bringeth the princes to nothing" (Isa. 40:23). King David of ancient Israel declared that "God is the judge; he putteth down one, and setteth up another" (Ps. 75:7). God's intervention in events is PRECISE and FITS into a MASTER PLAN. He knows the end result from the beginning of time (Isa. 46:10). At certain times, it has been necessary for God to directly intervene to influence events to conform with the timetable of that overall master plan. In this regard, Victor Hugo -- writing with unusual insight in his description of Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo -- declared, "It was time for this vast man to fall."