MASORETIC versus SEPTUAGINT --
|Septuagint LXX (62 books)||Masoretic MT (39 books)||Independent Witness (NT, DSS, etc)|
|1. "God saw that it was good" (Gen. 1:8)||1. Phrase not included (2nd day)||1. Most other days (3rd-7th) have the phrase.|
|2. Methuseleh dies 14 years after Flood using LXX geneology of Genesis 5||2. Josephus & Peshitta agree with MT geneology of Genesis 5||2. Only "eight souls were saved by water" (1 Pet 3:20) -- Methuselah wasn't one of them.|
|3. "pierced my hands and feet" (Ps. 22:16).||3. "Like a lion they are at my hands and feet" (Ps. 22:16)||3. "They shall look on him whom they pierced" (John 19:37). "Unless I see the nail marks in his hands ... I will never believe" (John 20:25)|
|4. "recovery of sight to the blind" (Isa. 61:1-2)||4. Phrase not included||4. "recovery of sight to the blind" (Luke 4:18). "Your teachers ... have altogether taken away many scriptures from the translations effected by those 70 elders" -- Justin Martyr (c. 160 AD)|
|5. "virgin" (parthenos) (Isa. 7:14)||5. "young woman" (alma) (Isa. 7:14)||5. "a virgin shall be with child" (Matt. 1:23). "But it is not as some allege, who are now presuming to expound the Scripture as 'Behold, a young woman will conceive' ... Jewish proselytes" -- Irenaeus (180 AD)|
|6. "sacrificing to demons and not to God" (Baruch 4:7)||6. Baruch not included but Deuteronomy 32:17 says the same thing.||6. "they sacrifice to demons and not to God" (1 Cor. 10:20) But "We (Jews) have ... only 22 books ... justly believed to be divine" (Against Apion 1:8)|
|7. "out of Egypt have I called his children" (Hos. 11:1)||7. "I called my son out of Egypt" (Hos. 11:1)||7. "out of Egypt did I call my son" (Matt. 2:15)|
|8. "Sacrifice and offering you will not; but a body you haved prepared me" (Ps. 40:6)||8. "You do not delight in sacrifice and offering; you open my ears to listen" (Ps. 40:6)||8. "You did not want sacrifice and offering, but you prepared a body for me" (Heb. 10:5).|
|9. "my only-begotten one from the power of the dog" (Ps. 22:20)||9. "my only life from the power of these dogs" (Ps. 22:20)||9. "gave his only-begotten son" (John 3:16)|
|10. "Ochozias began to reign when he was twenty years old" (2 Chr. 22:2)||10. "Forty and two years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign" (2 Chr. 22:2)||10. (cp. 2 Ki. 8:26: "Two and twenty years old was Ahaziah when he began to reign")|
|11. Prayer of Manasseh (2 Chr. 33:12-13) inserted as 2 Chr. 37.||11. Prayer not included||11. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2). "Add not to his words" (Pr. 30:6).|
|12. Wisdom of Solomon (teaching immortality of the soul)||12. Book not included||12. "The soul that sinneth, it shall die" (Ez. 18:20) "We (Jews) have ... only 22 books ... justly believed to be divine" (Against Apion 1:8)|
|13. Sirach: "Do not seek to become a judge" (7:6). "Do not repeat yourself when you pray" (7:14) "Fruit discloses ... tree ... speech discloses mind" (27:6).||13. Book not included||13. Indirect allusion to Sirach: "Do not judge" (Matt 7:1). No "vain repetitions" in prayer (6:7). "Know them by their fruits ... what comes out of mouth ... from heart" (7:18-20; 15:18). But "We (Jews) have ... only 22 books ... justly believed to be divine" (Against Apion 1:8)|
|14. "They shall look upon me, because they have mocked me" (Zech. 12:10)||14. "they shall look upon me whom they have pierced" (Zech. 12:10)||14. "They shall look on him whom they pierced" (John 19:37).|
|15. "He bears our sins, and is pained for us" (Isa. 53:4)||15. "Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows" (Isa. 53:4)||15. "Himself took our infirmities, and bore our diseases" (Matt. 8:17)|
|16. Job (lacking many passages. Job identified as Jobab -- Gen. 36:33)||16. Job (complete)||16. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2).|
|17. Daniel contains Susanna and the Elders (1:1-3:23); Prayer of Azariah; Song of the Three Holy Children (3:24-12:13) and Bel and the Dragon||17. Daniel (bare minimum)||17. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2). "We (Jews) have ... only 22 books ... justly believed to be divine" (Against Apion 1:8)|
|18. Esther contains Prayers of Mordecai and Esther; Haman and Mordecai's Decrees||18. Esther (bare minimum)||18. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2). "We (Jews) have ... only 22 books ... justly believed to be divine" (Against Apion 1:8)|
19. Psalm 151
|19. This psalm not included||19. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2).|
|20. Jeremiah (one tenth shorter)||20. Jeremiah (complete)||20. "Ye shall not add to the word which I command you, and ye shall not take from it" (Deut. 4:2).|
|21. Confusing passage not included||21. Confusing 1 Samuel 17:55-58||21. Why would Saul not recognize his own armour-bearer and harp player?|
|22. "I send forth my messenger ["prior to your face" (Ex. 23:20)], and he shall survey (prepare) the way before me" (Mal. 3:1)||22. "I send my messenger ["before you" (Ex. 23:20)] , and he shall prepare the way before me" (Mal. 3:1)||22. "I sent my messenger before your face, who shall prepare your way before you" (Matt. 11:10)|
|23. "you shall find purification for your souls" (Jer. 6:16)||23. "you shall find rest for your souls" (Jer. 6:16)||23. "you shall find rest unto your souls" (Matt. 11:29)|
|24. "Jacob is my servant, I will help him: Israel is my chosen ... nor shall his voice be heard without.... smoking flax shall he not quench; but he shall bring forth judgment to truth.... and in his name shall the Gentiles trust (hope)." (Isa. 42:1-4)||24. "Behold, my servant, whom I uphold; my chosen ... He will not cry, nor lift up his voice, nor cause it to be heard in the street.... a dimly burning wick will he not quench: he will bring forth justice in truth.... and the isles shall wait for his law" (Isa. 42:1-4)||24. "Behold, my servant whom I have chosen; My beloved ... Neither shall any one hear his voice in the streets.... smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory. And in his name shall the Gentiles hope" (Matt. 12:18-21)|
|25. They have said ... let us abolish the feasts (moedim) of the Lord from the earth" (Ps. 74:8)||25. "They said ... Let us destroy them ... they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land" (Ps. 74:8)||25. "He shall ... think to change times ("festivals" --NLT, GNT & CSB) and laws" (Dan. 7:25). Men "changed the ordinance" (Isa. 24:5; Ez. 5:5-8)|
|26. "And the sojourning of the children of Israel, while they sojourned in the land of Egypt and the land of Chanaan, [was] four hundred and thirty years" (Ex. 12:40)||26. "Now the length of time the Israelite people lived in Egypt was 430 years" (Ex. 12:40).||26. Josephus said, "They left Egypt ... four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan, but two hundred and fifteen years only after Jacob removed into Egypt." (Ant. 2:15:2) The Samaritan Pentateuch agrees (Ex. 12:40) and so does Paul (Gal. 3:16-17).|
|27. Psalm 145 has the "N" verse in LXX: "The LORD is faithful in all his words, and gracious in all his deeds."||27. Psalm 145 (an acrostic). Each verse begins with the next letter of the alphabet, but "N" is missing in the MT.||27. In Dead Sea Scrolls, Psalm 145 has the "N" verse.|
|28. 1 Sam. 10:28 is in LXX||28. 1 Sam. 10:28 not in MT.||28. 1 Sam. 10:28 is in Dead Sea Scrolls. "Your teachers ... have altogether taken away many Scriptures from the translations effected by those 70 elders" -- Justin Martyr c. 160 AD|
|29. Isaiah 53 suffering servant is singular making him Jesus||29. Isaiah 53 suffering servant is plural
making him a symbol of Israel
|29. "Your teachers ... have altogether taken away many Scriptures from the translations effected by those 70 elders" -- Justin Martyr c. 160 AD|
|30. Deut. 32:8 "sons of God"||30.Deut. 32:8 "sons of Israel"||30. In Dead Sea Scrolls: Deut. 32:8 reads "sons of God"|
|31. "A voice ... was heard in Ramah" (Jer. 31:15)||31. "A voice is heard on high" (Jer. 31:15)||31. "A voice was heard in Ramah" (Matt. 2:18)|
|32. "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the Lord; make straight the paths of our God.'" (Isa. 40:3)||32. "A voice calls, 'In the desert clear the way of the Lord, straighten out in the wilderness, a highway for our God.'" (Isa. 40:3)||32. "The voice of one crying in the wilderness: 'Prepare the way of the Lord; Make his paths straight.'" (Matt. 3:3)|
|33. "man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word proceeding from the mouth of God man shall live" (Deut. 8:3).||33. "man does not live by bread alone, but rather by, whatever comes forth from the mouth of the Lord does man live" (Deut. 8:3)||33. "Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God" (Matt 4:4).|
|34."If the righteous man is scarcely saved, Then where shall an ungodly man and a sinner appear?" (Pr. 11:31)||34. "Behold! The righteous man will be requited on earth; surely a wicked man and a sinner" (Pr. 11:31).||34. "If the righteous one is scarcely saved, Where will the ungodly and ther sinner appear?" (1 Pet. 4:18)|
|35. "The Lord is my helper; I shall not be afraid of what man will do to me" (Ps. 118:6).||35. "The Lord is for me; I shall not fear. What can man do to me?" (Ps. 118:6)||35. "The Lord is my helper; I will not fear. What can man do to me?" (Heb. 13:6)|
|36. "For the heart of this people has become insensitive" (Isa. 6:10).||36."This people's heart is becoming fat" (Isa. 6:10).||36. "For the hearts of this people have grown dull" (Matt. 13:15).|
|37. "Let their table become a snare before them, And a recompense and a stumbling block" (Ps. 69:22). LXX||37. "May their table before them become a trap, and [their hope] for peace become a snare" (Ps. 69:22). MT||37. "Let their table become a snare and a trap, A stumbling block and a recompense to them" (Rom. 11:9)|
|38. "It shall come to pass in that day that there shall be a Root of Jesse who shall arise to rule nations, The Gentiles shall hope in Him, and His resting place shall be honorable" (Isa. 11:10).||38. "And it shall come to pass on that day, that the root of Jesse, which stands as a banner for peoples, to him shall the nations inquire, and his peace shall be [with] honor" (Isa. 11:10).||38. "There shall be a root of Jesse; And He who shall rise to reign over the Gentiles, In Him the Gentiles shall hope" (Rom. 15:12).|
|39. "These people draw near to Me and honor Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me, and they worship Me in vain, teaching the commandments and doctrines of men" (Isa. 29:13).||39. "Because this people has come near; with their mouth and with their lips they honor Me, but their heart they draw far away from Me, and their fear of me has become a command of people, which has been taught" (Isa. 29:13).||39. "This people draw near to Me with their mouth, And honor Me with their lips, But their heart is far from Me. And in vain they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men" (Matt. 15:8-9).|
|40. "For the End" (Ps. 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; 8:1; 9:1; etc)||40. Not included in title of Psalms||40. "In the last days" (Acts 2:14-17) "for us, on whom the culmination of the ages has come" (1 Cor. 10:1-11). How did they know? "Your teachers ... have altogether taken away many Scriptures from the translations effected by those 70 elders" -- Justin Martyr c. 160 AD|
|41. "five sons of Merab, daughter of Saul" (2 Sam. 21:8)||41. "five sons of Michal, daughter of Saul" (2 Sam. 21:8)||41. "Michal, daughter of Saul, had no child till the day of her death" (2 Sam. 6:23)|
|42. "Smite the shepherds and remove the sheep" (Zech. 13:7).||42. "smite the shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered" (Zech. 13:7).||42. "Smite the Shepherd and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered" (Matt. 26:31)|
|43. "Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved" (Isa. 10:22).||43. "Though your people Israel be like the sand of the sea, yet a remnant of them will return" (Isa. 10:22)||43. "Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved" (Rom. 9:27)|
|44. "who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth" (Isa. 53:9)||44. "He had done no violence, nor was there any deceit in his mouth" (Isa. 53:9)||44. "who committed no sin, nor was deceit found in his mouth" (1 Pet. 2:22).|
|45. "I gathered you as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings....I sent you ... the prophets but you have ... killed them ... Your house is desolate" (2 Esdras 1:30-33).||45. Not included in MT.||45. Indirect allusion to 2 Esdras: "killest the prophets ... how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate" (Matt. 23:37-38).|
|46. "Cainan" included (Gen. 11:12) (making eleven generations). But early copies of the LXX do not have the extra Cainan.||46. "Cainan" excluded (Gen. 11:12). Never appeared in the Targum, nor Samaritan version, nor any MT. Nor by Josephus. Nor by 1 Chr. 1:24. Nor is it in Beza's most ancient Greek copy of Luke.||46. "Cainan" inserted (Luke 3:37) by a transcriber. Eusebius & Africanus don't mention Cainan among postdiluvians from their copies of the LXX. An antediluvian name was inserted thru carelessness among postdiluvians. Having no numbers, he wrote Salah's numbers twice. Copies were made of this LXX. Later transcribers, thinking Luke omitted it, added it.|
|47. This dispute between Michael and the Devil is found in the apocryphal book called The Assumption of Moses||47. Not included in MT.||47. Indirect allusion to The Assumption of Moses: "Yet Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses" (Jude 1:9) "Add not to his words" Pr. 30:6).|
|48. Genesis 46:27 says, "seventy-five souls" (five sons and grandsons of Ephraim and Manasseh)||48. Genesis 46:27 says "seventy" (Ephraim and Manasseh had no children born at this time)||48. Acts 7:14 says, "seventy-five souls" but Josephus' Antiq. 2:7:4 says "seventy" and Deut. 10:22 LXX says "seventy"|
John Allegro in The Dead Sea Scrolls documents that when the LXX and MT contradict, the LXX most often agrees with the Dead Sea Scrolls (pp. 59-83). "Qumran agrees 13 times with the LXX against the MT and four times with the MT against the LXX ... it seems now that to scholars engaged in this work in the future Qumran has offered a new basis for confidence in the LXX" (Allegro, pp.74,81). "That the LXX existed before the time of Christ is borne out not only by the fact of agreement with the DSS but in other works as well. A Vander Heeren states, "It is certain that the law, the prophets, and at least part of the other books ... existed in Greek before 135 BC, as appears from the prologue of Ecclesiasticus which does not date later than that year"" (Catholic Encyclopedia). "There are remarkable differences betweem the LXX and MT of 1 and 2 Sam, Jeremiah, Esther, Daniel, Proverbs and Ezekiel 40-48 ... Isaiah and Job" (James A. Sanders, Intertestamental and Biblical Studies at Clairmont, pp. 15-16).
The Jews never recognized the Apocrypha as Scripture. Josephus said, "We (Jews) have not 10,000 books among us, disagreeing with and contradicting one another, but only 22 books which contain the records of all time, and are justly believed to be divine." (We count them as 39, but they are the same 22 books). Nobody "has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them" (Against Apion 1:8). Jews reject any book after the time of Malachi. The Babylonian Talmud says, "After the latter prophets departed: Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Holy Spirit departed from Israel." Jesus agreed when he said, "all things must be fulfilled which were written in the LAW of Moses and the PROPHETS and the PSALMS concerning me" (Luke 24:44). This is the same phrase the Jews use to describe the 22 books of the Old Testament: LAW (5 books); PROPHETS (13 books) and PSALMS (4 books). Jesus also said "from Abel ... to Zechariah" (Matt. 23:35) (Genesis to Chronicles -- the last book of the Hebrew Bible) which is just another way of saying "nothing after Malachi." Yet most apocryphal writings were written in the 400 years between Malachi and Matthew. Philo, the Jewish philosopher of Alexandria (20 BC- 50 AD) never cited the Apocrypha even though he wrote prolifically. Even if Jesus quoted from Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) in the Sermon on the Mount, and Paul quoted from the Book of Jasher when he mentioned "Jannes and Jambres" (2 Tim. 3:8) (Jasher 79:27) and Jude quoted from the Book of Enoch when he said "Behold the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints" (Jude 1:14) (Enoch 1:1:9), and quoted from The Assumption of Moses (Jude 1:9), this doesn't imply these books as a whole are inspired.
Furthermore, the Apocrypha shows itself to be uninspired.
1.) Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) says, "Pardon us, if in any parts of what we have labored to interpret, we may seem to fail in some of the phrases."
2.) Tobit is said to have lived 158 years (Tobit 14:11), yet supposedly, he was alive back when Jeroboam revolted against Jerusalem (931 BC) and then still around when when the Assyrians invaded Israel (721 BC) -- a span of some 210 years (1:3-5). Also Tobit 5:15-19 teaches that angels can have families (cp. Mark 12:25). Tobit 6:1-7 describes magical potions to drive away demons. Tobit 12:9 says, "Alms doth deliver from death and it shall purge away all sin."
3.) In Judith 1:1 we read that Nebuchadnezzar ruled in Nineveh over Assyria -- rather than in Babylon. Also in Judith 9:2-9, the killing of the men of Shechem is praised rather than condemned (cp. Gen. 49:6-7).
4.) Second Maccabees 1:13-16 says Antiochus Epiphanes was "cut to pieces in the temple of Nanea" and yet 2 Maccabees 9:19-29 says "and being taken with a noisome sickness" he "ended his life among the mountains by a most pitious fate in a strange land." Also in another story, suicide is portrayed as admirable (2 Macc. 14:41-43). "Wherefore he made the propitiation for them that had died, that they might be released from their sins" (2 Macc. 12:45). (Prayer for the dead)
5.) Wisdom of Solomon 8:19-20 mentions the preexistence of the soul. Bible doesn't teach this Ps. 139:13-16; Zech. 12:1). Wisdom 11:17 mentions God creating the world out of "formless matter" rather than nothing (Gen. 1:1; Ps. 33:6-9; Heb. 11:3).
6.) Baruch 1:1-2 claims Baruch was in Babylon. Yet the Bible says Baruch was in Egypt (Jer. 43:6-7).
Therefore, when we discuss the Septuagint versus the Masoretic Text, we are not including the Apocrypha as a necessary part of it.
"For the apostles, since they are of more ancient date than all these [heretics], AGREE with this translation [LXX]. And the translation
HARMONIZES with the tradition of the apostles. For Peter, John, Matthew, Paul, and the rest successively, as well as their followers, explained all prophecies just as the interpretation of the [seventy] elders contains them." -- Irenaeus AD 180 ANF vol. 1 page 452
"Why then is the 'History' not in their Daniel, if as you say, their wise men hand down by tradition such stories? The answer is that they HID from the knowledge of the people as many of the passages which contained any SCANDAL against the elders, rulers, and judges, as they could, some of which have been preserved in uncanonical writings (Apocrypha). As an example, take the story told about ISAIAH; and guaranteed by the Epistle to the Hebrews, which is found in NONE of their public books. For the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in speaking of the prophets, and what they suffered, says, 'They were stoned, they were SAWN ASUNDER, they were slain with the sword." [Heb. 11:37] To whom, I ask, does the 'SAWN ASUNDER' refer (for by an old idiom, not peculiar to Hebrew, but found also in Greek, this is said in the plural, although it refers to but one person)? ... Now we know very well that tradition says that ISAIAH the prophet was SAWN ASUNDER; and this is found in some apocryphal work, which probably the Jews have PURPOSELY TAMPERED WITH, introducing some phrases manifestly incorrect, that DISCREDIT might be thrown on the whole.... Let us see now if in these cases we are not forced to the conclusion, that while the Savior gives a true account of them, NONE of the Scriptures which could prove what He tells are to be found. For they who build the tombs of the prophets and garnish the sepulchers of the righteous, condemning the crimes their fathers committed against the righteous and the prophets, say, 'If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the BLOOD of the prophets ...' (Matt. 23:30)
In the BLOOD of what prophets, can anyone tell me? For where do we find anything like this written of Isaiah, or Jeremiah, or any of the twelve [minor prophets], or Daniel? Then about Zechariah the son of Berechiah, who was SLAIN between the Temple and the altar, we learn from Jesus only, not knowing it otherwise from any Scripture. Wherefore I think no other supposition is possible, than that they who had the reputation of wisdom, and the rulers and elders, TOOK AWAY from the people every passage which might bring them into DISCREDIT among the people. We need not wonder, then, if this history of the EVIL DEVICE of the LICENTIOUS elders against Susanna is true, but was CONCEALED and REMOVED from the Scriptures by men themselves not very far removed from the counsel of these elders ... In the Acts of the Apostles also, Stephen, in his other testimony, says, 'Which of the prophets have not your fathers PERSECUTED? And they have SLAIN them which showed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom you have been now the BETRAYERS and MURDERERS.' [Acts 7:52] That Stephen speaks the truth, everyone will admit who receives the Acts of the Apostles; but it is impossible to show from the extant books of the Old Testament how with any justice he throws the blame of having persecuted and slain the prophets on the fathers of those who believe not in Christ ... What I have said is, I think, sufficient to prove that it would be nothing wonderful if this history were true, and the LICENTIOUS and CRUEL ATTACK was actually made on Susanna by those who were at that time elders, and written down by the wisdom of the Spirit, but REMOVED by these rulers of Sodom [Isa. 1:10], as the Spirit would call them." -- Origen AD 235 ANF, vol. 4, page 388-389.
Origen said that it was foolish for Christians to go to the Jews for the Old Testament, especially when Jesus and the apostles used the SEPTUAGINT. Origen said this very sarcastically: "Indeed! When we notice such things [differences], we immediately REJECT as FALSE the copies in use in our Churches, [we] command the brotherhood to PUT AWAY the sacred books currently used among them, [and we] coax and persuade the Jews to give us copies which will [certainly] be UNTAMPERED WITH and free from FORGERY!" -- Origen AD 235. ANF, vol. 4, page 387.
T.M. Law says, "the writers of the New Testament used ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY the Greek Septuagint" (When God Spoke Greek, p.85). Also, "the consensus is now that when he [Paul] quotes from the Jewish scriptures he MOST OFTEN, perhaps ALWAYS, preferred the Greek" (When God Spoke Greek, p.105).
H.B. Swete says, "it may at once be said that every part of the New Testament affords evidence of a knowledge of the LXX, and that a GREAT MAJORITY of the passages cited from the Old Testament are in general agreement with the Greek version. It is calculated by one writer [Turpie] on the subject that, while the New Testament differs from the Masoretic text in 212 citations, it departs from the LXX in 185; and by another [Grinfield] that "not more than fifty" of the citations "materially differ from the LXX." On either estimate the LXX is the PRINCIPAL SOURCE from which the writers of the New Testament derived their Old Testament quotations." (Swete, Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, 1914, p.392)