Israel Promised To Obey God On Pentecost
21:1 Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them.
2 If thou buy an Hebrew (Perseus) servant, six years he shall serve (360°): and in the seventh (60°) he shall go out free for nothing.
If thou buy a Hebrew servant - Calmet enumerates six different ways in which a Hebrew might lose his liberty:
2. A father might sell his children. If a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant; see Exodus 21:7.
3. Insolvent debtors became the slaves of their creditors. My husband is dead - and the creditor is come to take unto him my two sons to be bondmen, 2 Kings 4:1.
4. A thief, if he had not money to pay the fine laid on him by the law, was to be sold for his profit whom he had robbed. If he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft; Exodus 22:3, Exodus 22:4.
5. A Hebrew was liable to be taken prisoner in war, and so sold for a slave.
6. A Hebrew slave who had been ransomed from a Gentile by a Hebrew might be sold by him who ransomed him, to one of his own nation.
Six years he shall serve - It was an excellent provision in these laws, that no man could finally injure himself by any rash, foolish, or precipitate act. No man could make himself a servant or slave for more than seven years; and if he mortgaged the family inheritance, it must return to the family at the jubilee, which returned every fiftieth year.
It is supposed that the term six years is to be understood as referring to the sabbatical years; for let a man come into servitude at whatever part of the interim between two sabbatical years, he could not be detained in bondage beyond a sabbatical year; so that if he fell into bondage the third year after a sabbatical year, he had but three years to serve; if the fifth, but one. See Clarke's note on Exodus 23:11, etc. Others suppose that this privilege belonged only to the year of jubilee, beyond which no man could be detained in bondage, though he had been sold only one year before.
3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his (Castor) wife shall go out with him (Pollux).
4 If his master have given him a (Castor) wife, and she have born him (Gemini) sons or (Gemini) daughters; the (Castor) wife and her (Gemini) children shall be her master's, and he (Perseus) shall go out by himself.
5 And if the servant (Ophiuchus) shall plainly (red radius) say, I love my (Cepheus) master, my (Castor) wife, and my (Perseus & Pollux) children; I will not go out free:
6 Then his master shall bring him (Ophiuchus) unto the (Gemini) judges; he shall also bring him to the (lunar or solar) door, or unto the (red radius) door post; and his master shall bore his (lunar or solar) ear through with an (red radius) aul; and he shall serve him for ever.
7 And if a man (Pollux) sell his daughter (Castor) to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the (Gemini) menservants do.
8 If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her.
9 And if he have betrothed her unto his (Perseus) son, he shall deal with her after the manner of (Gemini) daughters.
10 If he take him another wife (Pollux); her (Castor) food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.
11 And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money.
These three -
2. Her raiment - her private wardrobe, with all occasional necessary additions. And,
3. The marriage debt - a due proportion of the husband's time and company.
12 He (Perseus or Hercules) that smiteth a man (Ophiuchus or Gemini), so that he die, shall be surely (red radius) put to death.
13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a (lunar or solar) place whither he shall flee.
14 But if a man (Perseus or Hercules) come presumptuously upon his neighbour (Ophiuchus or Gemini), to (red radius) slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die.
15 And he (Perseus or Hercules) that smiteth his (Castor) father, or his (Pollux) mother, shall be surely put to (red radius) death.
16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.
17 And he that (red radius) curseth his (Pollux) father, or his (Castor) mother, shall surely be put to (red radius) death.
18 And if men strive together (Ophiuchus and Hercules), and one smite another with a (lunar) stone, or with his fist, and he die not, but keepeth his bed:
19 If he (Ophiuchus) rise again, and walk abroad upon his (red radius) staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed.
20 And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand; he shall be surely punished.
21 Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money.
22 If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.
23 And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life,
24 (Lunar) Eye for (lunar) eye, (lunar) tooth for (lunar) tooth, (lunar) hand for (lunar) hand, (lunar or solar) foot for (lunar or solar) foot,
25 (solar) Burning for (solar) burning, (red radius) wound for (red radius) wound, (red radius) stripe for (red radius) stripe.
26 And if a man smite the (lunar) eye of his servant, or the (lunar) eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his (lunar) eye's sake.
27 And if he (Perseus) smite out his (Pollux) manservant's (lunar) tooth, or his (Castor) maidservant's (lunar) tooth; he shall let him go free for his (lunar) tooth's sake.
28 If an (Taurus) ox gore a (Pollux) man or a (Castor) woman, that they die: then the (Taurus) ox shall be surely (lunar) (red radius) stoned, and his flesh shall not be (red radius) eaten; but the owner of the (Taurus) ox shall be quit.
29 But if the (Taurus) ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been (red radius) testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a (Pollux) man or a (Castor) woman; the (Taurus) ox shall be (lunar) stoned, and his owner also shall be (red radius) put to death.
30 If there be laid on him a sum of money (solar gold or lunar silver), then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him.
31 Whether he have (red radius) gored a (Pollux) son, or have gored a (Castor) daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him.
32 If the (Taurus) ox shall push a (Pollux) manservant or a (Castor) maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of (lunar) silver, and the ox shall be (lunar) stoned.
33 And if a man shall open a (lunar) pit, or if a man shall dig a (lunar) pit, and not cover it, and an (Taurus) ox or an (Aries) ass fall therein;
That is, if a man shall open a well or cistern that had been before closed up, or dig a new one in some public place where there was danger that men or cattle might fall into it; for a man might do as he pleased in his own grounds, as those were his private right. In the above case, if he had neglected to cover the pit, and his neighbor's ox or ass was killed by falling into it, he was to pay its value in money.
34 The owner of the (lunar) pit shall make it good, and give (solar gold or lunar silver) money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his.
35 And if one man's (Taurus) ox hurt another's, that he (red radius) die; then they shall sell the live (Taurus) ox, and (red radius) divide the (solar or lunar) money of it; and the dead (Taurus) ox also they shall (red radius) divide.
36 Or if it be known that the (Taurus) ox hath used to (red radius) push in time past, and his owner hath not (red radius) kept him in; he shall surely pay (Taurus) ox for (Taurus) ox; and the dead shall be his own.
2 If a thief be found breaking up, and be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.
3 If the sun be risen upon him (sun on red radius horizon), there shall be (red radius) blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.
4 If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive, whether it be (Taurus) ox, or (Aries) ass, or (Aries) sheep; he shall restore double.
5 If a man shall cause a (red radius) field or (solar and lunar grapes) vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his (Taurus or Aries) beast, and shall feed in another man's field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution.
6 If (solar) fire break out, and catch in (Scorpio) thorns, so that the stacks of (solar golden) corn, or the (red radius) standing (solar) corn, or the (red radius) field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the (solar) fire shall surely make restitution.
7 If a man shall deliver unto his neighbour (solar gold or lunar silver) money or stuff to keep, and it be (red radius) stolen out of the man's (red radius) house; if the thief be found, let him pay (two moons for a sun) double.
8 If the thief be not found, then the master of the (red radius) house shall be brought unto the (Gemini) judges, to see whether he have put his (Perseus or Castor) hand unto his neighbour's goods.
9 For all manner of trespass, whether it be for (Taurus) ox, for (Aries) ass, for (Aries) sheep, for raiment, or for any manner of lost thing which another challengeth to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the (Gemini) judges; and whom the judges shall condemn, he shall pay (two moons for a sun) double unto his neighbour.
10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an (Aries) ass, or an (Taurus) ox, or a (Aries) sheep, or any beast, to keep; and it (red radius) die, or be (red radius) hurt, or driven away, no man (lunar eyeballs) seeing it:
11 Then shall an oath of the Lord be between them both (Perseus, Castor, Hercules, and Cepheus all raise their hands), that he hath not put his hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall not make it good.
12 And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof.
13 If it be (red radius) torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was (red radius) torn.
14 And if a man borrow ought of his neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner thereof being not with it, he shall surely make it good.
15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he shall not make it good: if it be an hired thing, it came for his hire.
16 And if a man (Pollux) entice a maid (Castort) that is not betrothed, and (red radius) lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife.
A marriage-price] Heb. môhar, Arab, mahr; i.e.—not a ‘dowry,’ but—the price paid for the wife to her parents or family, according to ancient Hebrew custom (cf. Genesis 34:12, 1 Samuel 18:25). The same custom prevailed anciently, and prevails still, in many other parts of the world. The môhar was paid at the time of betrothal; and its payment ratified the engagement. The amount varied naturally with the relative circumstances of the two parties; and was a subject of mutual agreement between the suitor and the girl’s family (cf. Genesis 34:12).
16, 17. Compensation for the seduction of an unbetrothed maiden The unmarried and unbetrothed daughter counts as part of her father’s property; by the loss of her virginity her value is diminished; her father consequently has a claim for compensation; and the seducer must pay the price sufficient to make the girl his wife. Comp. Deuteronomy 22:28-29 (where, however, the case contemplated is one not of seduction, but of rape). The seduction of a betrothed maiden is regarded as virtually the same thing as adultery: this is dealt with in Deuteronomy 22:23-27.
17 If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins.
18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.
19 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall surely be put to death.
20 He that (solar or lunar) sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed.
21 Thou shalt neither vex a (Perseus) stranger, nor oppress him: for ye were (Gemini) strangers in the land of Egypt.
22 Ye shall not afflict any (Castor) widow, or fatherless (Pollux) child.
23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they (red radius) cry at all unto me, I will surely (lunar ears) hear their (red radius) cry;
24 And my wrath shall wax (solar) hot, and I will kill you with the (Perseus or red radius) sword; and your (Gemini) wives shall be (Gemini) widows, and your (Gemini) children fatherless.
25 If thou lend (solar gold or lunar silver) money to any of my (Gemini) people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.
26 If thou at all take thy neighbour's (lunar) raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto him by that the sun goeth down (sun on red radius horizon):
27 For that is his covering only, it is his (lunar) raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? and it shall come to pass, when he (red radius) crieth unto me, that I will (lunar ears) hear; for I am gracious.
28 Thou shalt not (red radius) revile the (Gemini) gods (judges -- Darby), nor curse the (Cepheus) ruler of thy (Gemini) people.
29 Thou shalt not delay to offer the first of thy ripe (solar and lunar) fruits, and of thy (red radius) liquors: the firstborn of thy (Gemini) sons shalt thou give unto me.
30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine (Taurus) oxen, and with thy (Aries) sheep: seven days it shall be with his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me.
31 And ye shall be holy men unto me: neither shall ye (red radius) eat any (Taurus/Aries) flesh that is (red radius) torn of beasts in the field; ye shall (red radius) cast it to the (Canis Minor & Major) dogs.
23:1 Thou shalt not raise a false (red radius) report: put not thine hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous (Castor, Hercules, Cepheus, Perseus) witness.
2 Thou shalt not follow a (Gemini) multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou (red radius) speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment:
3 Neither shalt thou (lunar eyeballs) countenance a poor man in his cause.
4 If thou meet thine enemy's (Taurus) ox or his (Aries) ass going astray, thou shalt surely (red radius) bring it back to him again.
5 If thou see the (Aries) ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him.
6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of thy poor in his cause.
7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked.
8 And thou shalt take no (solar gold or lunar silver) gift: for the gift (red radius) blindeth the (lunar eyeballs of the) wise, and perverteth the (red radius) words of the righteous.
9 Also thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the (lunar or solar) heart of a stranger, seeing ye were (Gemini) strangers in the land of Egypt.
10 And six years (360°) thou shalt (Ophiuchus) (solar and lunar) sow thy land, and shalt (Gemini) gather in the (solar and lunar) fruits thereof:
11 But the seventh year (60°) thou shalt let it rest and lie still; that the (Gemini) poor of thy people may (red radius mouth with lunar teeth) eat: and what they leave the (Taurus/Aries) beasts of the (red radius) field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt deal with thy (solar/lunar red vine) vineyard, and with thy (solar/lunar red vine) oliveyard.
The seventh year thou shalt let it rest - As, every seventh day was a Sabbath day, so every seventh year was to be a Sabbath year. The reasons for this ordinance Calmet gives thus: -
"2. To inspire the people with sentiments of humanity, by making it their duty to give rest, and proper and sufficient nourishment, to the poor, the slave, and the stranger, and even to the cattle.
"3. To accustom the people to submit to and depend on the Divine providence, and expect their support from that in the seventh year, by an extraordinary provision on the sixth.
"4. To detach their affections from earthly and perishable things, and to make them disinterested and heavenly-minded.
"5. To show them God's dominion over the country, and that He, not they, was lord of the soil and that they held it merely from his bounty." See this ordinance at length, Leviticus 25 (note).
That God intended to teach them the doctrine of providence by this ordinance, there can be no doubt; and this is marked very distinctly, Leviticus 25:20, Leviticus 25:21 : "And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase: then I will command my blessing upon you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years." That is, There shall be, not three crops in one year, but one crop equal in its abundance to three, because it must supply the wants of three years.
1. For the sixth year, supplying fruit for its own consumption;
2. For the seventh year, in which they were neither to sow nor reap; and
3. For the eighth year, for though they ploughed, sowed, etc., that year, yet a whole course of its seasons was requisite to bring all these fruits to perfection, so that they could not have the fruits of the eighth year till the ninth, (see Leviticus 25:22), till which time God promised that they should eat of the old store.
What an astonishing proof did this give of the being, power, providence, mercy, and goodness of God! Could there be an infidel in such a land, or a sinner against God and his own soul, with such proofs before his eyes of God and his attributes as one sabbatical year afforded?
It is very remarkable that the observance of this ordinance is nowhere expressly mentioned in the sacred writings; though some suppose, but without sufficient reason, that there is a reference to it in Jeremiah 34:8, Jeremiah 34:9. Perhaps the major part of the people could not trust God, and therefore continued to sow and reap on the seventh year, as on the preceding. This greatly displeased the Lord, and therefore he sent them into captivity; so that the land enjoyed those Sabbaths, through lack of inhabitants, of which their ungodliness had deprived it. See Leviticus 18:24, Leviticus 18:25, Leviticus 18:28; Leviticus 26:34, Leviticus 26:35, Leviticus 26:43; 2 Chronicles 36:20, 2 Chronicles 36:21. Commentators have been much puzzled to ascertain the time in which the sabbatical year began; because, if it began in Abib or March, they must have lost two harvests; for they could neither reap nor plant that year, and of course they could have no crop the year following; but if it began with what was called the civil year, or in Tisri or Marcheshvan, which answers to the beginning of our autumn, they would then have had that year's produce reaped and gathered in.
12 Six days (360°) thou shalt do thy work, and on the seventh day (60°) thou shalt rest: that thine (Taurus) ox and thine (Aries) ass may rest, and the (Pollux) son of thy (Castor) handmaid, and the (Perseus) stranger, may be refreshed.
13 And in all things that I have (red radius) said unto you be circumspect: and make no (red radius) mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be (lunar ears) heard out of thy mouth.
14 Three times thou shalt keep a feast unto me in the year.
15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unleavened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened bread seven days (420°), as I commanded thee, in the time appointed of the month Abib; for in it thou camest out from Egypt: and none shall appear before me empty:)
16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits of thy labours, which thou hast sown in the field: and the feast of ingathering, which is in the end of the year, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field.
17 Three (red radius) times in the year all thy males shall appear before the (fiery) Lord God.
18 Thou shalt not offer the (red radius) blood of my (solar) sacrifice with (lunar) leavened bread; neither shall the (lunar) fat of my sacrifice remain until the (sun on red radius horizon) morning.
19 The first of the (solar and lunar) firstfruits of thy land thou shalt (red radius) bring into the house of the Lord thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a (Aries) kid in his mother's (lunar) milk.
20 Behold, I send an (Perseus) Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.
21 Beware of him, and obey his (red radius) voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name is in him.
22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his (red radius) voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.
23 For mine (Perseus) Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the (Gemini) Amorites, and the (Hercules and Ophiuchus) Hittites, and the (Gemini) Perizzites, and the (Perseus and Ophiuchus) Canaanites, the (Gemini) Hivites, and the (Perseus and Ophiuchus) Jebusites: and I will (red radius) cut them off.
24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do after their works: but thou shalt utterly (red radius) overthrow them, and quite (red radius) break down their (constellation) images.
25 And ye shall serve the (fiery) Lord your God, and he shall bless thy (lunar) bread, and thy (lunar) water; and I will (red radius) take sickness away from the midst of thee.
26 There shall nothing cast their young, nor be barren, in thy land: the number of thy days I will fulfil.
27 I will send my (red radius) fear before thee, and will destroy all the (Gemini) people to whom thou shalt come, and I will make all thine enemies turn their (Taurus/Aries) backs unto thee.
28 And I will send (Scorpio) hornets before thee, which shall drive out the (Gemini) Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.
29 I will not drive them out from before thee in one year; lest the land become desolate, and the beast of the field multiply against thee.
30 By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.
31 And I will set thy bounds from the (red radius or Eridanus) Red sea even unto the (red radius or Eridanus) sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the (Eridanus) river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your (Castor, Perseus, Cepheus, Hercules) hand; and thou shalt (red radius) drive them out before thee.
32 Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with their gods.
33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest they make thee sin against me: for if thou serve their gods, it will surely be a (red radius) snare unto thee.
24:1 And he (fiery Lord) said unto Moses (Ophiuchus), Come up unto the Lord, thou, and Aaron (Hercules), Nadab, and Abihu (Pollux and Castor), and seventy of the elders of Israel; and (red radius) worship ye afar off.
2 And Moses (Ophiuchus) alone shall come near the (fiery) Lord: but they shall not come nigh; neither shall the (Gemini) people go up with him.
3 And Moses (Ophiuchus) came and (red radius) told the (Gemini) people all the words of the Lord, and all the judgments: and all the (Gemini and Perseus) people answered with one (red radius) voice, and said, All the words which the Lord hath (red radius) said will we do (If they said this after sunset, then it was Sivan 4).
4 And Moses (red radius) wrote all the words of the (fiery) Lord, and rose up early in the (sun on red radius horizon) morning (Sivan 4), and builded an (lunar) altar under the (red radius) hill, and twelve (constellation) pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
5 And he sent young men of the (Gemini) children of Israel, which offered (solar) burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of (Taurus) oxen unto the (fiery) Lord.
6 And Moses took half of the (red radius) blood, and put it in (lunar) basons; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the (lunar) altar.
7 And he took the (lunar) book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the (Gemini) people: and they said, All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient.
8 And Moses (Ophiuchus) took the (red radius) blood, and sprinkled it on the (Gemini & Perseus) people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words.
9 Then went up Moses (Ophiuchus), and Aaron (Hercules), Nadab, and Abihu (Castor and Pollux), and seventy of the elders of Israel (Milky Way):
10 And they (lunar eyeballs) saw the (fiery) God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a (blue) sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.
11 And upon the nobles of the (Gemini) children of Israel he laid not his (lunar) hand: also they (lunar eyeballs) saw God, and did (red radius) eat and drink.
12 And the (fiery) Lord said unto (Ophiuchus) Moses, Come up to me into the (red radius) mount, and be there: and I will give thee (lunar) tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have (red radius) written; that thou mayest teach them.
13 And Moses (Ophiuchus) rose up, and his minister Joshua (Hercules): and Moses went up into the (red radius) mount of God.
14 And he said unto the (Gemini) elders, Tarry ye here for us, until we come again unto you: and, behold, Aaron (Hercules) and Hur (Perseus) are with you: if any man have any matters to do, let him come unto them.
15 And Moses (Ophiuchus) went up into the (red radius) mount, and a (Milky Way) cloud covered the (red radius) mount.
16 And the (fiery) glory of the Lord abode upon (red radius) mount Sinai, and the (Milky Way) cloud covered it six days (360°): and the seventh day (60°) he (red radius) called unto (Ophiuchus) Moses out of the midst of the (Milky Way) cloud.
17 And the sight of the glory of the Lord was like (solar) devouring fire on the top of the (red radius) mount in the (lunar eyeballs) eyes of the (Gemini) children of Israel.
18 And Moses (Ophiuchus) went into the midst of the (Milky Way) cloud, and gat him up into the (red radius) mount: and Moses was in the mount forty days and forty nights.