Genesis chapter 34 Star Chart: Clockwise from when "Shechem (Argo) the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her" (Dinah -- Castor), and "he (Pollux) took her (Castor), and lay with her, and (lunar pink behind) (red radius) defiled her" (34:2) till "every male was (lunar pink foreskin) circumcised, all that went out of the (solar golden) gate of his city" (34:24) is 288° or 19.2 hours. From that point till "it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the (Gemini) sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his (red radius) (Perseus) (lunar crescent) sword, and came upon the (solar golden-gated) city boldly, and slew all the (Gemini) males" (34:25) and "They took their (Aries) sheep, and their (Taurus) oxen, and their (Aries) asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field, And all their (solar gold coin) wealth, and all their little (Gemini) ones, and their (Gemini) wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the (red radius) house" (34:28-29) is 72° hours in 1672 B.C.

Dinah appears in this chapter as a young woman; yet from the mention of her birth in Genesis 30:21 (cf. Genesis 31:41), we know she was still only seven years old at the time when Jacob left Haran. Since Jacob's first seven years with Laban had been prior to his two marriages, all of his eleven sons and one daughter must have been born during a seven-year period ending in 1700 B.C. when he asked Laban to give him leave. Adding six additional years of work for Laban, this would make her about 7 years old when she was raped, and her two brothers about 11 and 12 years old when they massacred a city. Such a scenario is unbelievable.

Let's establish the real chronology. Here is the birth order of Jacob's children: 1707 -- Reuben, 1706 -- Simeon, 1705 -- Levi, 1704 -- Judah, 1703 -- Issachar, 1702 -- Zebulun, 1701 -- Dinah, 1700 -- Joseph. Then 1701 B.C. + 7 years = 1694 B.C. when Dinah left Haran at age seven. The Jewish scholars of a later period fix the marriageable age of a female at twelve years and a day. If we suppose Dinah to have been born in the same year with Joseph, who was in his seventeenth year at the time of his being sold as a bondslave (Genesis 37:2), the events of this chapter must have occurred in the interval -- before she was seventeen. It is probable that Dinah was in her fourteenth year (7 + 7 = 14) when she went out to visit the daughters of the land. SEVEN YEARS must have been spent by Jacob in the neighborhood of Shekem, where he had purchased a piece of ground. We derive 7° YEARS from Genesis 33:18-20 which says Jacob "erected there an altar" because the constellation Ara (altar) is SEVEN DEGREES after the sun in Ophiuchus (1679 B.C.) bringing us to 1672 B.C. Another indication of this SEVEN YEARS is that "he (Ophiuchus) passed over before them, and bowed himself to the ground SEVEN TIMES, until he came near to his (Sagittarius) brother" (33:3). That means SEVEN ROTATIONS of Ophiuchus and therefore SEVEN YEARS.

As a review, Abraham was 75 when he entered Canaan (Gen. 12:4) in 1876 B.C. -- 430 years before Israel's exodus from Egypt in 1446 B.C. (Ex. 12:40-41). He received the covenant at this time, making it year zero in the calculation. Isaac was born 25 years later when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. "Two full years" before that, the butler-baker incident occurred in 1672 B.C. (41:1). Joseph was "seventeen years old" (37:2) in 1683 B.C. when he was sold into Egypt. Furthermore, Joseph was born in 1700 B.C. when God "opened her (Rachel's) womb" (29:22) and Jacob was age 91. This means that fourteen years before that (29:27-30), Jacob travelled to Padan-Aram in 1714 B.C. when he was 77 (28:1-2). Adding "twenty years" with Laban (31:41) + 7 years when Jacob "erected there an altar" in Shekem (33:18-20) + about one year till "Isaac ... died" (35:27) makes Jacob 105 years old in 1686 when Isaac died at 165 (105 + 60 = 165). In order for Isaac to be 180 when he died (35:28), we must find a gap of 15 years in the chronology somewhere between 31:41 and 35:28. Adding together 25 + 60 + 130 = 215 years sojourning outside Egypt. With the other 215 years inside Egypt, we can construct the 430-year period till 1446 B.C. (see also Josephus' Antiquities 2:15:2). The Exodus in 1446 B.C. was 430 years after Abraham entered Canaan in 1876 B.C. "Now the sojourning (in Canaan and Egypt -- 215 years each) of the children of Israel (which here includes Abraham, Isaac and Jacob -- see footnotes in both the Companion Bible and Jerusalem Bible), who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt" (Ex.12:40-41). Josephus says the same thing: "They left Egypt ... on the fifteenth day of the lunar month (Num. 33:3), four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan" (Ant.2:15:2). Both the Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint add "and in Canaan" in verse 40. The Septuagint, quoted by Paul in Galatians, says "the sojourning of the sons of Israel who dwelt in the land of Egypt and Canaan was 430 years" because they dwelt in Canaan before they dwelt in Egypt.

 






Dinah Raped At Fourteen --
Simeon and Levi Murder At Eighteen or Nineteen

34:1 And Dinah (Castor) the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to (red radius) see the (Gemini) daughters of the land.

2 And when Shechem (Argo) the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, (red radius) saw her, he (Pollux) took her (Castor), and lay with her, and (lunar pink behind) (red radius penis) defiled her.

Dinah appears in this chapter as a young woman; yet from the mention of her birth in Genesis 30:21 (cf. Genesis 31:41), we know she was still only seven years old at the time when Jacob left Haran. Since Jacob's first seven years with Laban had been prior to his two marriages, all of his eleven sons and one daughter must have been born during a seven-year period ending in 1677 B.C. when he asked Laban to give him leave. Adding six additional years of work for Laban, this would make her about 7 years old when she was raped, and her brothers about 10 or 11 years old when they massacred a city. Notice: 1684 -- Reuben, 1683 -- Simeon, 1682 -- Levi, 1681 -- Judah, 1680 -- Issachar, 1679 -- Zebulun, 1678 -- Dinah. Then 1678 B.C. + 7 years = 1671 B.C. when Jacob left Haran. The Jewish scholars of a later period fix the marriageable age of a female at twelve years and a day. It is probable that Dinah was in her fourteenth year (7 + 7 = 14) when she went out to visit the daughters of the land. Seven years must have been spent by Jacob in the neighborhood of Shekem, where he had purchased a piece of ground. If we suppose Dinah to have been born in the same year with Joseph, who was in his seventeenth year at the time of his being sold as a bondslave (Genesis 37:2), the events of this chapter must have occurred in the interval. We derive 7° years from Genesis 33:18-20 which says Jacob "erected there an altar" because the constellation Ara (altar) is seven degrees after the sun in Ophiuchus bringing us to 1664 B.C.

if Dinah was born before Joseph (Genesis 30:21) she was probably in her seventh year when Jacob reached Succoth (Genesis 33:17); but it does not follow that she was only six or seven years of age when the incident about to be described occurred (Tuch, Bohlen). If Jacob stayed seven years in Shechem, and if, as is probable, his residence in Shechem terminated with his daughter's dishonor (Lange), and if, moreover, Joseph s sale into Egypt happened soon after (Hengstenberg), Dinah may at this time have been in her fourteenth year plus or minus (Keil, Lange, Kalisch, Murphy, et alii), since in the East females attain to puberty at the age of twelve, and sometimes earlier (Delitzsch) -

3 And his soul clave unto Dinah (Castor) the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake kindly unto the damsel.

4 And Shechem (Pollux) spake unto his father Hamor (Argo), saying, Get me this (Castor) damsel to wife.

5 And Jacob (Argo) heard that he had (lunar pink behind) (red radius penis) defiled Dinah (Castor) his daughter: now his (Gemini) sons were with his (Taurus) cattle in the field: and Jacob (Argo) held his peace until they were come.

6 And Hamor (Pollux) the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob (Castor) to commune with him.

7 And the (Gemini) sons of Jacob came out of the field when they (red radius) heard it: and the (Gemini) men were grieved, and they were very wroth, because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob's daughter: which thing ought not to be done.

8 And Hamor (Argo) communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem (Pollux) longeth for your daughter (Castor): I pray you give her him to wife.

9 And make ye marriages with us, and give your (Gemini) daughters unto us, and take our (Gemini) daughters unto you.

Abraham's servant was charged by him not to take a wife of the Canaanites to his son Isaac; and the same charge was given Jacob by Isaac, Genesis 24:3; and therefore Jacob would never agree that his children should marry any of that nation; and marriages with them were afterwards forbidden by the law of Moses, Deuteronomy 7:3,For the detestation of intermarriage with the Canaanites, see Deuteronomy 7:3; Joshua 23:12; Ezra 9:2.

10 And ye shall dwell with us: and the land shall be before you; dwell and trade ye therein, and get you possessions therein.

11 And Shechem (Argo) said unto her father (Auriga) and unto her (Gemini) brethren, Let me find grace in your (lunar or solar) eyes, and what ye shall say unto me I will give.

12 Ask me never so much dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me: but give me the (Castor) damsel to wife.

The “dowry,” or mohar, is the present made to the parents or relations, cf. Genesis 24:53; Exodus 22:16; 1 Samuel 18:25. The rendering “dowry” hardly, therefore, gives the correct idea to English readers. The “gift,” on the other hand, was the present made by the bridegroom to the bride, as in Genesis 24:53, Genesis 29:18. In Exodus 22:16, as in the present passage, the “dowry” is a payment to the parents as “compensation” for wrong, as well as “purchase-money” for the wife; cf. Deuteronomy 22:28-29.

13 And the (Gemini) sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father deceitfully, and said, because he had defiled Dinah (Castor) their sister:

14 And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised; for that were a reproach unto us:

15 But in this will we consent unto you: If ye will be as we be, that every male of you be (lunar pink foreskin) (red radius) circumcised;

16 Then will we give our (Gemini) daughters unto you, and we will take your (Gemini) daughters to us, and we will (red radius) dwell with you, and we will become one people.

17 But if ye will not (lunar ear) hearken unto us, to be (lunar pink foreskin) (red radius) circumcised; then will we take our (Castor) daughter, and we will be gone.

18 And their words pleased Hamor, and Shechem Hamor's son.

19 And the young man deferred not to do the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's daughter: and he was more honourable than all the house of his father.

20 And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the (solar golden) gate of their city, and communed with the (Gemini) men of their city, saying,

21 These (Gemini) men are peaceable with us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take their (Gemini) daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our (Gemini) daughters.

22 Only herein will the (Gemini) men consent unto us for to dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among us be (lunar pink foreskin) (red radius) circumcised, as they are circumcised.

23 Shall not their (Taurus) cattle and their substance and every (Aries) beast of their's be our's? only let us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us.

24 And unto (Pollux) Hamor and unto (Castor) Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the (solar golden) gate of his city; and every male was (lunar pink foreskin) (red radius) circumcised, all that went out of the (solar golden) gate of his city.

25 And it came to pass on the third day, when they were sore, that two of the (Gemini) sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brethren, took each man his (lunar crescent or red radius) sword, and (Perseus) came upon the city boldly, and slew all the (Gemini) males.

26 And they slew (Gemini) Hamor and Shechem his son with the (red radius) edge of the sword, and took Dinah (Castor) out of Shechem's (red radius) house, and went out.

27 The (Gemini) sons of Jacob came upon the (red radius) slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their (Castor) sister.

because they had defiled their sister; one of them had done it, which is imputed to them all, they not restraining him from it, when it was in their power; and perhaps approving of it, and made a laugh of and jest at it; or however did not punish him for it. the punishment clearly does not fit the crime.
See Joshua 7:1,11,12 22:20 Matthew 2:20. Or they impute Shechem’s fact to all, either invidiously and cunningly to take off from themselves the reproach of this cruel action; or because they made themselves guilty of it, either by not discouraging and hindering that filthiness as far as they might, or by their being instrumental in it, or by their approbation of it and complacency in it.

28 They took their (Aries) sheep, and their (Taurus) oxen, and their (Aries) asses, and that which was in the city, and that which was in the field,

29 And all their (solar gold coin) wealth, and all their (Gemini) little ones, and their (Gemini) wives took they captive, and spoiled even all that was in the (red radius) house.

but as Jacob disapproved of this unjust, cruel, bloody, and perfidious action, so no doubt, as he set the captives at liberty, he restored to them their cattle and substance.

30 And Jacob said to (Pollux) Simeon and (Castor) Levi, Ye have troubled me to make me to (lunar pink behind) (red radius odor) stink among the (Gemini) inhabitants of the land, among the (Gemini) Canaanites and the (Gemini) Perizzites: and I being few in number, they shall gather themselves together against me, and slay me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.

31 And they said, Should he deal with our (Castor) sister as with an harlot?

No, he should not; but, if he do, must they be their own avengers? and nothing less than so many lives, and the ruin of a whole city, serve to atone for the abuse?
Simeon and Levi are brothers; instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. Let not my soul enter their council; let not my honor be united to their assembly; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; and their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel. (Genesis 49:5-7) He saw Simeon and Levi for who they were, but he rebuked them far too late.

The prophetic word of God through Jacob proved true. God did in fact both divide the tribes of Simeon and Levi, and scatter them among Israel. But, significantly, the way it happened for each tribe was different. The tribe of Simeon, because of their lack of faithfulness, was effectively dissolved as a tribe, and the tribe of Simeon was absorbed into the tribal area of Judah. The tribe of Levi was also scattered, but because of the faithfulness of this tribe during the rebellion of the golden calf (Exodus 32:26-28), the tribe was scattered as a blessing throughout the whole nation of Israel. Both were scattered, but one as a blessing and the other as curse.



Next Lesson: Ancient Jewish Marriage Customs | Back to Home | Email Us