Genesis chapter 25 Star Chart: Clockwise from when Abraham (Cepheus) was 140 years old in 1911 B.C. and "took a wife" (Cassiopeia) (25:1) three years after the death of Sarah, till he died after "an hundred threescore and fifteen years" (25:7) or 175 years in 1776 B.C. is 35 years or 420° months. "And his (Gemini) sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the (lunar) cave of Machpelah ... there was (Pollux) Abraham buried, and (Castor) Sarah his wife" (25:9-10).

Clockwise from when "Isaac (Cepheus) was forty years old when he took Rebekah (Cassiopeia) to wife" in 1811 B.C. (25:20) till "Isaac was threescore years old (60) when she bare" (Gemini) "twins" in 1791 B.C. (25:24,26) is 20 years or 240° months.
"And the first came out (gibbous moon) red, all over like an hairy garment (red radius line touches Draco, Serpens and three-headed snake); and they called his name Esau. And after that came his brother out, and his hand (Orion, Auriga, Perseus or Sagittarius) took hold on (Castor, Cepheus, Cassiopeia or Cepheus) Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob" (25:25-26).


Keturah's Six Sons, Ishmael's Twelve Sons
and Isaac's Two Sons

25:1 Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah.

This name means “incense.”

2 And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.

Zamareni, a people in Arabia Felix mentioned by Pliny (g); and hereabout the sons of Keturah settled, being sent by Abraham into the east country, even into Arabia, which lay east of the place where he then was; and very probably Zabram; or it may be rather Zamram, a royal city in the country of the Cinaedocolpites, a part of Arabia Felix, as placed by Ptolemy (h). Medan and Midian: from these men the towns in Arabia might have their names, as the Modiana and Madiana of Ptolemy (k). The name of Shuah or Shuach may be traced in Socacia, Soaca, and Socheher, cities placed by Ptolemy (m) in Arabia Felix: though some think the posterity of this man are those whom the geographers call Sauchites, Sauchaeans, and Saccaeans, who settled in Arabia Deserta, and from whom Bildad the Shuhite, Job 2:11, descended; which is not improbable. But others have been of opinion, that the town of Suez, which Pliny calls Suaza, had its name from this Shuah, situate at the extremity of the Red sea (n).

(e) Dr. Clayton's Chronology of the Hebrew Bible, p. 83, &c. (f) Observations on the Book of Genesis in his Works, vol. 1. p. 695. (g) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 28. (h) Geograph. l. 6. c. 7. (i) Eccl. Hist. l. 3. sect. 4. p. 477. (k) Ut supra. (h)) (l) Ut supra. (g)) (m) Ut supra. (h)) (n) See Egmont and Heyman's Travels, vol. 2. p. 184.

3 And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim.

And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan,.... Bochart (o) is of opinion, that the posterity of this Sheba are the same with the Sabeans who inhabited at the entrance of Arabia Felix, not far from the Nabathaeans; and who, by Strabo (p), are mentioned together as near to Syria, and used to make excursions on their neighbours; and not without some colour of reason thought to be the same that plundered Job of his cattle, Job 1:15. From Dedan came the Dedanim or Dedanites, spoken of with the Arabians in Isaiah 21:13; Junius thinks Adada in Palmyrene of Syria had its name from this man, and in which country is the mountain Aladan or Alladadan. Bochart (q) more probably takes Dedan, a city in Idumea, to derive its name from him. There is a village called Adedi in the country of the Cassanites, a people of Arabia Felix, which Ptolemy (r) makes mention of, and seems to have some appearance of this man's name:
and the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim; these names being plural are thought not to be proper names of men, but appellatives, descriptive of their places of abode, or of their business: hence the Targum of Onkelos represents them as such that dwelt in camps, in tents, and in islands; and the Targums of Jonathan and Jerusalem call them merchants, artificers and heads of the people: however, Cleodemus (s) the Heathen historian is wrong in deriving Assyria from Asshurim, whom he calls Ashur; since Assyria and Assyrians are so called from Ashur, the son of Shem, Genesis 10:22.

(o) Phaleg. l. 2. c. 9. col. 227. (p) Geograph. l. 16. p. 536. (q) Phaleg. l. 4. c. 6. col. 219. (r) Ut supra. (Geograph. l. 6. c. 7.) (s) Apud Euseb. ut supra. (Praepar. Evangel. 9. c. 20. p. 432.)

4 And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.

And the sons of Midian,.... The fourth son of Abraham by Keturah; he had five sons next mentioned, who were heads of so many tribes or families in Midian: hence we read of five kings of Midian; Numbers 31:8; their names follow:
Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abidah, and Eldaah: the two first of these, whom Cleodemus (t) calls Aphra and Apher, and makes them to be sons of Abraham by Keturah, when they were his grandsons, he says, from them the city Aphra, and all Africa, had their names, and that these accompanied Hercules into Lybia, he having married a daughter of Aphra. Ephah is mentioned along with Midian in Isaiah 60:6; but of the rest no notice is taken in Scripture. Ptolemy (u) makes mention both of a mountain, and of a village, near Madiana in Arabia Felix, called Hippos, which perhaps had their name from this man. Some trace of Epher is thought to be in Taphuron which Philostorgius says (w) was the metropolis of the Homerites, before mentioned; and Arrianus, as Bishop Patrick observes, expressly says, the metropolis of the Homerites, is called Aphar: to which may be added, that Ptolemy (x) speaks of a people called Tappharites, near the Homerites. Hanoch, the next son, is thought to have some footsteps of his name in Cane, a mart, which Ptolemy (y) places in the country of the Adramites in Arabia Felix, and also in the country of Canauna in Arabia, mentioned by, Pliny (z): near Cananua is placed, by the same writer, the island Devadae, called by Philostorgius (a) "Divus", in which it is supposed there is some trace of the name of Abidah, by an inversion of the two last syllables; and perhaps also in Abissa, which Ptolemy (b) places in the country of the Sachalites in Arabia Felix. As for Eldaah, Bishop Patrick thinks there are no remains of this name, unless in the city of Elana, from whence there was a gulf called Elanites, and a people that lived there Elanitae; but one would think there are some traces of it in the cities Alata, Lattha, and Leaththa, all, according to Ptolemy (c), in Arabia Felix:

all these were the children of Keturah; her children and grandchildren.

(t) Apud Euseb. ut supra. (Praepar. Evangel. l. 9. c. 20. p. 432.) (u) Ut supra. (Geograph. l. 6. c. 7.) (w) Eccl. Hist. l. 3. sect. 4. 478. (x) Ut supra. (u)) (y) lb. (z) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 28. (a) Ut supra, (w)) sect. 3.((b) Ut supra. (u)) (c) lb.

5 And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. (solar gold, lunar silver, Aries sheep and Taurus cattle)

6 But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country.


These were Hagar and Keturah, though they are both called his wives, Genesis 16:3; yet they were concubines; so Keturah, 1 Chronicles 1:32; they were, as some render the word, "concubine wives" (e); they were half wives or secondary ones: the Jewish writers say that they were espoused, but not by writing, as wives were; they were under the lawful wife, when there were any, and a kind of head servants in the family, and their children did not inherit;

The territory with which the Midianites are usually found associated is N.W. Arabia, the east side of the Gulf of Akaba. Groups of Midianites appear in the Sinaitic Peninsula (Exodus 2:15; Exodus 3:1 Extending their influence along the eastern side of the Dead Sea, Midianites appear as the enemies of Israel on the eastern side of the Jordan (Numbers 22:4; Numbers 25:6; Numbers 25:17; Numbers 31:1-12); and in Judges 6 bands of Midianites overrun Palestine.

7 And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years.

175 years old

8 Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people.

Esau and Jacob must be fifteen years old when he died:

9 And his (Gemini) sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the (lunar) cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre;

10 The field which Abraham purchased of the (Gemini) sons of Heth: there was (Pollux) Abraham buried, and (Castor) Sarah his wife.

11 And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the (lunar) well Lahairoi.

In Genesis 35:27, Hebron is spoken of as the dwelling-place of Isaac at a later period of his life.

12 Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

13 And these are the names of the (Gemini) sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael,.... After mentioned: by their names, according to their generations; which were imposed upon them at their birth, and are recited according to the order in which they were born, as follows:
the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth: mentioned in Isaiah 60:7; and from whence a people of the Arabs are called Nabathaeans, and their country Nabathaea. Josephus (i) says, that all the country from Euphrates to the Red sea is called the Nabatene country. The posterity of this man inhabited part of Arabia Deserta and of Arabia Petraea, even to the entrance of Arabia Felix. Strabo (k) reckons the Nabataeans among the Arabians, and calls Petra the metropolis of Arabia Petraea, Petra Nabataea, and Petra of the Arabian Nabataeans, who he says dwelt about Syria, and often made excursions into it; and observes, that their country is populous and abounds with pastures; hence the rams of Nebaioth, mentioned in Isaiah 60:7; Pliny also (l) places them in Arabia, and says they inhabit the town called Petra, and that they border upon Syria.

And Kedar is the second son of Ishmael; and the posterity of this man and their country are reckoned in Arabia by Isaiah, Isaiah 21:13; and they are so well known to be Arabians, that the Arabic language is most frequently, in Jewish writings, called the language of Kedar. These are the people whom Pliny (m) names Cedrei, and mentions them along with the Nabathaeans, as near unto them, and indeed they dwelt in the same country, Arabia Petraea, and in tents, living by pasturage, hence they are sometimes called Scenites; and mention is made of the tents of Kedar in Sol 1:5; these are the Scenite Arabs, called Saracens by Ammianus Marcellinus (n). Two other sons of Ishmael follow:

and Adbeel and Mibsam; of whom no mention is made elsewhere, nor are there any traces of their names, unless the Agubeni, placed by Ptolemy (o) near Arabia Felix.

(i) Antiqu. l. 1. c. 12. sect. 4. (k) Geograph. l. 16. p. 528, 534, 536. (l) Nat. Hist. l. 5. c. 11. & l. 6. c. 28. & l. 12. c. 17. (m) lbid. l. 5. c. 11. (n) L. 22. p. 228. l. 23. p. 250. Ed. Vales. (o) Geograph. l. 5. c. 19.

14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,

And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa. Of Mishma and Massa, and of their posterity, there is not anything said elsewhere, unless the Masani, Ptolemy (p) places near Arabia Felix, came from Massa. Dumah seems to be the same Isaiah speaks of in Genesis 21:11; and in Arabia Deserta, where some of Ishmael's posterity settled, is a place called Dumaetha, by Ptolemy (q), which perhaps had its name from this son of his. The Targum of Jonathan translates these three names,"hearing, silence, and patience;''which the Jews use as a proverb, when they would signify that there are some things to be heard and not spoken of, and to be patiently borne. If Ishmael had in view to teach such lessons by the names he gave his children, he will seem to be a better man than he is usually thought to be.

(p) Georaph. l. 16. p. 528. 534. 536. (q) lbid.

15 Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:

Hadar and Tema,.... From the first of these the city Adra in Arabia Petraea, and from the other the city Themma in Arabia Deserta, both mentioned by Ptolemy (r), may be thought to have their names; or the city Adari and the Athritae in Arabia Felix (s); and the inhabitants of the land of Tema are mentioned as Arabians, Isaiah 21:13; and Pliny (t) speaks of a people called Thimaneans, whom he says the ancients joined to the Nabathaeans: the troops of Tema mentioned in Job were of this people, Job 6:19; and Eliphaz the Temanite, Job 2:11, is thought by some not to be the descendant of Teman the grandson of Esau, but to be of this man's people and country. The three last sons follow:
Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah; the two first of these are reckoned among the Hagarites, as the Ishmaelites were sometimes called, 1 Chronicles 5:19; from Jetur came the Itureans, whom Pliny (u) places in Coelesyria; and their country Iturea is reckoned by Strabo (w) along with Arabia; and the Ithyreans with Virgil (x) are famous for their bows, as Ishmael and his posterity were for archery in all ages, and still are; see Gill on Genesis 21:20. As for the posterity of Naphish and Kedomah, we have no account elsewhere, nor any traces of their names, unless those of the latter should be meant by the men of the east, or the men of Kedem, Jeremiah 49:28, which is not improbable, since they are mentioned with the posterity of Kedar the second son of Ishmael; and the Nubaeans by Lebanon may be from Naphish.

(r) Geograph. l. 5. c. 17, 19. (s) Ibid. l. 6. c. 7. (t) Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 28. (u) Nat. Hist. l. 5. c. 23. (w) Geograph. l. 16. p. 520. (x) Georgic. l. 2. ver. 448.

16 These are the (Gemini) sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations.

17 And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people.

18 And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren.

19 And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac:

20 And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padanaram, the sister to Laban the Syrian.

Paddan-aram] This is the name given in the P narrative for the country described as Aram-naharaim by J. See note on Genesis 24:10. Cf. Genesis 28:2; Genesis 28:5-7, Genesis 31:18, Genesis 35:9; Genesis 35:26, Genesis 46:15, Genesis 48:7 (Paddan), all from P. The word Paddan is Aramaic, and means probably “the field,” modern Arabic feddân (= “acre”). In Assyrian padanu = “way” or “field,” like Haran (Genesis 11:32). According to Hosea 12:12, “Jacob fled into the field of Aram,” where “field” is the Heb. sâdeh, and denotes Haran, the country E. of Euphrates.

21 And Isaac intreated the Lord for his wife, because she was barren: and the Lord was intreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived.

22 And the (Gemini) children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the Lord.

The future hostility between Israel and Edom was thus prefigured before their birth. Rebekah, afraid of some betokening of evil, becomes fearful and despondent.

23 And the Lord (red radius) said unto her, Two (Gemini) nations are in thy womb, and two manner of (Gemini) people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

In the times of David, when the Edomites were subdued by him, 2 Samuel 8:14; and still more in the times of Hyrcanus, when the Edomites or Idumeans became one people with the Jews, and embraced their religion (e), rather than to be dispossessed of their country; and will have a further accomplishment in the latter day, when the prophecies in Obadiah 1:18 shall be fulfilled. Of the use which the Apostle Paul makes of this passage; see Gill on Romans 9:11, Romans 9:12.

(e) Joseph. Antiqu. l. 13. c. 9. sect. 1.

24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were (Gemini) twins in her womb.

25 And the first came out (red radius) red, all over like an hairy (lunar gibbous) garment; and they called his name (Orion or Auriga) Esau.

The adjective refers to the skin rather than to the hair, as in the case of David (1 Samuel 16:12). The Heb. for “red,” admoni, is intended as a play on the word “Edom,” as if the Edomites were known as “the Reds,” or “Redskins,” on account of their warm complexion.

like an hairy garment] Cf. the description in Genesis 27:11-12; Genesis 27:16; Genesis 27:23. The word for “hairy” (sê‘ar) contains a play on the word “Seir,” the country of the Edomites.

Premature babies who arrive between weeks 30 and 32 are likely to have thin skin as a result of the limited body fat. The ribs may be easy to see under the skin. Regardless of the infant's natural skin tone, the tissue may APPEAR RED. Premature babies are more likely to have patches of lanugo, a fine wispy layer of HAIR that covers all babies in the womb (It helps keep them warm and regulate their body temperature until they have enough fat under their skin.) Babies shed most of the HAIR by the end of pregnancy, but it can hang around for several months after birth. Although this can happen to any baby, it's most common in premature births and more apparent in babies with darker complexions. Lanugo is totally normal and parents shouldn't do anything to remove it. Your baby will eventually shed this body HAIR within a few months.

26 And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob (Orion or Auriga): and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them.

As if, from the first, desirous to pull his brother, back, and get in front of him. See the reference to this passage in Hosea 12:3. The character of the man was thus prefigured at birth. The idea of overreaching, or outwitting, by cunning and strategy, inspired the early Israelite with admiration and amusement rather than with repulsion.

Jacob] That is, One that takes by the heel or supplants. The Heb. for “heel” is ‘â?êb, and the name “Jacob” was popularly regarded as having been derived from the same root, with the meaning of “one who seeks to trip up or supplant”; compare the use of the word; “supplant” in Jeremiah 9:4. It appears as a place name = Y’?b’r, in Palestine, on the list of Thothmes III (c. 1450 b.c.), and as a personal name, Ya’?ub-ilu, in a Babylonian tablet of Hammurabi’s period (c. 2100 b.c.).

27 And the (Gemini) boys grew: and Esau (Sagittarius or Castor) was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in (red radius) tents .

a skilful, expert hunter vs. plain (without subtilty), solid, simple, quiet, harmless -- as a shepherd.

according to the Targum of Jonathan, he was also a hunter and slayer of men, Nimrod and Henoch his son:

28 And Isaac loved Esau, because he did (red radius) eat of his venison: but Rebekah loved Jacob.

29 And Jacob sod (lunar red gibbous) pottage: and Esau came from the field, and he was faint:

30 And Esau (red radius) said to Jacob, Feed me, I pray thee, with that same (lunar gibbous) red pottage; for I am faint: therefore was his name called Edom.

31 And Jacob (red radius) said, Sell me this day thy birthright.(solar gold, lunar silver, Aries sheep, Taurus cattle)

And Jacob said, sell me this day thy birthright. Which had many privileges annexed to it, as honour and authority in the family next to parents; a double portion of inheritance; some say the exercise of priesthood, but that is questioned; the parental blessing, and especially in this the promises of the Messiah, and of inheritance of the land of Canaan, and which was typical of the heavenly inheritance: all which Rebekah knew by the divine oracle were designed for Jacob, and which no doubt she had acquainted him with, and advised him to deal with his brother about parting with his birthright as he had opportunity; and very likely they had talked together about it before in a distant manner, and Esau had shown some indifference to his right, and made no great account of it; and now, an opportunity offering to get him in the mind to part with it, he takes it, and moves for a sale of it immediately, at once, without any more delay, and even before he had his pottage; thus taking the advantage of his brother's necessity:

Jacob seizes his opportunity: Esau is too faint to question or oppose: the coveted privilege may be won at once by a bold bid.

Thy birthright -- the rights and privileges of the firstborn. What these were is not defined. In 27 the blessing of the firstborn is chiefly regarded as a religious privilege rather than as a transfer of property. But it is clear from Genesis 43:33, Genesis 48:13-19, that the firstborn was regarded as entitled to a more honourable position and to a larger share of the inheritance than his brethren (cf. Deuteronomy 21:17). Jacob’s action on this occasion is recorded without disapproval. By a stroke of cleverness Jacob, the younger, deprived his elder brother Esau of the advantage of the birthright; and, hence, Israel obtained a richer and more fertile land than Edom. The carelessness of Esau rather than the meanness of Jacob seems to meet with the contempt of the narrator.

32 And Esau (red radius) said, Behold, I am at the point to die: and what profit shall this birthright do to me?

33 And Jacob (red radius) said, Swear to me this day; and he (Orion) sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob.

34 Then Jacob gave Esau (solar golden) bread and (gibbous red moon) pottage of lentiles; and he (Orion) did eat and drink, and rose up, and went his way: thus Esau despised his birthright.(Draco, Serpens and the three-headed snake are all in his red radius path)

he was a fornicator and a profane person, Hebrews 12:16.

The birthright was Esau’s, not by his own merit, but by God's gift. Hence it symbolized eternal blessing. Esau’s repudiation of the unseen and intangible, for the sake of immediate self-gratification, is a type of a large proportion of human sins and thoughtlessness, which can forfeit God's unmerited gift.

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