Were Dinosaurs Extinct Before Adam Was Created?

A Sudden Change From Reptile To Mammal

As the famous paleontologist George G. Simpson once remarked: “The most puzzling event in the history of life on the earth is the change from the Mesozoic Age of Reptiles, to the … Age of Mammals. It is as if the curtain were rung down SUDDENLY on a stage where all the leading roles were taken by reptiles, especially dinosaurs, in great numbers and bewildering variety, and rose again IMMEDIATELY to reveal the same setting but an entirely new cast, a cast in which the dinosaurs do not appear at all, other reptiles are supernumeraries (minor actors) and the leading parts are all played by mammals of sorts barely hinted at in the previous acts” (Historical Geology, Carl O. Dunbar, p. 426). This sudden burial created the oil deposits and coal seams. Another evolutionary geologist, Carl O. Dunbar, said, "Throughout the long Mesozoic Era ... reptiles completely dominated life on the earth; but at its close their dynasty SUDDENLY COLLAPSED" (Historical Geology, p. 404). Then "the reptilian hordes gave way to a spectacular rise of warm-blooded vertebrates" (ibid., p. 336). Dinosaur expert Dr. Edwin Colbert admits, "There can be no doubt about it. All of the dinosaurs, along with various other ... reptiles, became extinct.... Not one of them survived, as is amply proved by the fact that during almost a century and a half of paleontological exploration, the wide world over, no trace of a dinosaur bone or tooth has ever been found in any post-Cretaceous rocks, not even in the earliest of them. The proof of the geologic record on this score is irrefutable" (Dinosaurs, Edwin H. Colbert, p. 249).

Uniformitarianism Unable to Explain Worldwide Pre-Adamic Drowning in "Waters" (Gen. 1:2) Circa 4027 B.C.

A well-known paleontologist, Norman Newell, confessed, "Geology students are taught that 'the present is the key to the past,' and they too often take it to mean that nothing ever happened that isn't happening now.... But ...we have gathered more data and we have begun to realize there were many CATASTROPHIC events in the past, some of which happened just once" (Newsweek, Dec. 23, 1963). "The CATASTROPHE would have had to be almost universal in proportions as we know that dinosaurs were present in most or all continents" (The Age of Dinosaurs, Bjorn Kurten, p. 236). Yet according to Edwin Colbert, "There is no place for WORLDWIDE CATASTROPHES in the world of the past or of the present if the principle of uniformitarianism has any validity" (The Age of Reptiles, Edwin Colbert, pp. 203-204). This idea that existing processes acting in the same manner as at present are sufficient to account for all geological changes is false. Ungodly men in the end times would teach that "all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation" (2 Pet. 3:3-7). The idea that "the present is the key to the past" doesn't account for the worldwide extermination of dinosaurs in "waters" (Gen. 1:2). There were two worldwide floods at least 1656 years apart. One in 4027 B.C. (or earlier) and the other in 2370 B.C. The creation account was generally recognized as a literal fact by theologians and secular scholars alike -- throughout the Christian world -- until about two centuries ago. Sir Charles Lyell's book Principles of Geology was published in 1830. The earth, according to Lyell, has had no catastrophes -- just uniform, natural forces in action over vast amounts of time. The vast "long ages" assigned to the rock layers are meaningless. The layers only reveal the order in which life died in each worldwide flood catastrophe. The rock layers were laid down quickly -- perhaps in a matter of days. Not millions of years. Then in 1859, Charles Darwin published his book Origin of Species which taught evolution. Darwin's ideas needed Lyell's vast amounts of time, and Lyell needed a method of evolution. Lyell became an evolutionist upon reading Darwin's book. They were unwilling to retain God in their knowledge (Rom. 1:18-23).

"Prehistoric Man"?

The word "prehistoric" means no written record exists. How then do we know "prehistoric man" existed at all? There is no history to support it. But men continue to try to prove that cavemen COEXISTED with dinosaurs. But the world of the dinosaurs and the modern world of mammals are NOT INTERMIXED in the fossil record. Realistically, they are not even compatible. Yet historians try to extend the history of mankind. Manetho summarized the history of Egypt under the rule of 30 dynasties and tried to make them appear consecutive. But the truth is that Egypt was ruled by several kings at the same time (2 Ki. 7:6). The famous "AGES" of man known as Paleolithic (Old Stone), the Mesolithic (Intermediate Stone), the Neolithic (New Stone), the Chalcolithic (Stone and Copper) and the Bronze and Iron -- were CULTURES, not ages. Civilized man did not descend from primitive tribes using stone tools. Instead, it was degraded and degenerate men that descended from civilization -- "driven forth from the midst of men" (Job 30:1-8). Such cultures of head-hunters and cannibals exist today in places like New Guinea alongside modern civilization. But Adam was created 6000 years ago with a brilliant mind that was "very good" (Gen. 1:31). He was not in any way degenerate or primitive.

The Curse of Cain -- to be a Primitive Hunter-Gatherer?

Cain sought to gain his livlihood by farming methods which DEPLETED THE SOIL. He "was wholly intent upon GETTING and he first contrived to PLOUGH the ground ... God was more delighted with the latter oblation (of Abel), when he was honored with what grew naturally of its own accord, than he was with what was the invention of a covetous man, and gotten by FORCING the ground" (Ant. 1:2:1). "And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand; When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto thee her strength; a fugitive (wanderer) and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth" (Gen. 4:11-12). If Cain and his descendants had been allowed to continue their agricultural EXPLOITATION of the land, the soil would have been DEPLETED long ago. But God put a stop to it. Are Cain's descendants the so-called primitive "cave men" of archaeologists -- who hunted wild animals and gathered wild berries?

The "Ice Age" and Noah's Flood Began in 2370 B.C.

Originally God formed the world "to be inhabited" (Isa. 45:18). But what we have today is uninhabitable in the arctic and antarctic regions. There certainly was an ice age. Ice came all the way down to Kansas City, Missouri (Extent of Ice Age, Scott Foresman, Earth Science, 1990, p.316). The first mention of cold weather in the Bible is Genesis 8:22: "while the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter ... shall not cease" (after the flood). Today the earth is tilted 23.5 degrees. This is what causes the seasons. Huge polar ice caps formed at the time of the flood. There are comets flying through space. These ice meteors are common in space and are normally -300 degrees to -400 degrees Fahrenheit (Holt, Modern Earth Science, 1983, p.51). An ice meteor flying through space would build up speed because of the inverse square law, as it got nearer earth. As it got going faster and faster, it would break up into a billion ice crystals. Those would then shower down on earth as a super cold snow.

Earth had a very strong magnetic field. At the time of the flood it was probably 15 to 20 times stronger than it is today. The magnetic field is weakening. Earth's magnetic field has lost 10% of its strength in the last 150 years (Astronomy and the Bible, Donald DeYoung p.18) and 40% of its strength in the last 1000 years. The magnetic field would deflect most of the super cold ice crystals to the poles. Super cold ice is easily statically charged. The northern lights are caused because of the earth's magnetic field. The pre-flood world had a layer of ice or water suspended by the magnetic field using the Meisner Effect.

A 300 degree below zero Farehnheit ice meteor came flying toward earth and either broke up in space or actually hit the earth first and then broke up. The particles of ice floated down and were dumped on top of the north and south pole. The impact made the earth wobble around for a few thousand years afterward. Either that or the fact that the ice particles settled mainly around the poles caused the earth to wobble. This super cold snow fell mostly on the poles, burying the mammoths standing up. They were flash-frozen. On the New Siberian Islands, they find frozen bobcats, frozen lynx, bison, mammoths, camels, etc. They find coal under the ice in Antarctica where there are no trees. Admiral Byrd found frozen palm leaves near the South Pole. After the earth was hit by the ice meteor, or after the dumping of ice on the north and south poles, the crust of the earth cracked releasing the fountains of the deep (Gen. 7:11). (The pre-flood world had water under the earth also.) The earth broke up into plates at fault lines such as the San Andreas Fault, the New Madrid Fault, etcetera. The water under the crust was hot and came shooting to the surface and continued for 150 days killing everything within a few hundred miles immediately. Everyone drowned eventually but that process may have taken 6-8 months to kill everyone during that flood. A 200-foot tidal change every 6 hours and 25 minutes caused the sorting into layers during the flood. Psalm 104:7-8 mentions this tidal action. Genesis 8:23 mentions "going and returning" or sloshing tides. Noah stayed in the ark for six months because of this tidal action and the ground was probably still muddy. The spreading ice caused the "ice-age" effect and the glacier effects we see. The ice age really happened -- at the beginning of the flood. It caused the flood. The ice caps at the poles sent off a cold wave. This cold air hitting warm air caused it to rain, and it rained for 40 days and 40 nights. The canopy collapsed. All fountains of the deep broken open in one day. (see Jasher 6:11) Fragments of the ice meteor made the canopy collapse that used to protect the earth. It rained down 40 days. More UV light entered. During the first few months of the flood, the dead animals would settle out and the dead plants would settle out. Once buried, they would become coal if plants and oil if animals. Natural gas deposits also formed during the flood. Those are still found today in huge graveyards.

During the last few months of the flood, the unstable plates of the earth would shift around. "The mountains rose, the valleys sank down to the place which thou didst appoint for them. Thou didst set a bound which they should not pass, so that they might not again cover the earth" (Ps. 104:8-9). Some places would lift up forming mountain ranges, other places sink down forming ocean basins. The fact that Mt. Ararat has salt crystals at the 14000 foot level which only form under water, and the fact that pillow lava is also found high on Mt. Ararat which only forms under water, both indicate that this mountain was lifted up from under the water. The runoff from all the mountain ranges would cause incredible erosion in a couple of weeks -- like Grand Canyon.

Over the next few hundred years, the ice caps would melt back retreating to their current size. The added water formed the continental shelf. Oceans became deeper, wider and colder as the water level rose. The cold water would also absorb more CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) out of the atmosphere which would allow more radiation to get in shortening the life span of people. Joktan means "Shorten" -- the lifespan. Genesis 10:25 mentions that in the days of Peleg the earth would be divided. Peleg means "divided" -- the continents by water level rising. Peleg was born about 100 years after the flood. He only lived to be 209. His father, grandfather and great grandfather lived to be in their 400s. What was different?

Some of the greenhouse protection was removed. In the days of Peleg it finally took effect, the earth was "divided." Why are unique species such as kangaroos, wombats and koalas only found in Australia? They walked there. Because originally the continents were all connected for the first few hundred years after the flood. Populations spread out across the globe, and became "trapped" on their continents by the rising water. Non-aggressive and less aggressive animals were constantly being pushed to the migratory fringes. They would rather run than fight. While this was happening, the waters were rising up because the ice caps were melting back. All of a sudden, Australia -- which used to be part of the mainland -- was a protected island.

Not only that, there are ancient Egyptian cities discovered under 30 feet of water in the Mediterranean Sea. The sea level was lower at some point in the past. Cities have been discovered under water in Cabo de San Antonio, Cuba (1/2 mile down) and Mahabalipuram, India (several square miles) and Bimini Road, Bahamas. The underwater road off the coast of Florida was paved with magnesium oxide. Yona Guni, a city off the coast of Japan, is two football fields wide and about eight stories high. In the north Atlantic are carved rock columns 6000 feet under the ocean. Also, miles of pillared temples, buildings and statues. Wide curving boulevards and roads radiating out like spokes from a wheel. Gibraltar was a spillway when the Atlantic got too high. Then Sicily was the next spillway and then the Bosporus. Skeptics are "willingly ignorant" of this evidence (2 Pet. 3:5).

Estimates are that 5 million mammoths perished in one catastrophe. They were 1. Frozen upright, 2. with undigested food in their mouths and stomachs 3. They died of suffocation -- no water found in their lungs but 4. small ice crystals found in their blood indicate they probably froze in less than 5 hours. That requires a colder temperature than 300 degrees Farenheit below zero. "These fossils of the Siberian permafrost present an insuperable difficulty for a theory of slow, gradual geology ... no gradualistic process can result in the preservation of tens of thousands of tusks and whole individuals, even if they died in the winter. They must have been frozen suddenly" (Harold E. Lippman, "Frozen Mammoths," Science, Vol. 137, August 10, 1962, p. 449). Heaps of tusks were found in Siberia. For example, in the few decades preceding 1899, one report stated that about 20,000 tusks had been exported for the ivory trade. These were in perfect condition. Mammoths are not designed for cold weather.

Two Creations and Two Worldwide Floods

There were two creations. One was in Genesis 1:1 and the other in Genesis 1:2. There were also two worldwide floods 1656 years apart. One in Genesis 1:2 and the other in Genesis 7:11. The "world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished" (2 Pet. 3:6) in both cases. How then do we tell the difference between the two sets? Fossils of cold-blooded reptiles are in the older and deeper layers of rock. But fossils of primarily warm-blooded mammals associated with man's world are found in the newer upper layers of rock. Rocks of the pre-Adamite world are so hard they can be dug into only with cutting tools and dynamite. But the sedimentary rocks laid down by Noah's Flood can in general still be dug into with a pick and shovel. The two mass extinctions are separated by the K-Pg boundary of sediment layers containing high concentrations of iridium.

Noah was told to take "of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female" (Gen. 6:19). This clearly reveals why so many mammals became extinct. Noah took representatives of various mammal groups -- but definitely not every variety. From the limited number of creatures in the ark, the world of today has been repopulated. The varieties of elephants existing today, for example, are much more limited than before the flood. The wooly mammoth and mastodon, relatives of the modern elephant, died in the flood. Representatives of elephants which Noah took on board the ark simply have not diversified back into those earlier varieties. The same can be said of other species. Where are the saber-tooth tigers, the glyptodonts, toxodonts, macrauchenia, ground sloths, and wooly rhinoceros?

The Earth BECAME Without Form and Void

Mankind is only 6000 years old but the earth may be much older. Creation week actually involved a re-creation of a devastated earth in 4027 B.C. Important Biblical events occurred between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2. This is how to reconcile dinosaurs and the Bible. Many people mistakenly believe that either you have to believe in the young-earth theory of a 6,000-year-old earth and dinosaurs living with Adam, or you can’t believe in the creation week account of Genesis 1. God did not give man a hostile reptilian world -- filled with dinosaurs -- to inhabit. There is a large time gap between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2.

John 1:1-2 says: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God.” Psalm 90:2 says, “Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever You had formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.” Then comes Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Then next in time sequence is Isaiah 14:12-17, where Lucifer’s fall from heaven is recorded. Next comes the parallel account of Lucifer’s fall in Ezekiel 28:13-18. Then Jude 6 says, "And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day." The angels "sinned" (2 Pet. 2:4). Devastation was the result. Then Genesis 1:2 says, “The earth was (or "BECAME" -- NIV; or "had become" -- Rotherham) without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep." The Hebrew word "was" should be translated "BECAME" in Genesis 1:2 just as it is translated "BECAME" in Genesis 2:7, 9:15 and 19:26. Then Psalm 104:29-30 says, "Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled: thou takest away their breath, THEY DIE (dinosaurs), and return to their dust. Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou RENEWEST the face of the earth." Then God commanded man to replenish -- or repopulate -- the earth in 4027 B.C. (Gen. 1:28). The word "REPLENISH" literally means to "REFILL" and would not have been used if life had not been on the earth in an age before Adam. The same word is used in Genesis 9:1 after the Flood in Noah's time had completely destroyed all animal life except that which survived in the Ark. The earth had to once again be "REPLENISHED" at the time of Noah. Thus, this sin of the angels was therefore before the time of Adam's creation. Remember it was very soon after Adam's creation that Satan tempted Eve (Gen. 3). Lucifer had already fallen.

Apparently, something happened to cause the earth to become, as the Hebrew denotes, “chaotic and in confusion.” Since God is not the author of confusion or chaos (Isaiah 45:18; 1 Corinthians 14:33), it makes sense that the earth became that way due to Lucifer’s rebellion and subsequent expulsion to the earth. As Jesus Christ remarked, “I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven” (Luke 10:18). Other scriptures reveal it was not only Satan, but also the fallen angels that were cast down with him. We read in 2 Peter 2:4 that “God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to hell [from the Greek tartaroo, a place of confinement, in this case the earth] and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved for judgment …” Revelation 12:3-4 describes the dragon (Satan, verse 9) as having drawn a third of the stars of heaven to be cast down to the earth—these “stars” being symbolic of angels (compare 1:20).

We don’t know how long it took Lucifer to rebel—and how long this was before the six-day renewal of the earth culminating in the creation of Adam and Eve, as described in the rest of Genesis 1. Satan’s rebellion apparently happened after the earth had passed through the dinosaur age. Then, geologists agree, something dramatic occurred between the "Age of Reptiles" and the "Age of Mammals." This apparently reflects the change from the pre-Adamic world to the world of man. Certainly there are smaller reptiles in our world, but they are insignificant in comparison to what existed in the previous age. If real dinosaurs had been in the Garden of Eden, it would have been more like Jurassic Park than a garden paradise.

This “ancient earth” explanation seems to make the most biblical sense. It is the only explanation that accepts the literal 24-hour days of the creation (or re-creation) week and, at the same time, makes room for an indefinite period before the creation of mankind that could include the dinosaurs and previous eras.The gap theory, which is distinct from theistic evolution and the day-age theory, is also called old-earth creationism, gap creationism, and the ruin-reconstruction theory. Some proponents of the gap theory include C. I. Scofield, J. Vernon McGee and Herbert Armstrong.

Recent geological and astronomical discoveries, such as cosmic expansion and signs of meteor impacts at the geologic Cretaceous-Paleogene border, better known as the “K-Pg boundary,” have only served to substantiate this view. In 1980, sedimentary layers found all over the world at the K-Pg boundary contain a concentration of iridium many times greater than normal (30 times the average crustal content in Italy and 160 times at Stevns on the Danish island of Zealand). Iridium is extremely rare in the earth's crust. As iridium remains abundant in most asteroids and comets, this fact suggests that an asteroid struck the earth at the time of the K-Pg boundary. Chromium isotopic anomalies found in Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary sediments are similar to those of an asteroid or a comet composed of carbonaceous chondrites. Shocked quartz granules and tektite glass spherules, indicative of an impact event, are also common in the K-Pg boundary, especially in deposits from around the Caribbean. All of these constituents are embedded in a layer of clay, interpreted as the debris spread all over the world by the impact. Using estimates of the total amount of iridium in the K-Pg layer, and assuming that the asteroid contained the normal percentage of iridium found in chondrites, the the size of the asteroid was then calculated. The answer was about 10 km (6.2 mi) in diameter, about the size of Manhattan. Such a large impact would have had approximately the energy of 100 trillion tons of TNT, or about 2 million times greater than the most powerful thermonuclear bomb ever tested.

One of the consequences of such an impact is a dust cloud which would block sunlight and inhibit photosynthesis for a few years. This would account for the extinction of plants and phytoplankton and of organisms dependent on them (including predatory animals as well as herbivores). However, small creatures whose food chains were based on detritus might have still had a reasonable chance of survival. Vast amounts of sulfuric acid aerosols were ejected into the stratosphere as a result of the impact, leading to a 10–20% reduction in sunlight reaching the Earth's surface. It would have taken at least ten years for those aerosols to dissipate. As Genesis 1:2 says, “The earth was (or "became") without form, and void; and DARKNESS was on the face of the deep." The Age of Reptiles ended. The dinosaurs were highly varied, "yet not one is known to have lived to see the dawn of the Cenozoic Era" (the age of man or the Age of Mammals) (Historical Geology by Carl Dunbar, p. 345).

Of course, Satan must have fallen before Adam did; otherwise, there would have been no temptation in the garden. Young-earth creationists say that Satan fell sometime after Genesis 1:31. Gap creationists say that Satan fell between Genesis 1:1 and 2.

One difficulty of the gap theory is that it requires that creation suffer death and destruction before Adam’s fall. Romans 5:12 says, “Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned.” The gap theory counters by positing two worlds. Satan’s sin brought death to the original creation, whatever that was like; and Adam’s sin brought death to the re-creation, the realm of mankind. Through Adam’s sin, evil entered our world and the realm of man was cursed. But rebellion already existed outside the realm of mankind (in the spiritual realm), since Satan and his angels had already fallen (Isaiah 14:12–14; Ezekiel 28:12–18). Sin could not enter the realm of man until man chose it. And Satan, via the serpent, successfully tempted man to make that choice.

"Living Fossils" Coexist With Man -- Unchanged

Animals which have lived in both the Dinosaur World and in Man's World are called "Living Fossils." Many examples of "Living Fossils" could be given. They have not evolved even though they have supposedly lived for hundreds of millions of years. The Coelacanth, lampreys, hagfish, sharks, the jellyfish, sponges, water monitors, the crocodile, the Tuatara lizard, the turtle, the black ant, the Dragonfly, the cockroach, the scorpion, the hedgehog, the Cycad plant, the Horsehair plant, psilotales, and the Ginkgo tree are all alive and unchanged in our world today. They defy evolutionary change. As John Maynard Smith acknowledges: "Unfortunately one cannot give detailed reasons in any particular case for such long-continued survival with little evolutionary change" (The Theory of Evolution, p. 237). Actual photographs of pterodactyls exist.

This begs the question, "Did dinosaurs all die out or did some of them survive the mass extinction?" We believe there is evidence of dinosaurs living with man -- even up to the present day. More and more "fresh" fossils are being found - with blood still inside. In fact, many fossils may have blood in them, but they simply haven't been cut open to look inside because the evolutionists thought it impossible that any blood could still exist after 65 million years. Cells and DNA break down in just thousands of years. Yet we are finding fossils which are supposed to be 65 million years old - with blood still inside. This tells us that the bones are quite young.

Reptiles never stop growing. So therefore, a dinosaur is simply a very old reptile that has grown very large, but of species which are extinct today. But reptiles don't live as long today.

In Nurluc, France they renamed their city in honor of a dragon slaying. The animal they killed that was larger than an ox and had three horns coming out of its head. The well-known old European science book, “Historia Animalium,” says that dragons were not extinct in the 1500’s A.D., but were very rare and relatively small. In the Bible, the book of Job 40:15 (probably from about 1500 B.C.) describes in great detail the Behemoth. Huge, lumbering and living in swamps, it had a tail “like a cedar tree.” Evolutionists claim this creature was an elephant or hippopotamus; but with a tail like a cedar tree? I think not.

Marco Polo lived in China for 17 years, around 1271 A.D. Upon his return from Asia, he reported of families raising dragons, yoking them to royal chariots for parades and special occasions, and using dragon parts for medicinal purposes. Interestingly, the twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals, eleven of which are everyday, extant creatures (rat, horse, dog, ox, rabbit, tiger, snake, ram, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig.) The twelfth is the dragon. Why would the Chinese include the “mythological” dragon with these common living animals? And we trust Marco for other history why not also dinosaurs or "Dragons"?

This carving (left) was found on a Cambodian temple wall. It is an excellent depiction of a stegosaurus, many hundreds of years old. How could they have known about stegosaurs if they had never seen one? The Ica Stone (right), found in the Ica valley in Peru. The people lived there about 3,000 years ago. How did they know what dinosaurs looked like? Below are some of the evidences for Plesiosaurs still living in Lake Okanogan (Ogopogo), Lake Champlain (Champ) and Loch Ness (Nessie), etcetera.

A story appeared in the May 1965 issue of Fate Magazine:In a first-person account, Edward Brian McCleary claimed to have had a terrifying experience on March 24, 1962 off Pensacola, Florida. McCleary and four friends paddled a life raft out to dive on a wrecked ship. A sudden storm came up, forcing them away from land. At night, a fog closed in on them. In the fog, they hear something moving, and then saw what looked momentarily like a “like a telephone pole about ten feet high with a bulb on top” in the fog. The object was, however, a plesiosaur-like animal. More specifically, “The neck was about 12 feet long, brownish-green and smooth looking. The head was like that of a sea-turtle, except more elongated with teeth. There appeared to be what looked like a dorsal fin when it dove under for the last time. Also, as best I am able to recall, the eyes were green with oval pupils.” This creature proceeded to kill McCleary’s companions one by one. McCleary alone managed to make it to a protruding mast of the wreck they were diving (the U.S.S. Massachusetts), where he clung until daylight. Later he drew a sketch of the creature (shown below).

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