Jonah Coming to Nineveh
|"Let no one be willing to act unjustly; neither let him sail with the perjured." (Euripid. Electr. 1354)
"Diagoras, the atheist, being in a storm at sea, the sailors being greatly alarmed, told him they justly deserved that misfortune for admitting him into their ship." (Cic. de nat. deor. 3:37)
|"Cyras accounted the piety of those about him an advantage to himself; reckoning as they do who choose to undertake a voyage in company with men of piety, rather than with such as appear to have been guilty of anything impious." (Xen. Cyrop.
|"The timid man, when making a voyage, as soon as the waves begin to rise, enquires whether there be not some profane person on board." (Theophr. Charact. 29.)|
17 Now the Lord had prepared a great fish (Cetus) to swallow up (Auriga) Jonah. And (Auriga) Jonah was in the belly of the fish (Cetus) three days and three nights.
“A natural historian of repute relates, ‘In 1758, in stormy weather, a sailor fell overboard from a frigate in the Mediterranean. A shark was close by, which, as he was swimming and crying for help, took him in his wide throat, so that he forthwith disappeared. Other sailors had leaped into the sloop, to help their comrade, while yet swimming; the captain had a gun which stood on the deck discharged at the fish, which struck it so, that it cast out the sailor which it had in its throat, who was taken up, alive and little injured, by the sloop which had now come up. The fish was harpooned, taken up on the frigate and dried. The captain made a present of the fish to the sailor who, by God’s Providence, had been so wonderfully preserved. The sailor went round Europe exhibiting it. He came to Franconia, and it was publicly exhibited here in Erlangen, as also at Nurnberg and other places. The dried fish was delineated. It was 20 feet long, and, with expanded fins, nine feet wide, and weighed 3924 pounds. From all this, it is probable that this was the fish of Jonah.’ ” (See Dr Pusey’s Commentary on Jonah, Introd., pp. 257, 258; Smith’s Bible Dict., Art. Whale, where other instances are given.)
2:1 Then Jonah (Orion) prayed unto the Lord his God out of the fish's (Cetus) belly,
2 And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the Lord, and he (Cancer-Ear) heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou (Cancer-Ear) heardest my voice.
3 For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy (Argo) billows and thy waves passed over me.
4 Then I said, I am cast out of thy (lunar eye) sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.
5 The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the (red radius sea) weeds were wrapped about my head.
6 I went down to the bottoms of the (red radius) mountains; the earth with her (red radius) bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O Lord my God.
7 When my soul fainted within me I remembered the Lord: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple.
8 They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy.
9 But I will (solar) sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have (lunar open mouth) vowed. Salvation is of the Lord.
10 And the Lord spake unto the (Cetus) fish, and it (solar yellow) vomited out Jonah (Orion) upon the dry land (southern shore of Black Sea?).
3:1 And the word of the Lord came unto Jonah (Auriga) the second time, saying,
2 Arise, go unto Nineveh, that great city, and preach unto it the preaching that I bid thee.
3 So Jonah (Orion) arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city of three days' journey.
See Diodor. Sic. Bib. 50:2. And as we find, from the lowest computation, that it was at least fifty-four or sixty English miles in circumference, it would take the prophet three days to walk round upon the walls, and announce from them the terrible message, "Yet forty days, and Nineveh will be destroyed!"
Herodotus variously reckons a day’s journey at about eighteen or twenty-three miles (v. 53, iv. 101), and the circuit of the irregular quadrangle composed of the mounds of Koujunjik, Nimrud, Karamless, and Khorsabad, now generally allowed to represent ancient Nineveh, is about sixty miles. This agrees sufficiently with the obviously vague and general statement of the text.
of three days' journey; in compass, being sixty miles, as Diodorus Siculus (n) relates; and allowing twenty miles for a day's journey on foot, as this was, and which is as much as a man can ordinarily do to hold it, was just three days journey; and so Herodotus (o) reckons a day's journey at an hundred fifty furlongs, which make about nineteen miles; (n) Bibliothec. l. 2. p. 92. (o) Terpsichore, sive l. 5. c. 53.
Jonah's statement is confirmed by heathen writers, who describe Nineveh as four hundred eighty stadia in circumference [Diodorus Siculus, 2.3]. Herodotus defines a day's journey to be one hundred fifty stadia; so three days' journey will not be much below Diodorus' estimate. The parallelogram in Central Assyria covered with remains of buildings has Khorsabad northeast; Koyunjik and Nebbi Yunus near the Tigris, northwest; Nimroud, between the Tigris and the Zab, southwest; and Karamless, at a distance inward from the Zab, southeast. From Koyunjik to Nimroud is about eighteen miles; from Khorsabad to Karamless, the same; from Koyunjik to Khorsabad, thirteen or fourteen miles; from Nimroud to Karamless, fourteen miles. The length thus was greater than the breadth; compare Jon 3:4, "a day's journey," which is confirmed by heathen writers and by modern measurements. The walls were a hundred feet high, and broad enough to allow three chariots abreast, and had moreover fifteen hundred lofty towers.
4 And Jonah began to enter into the city a day's journey, and he (lunar open mouth) cried, and said, Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown.
5 So the (Gemini) people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on (black Zodiac) sackcloth, from the greatest of them (Ursa Major, Canis Major) even to the least of them ((Ursa Minor, Canis Minor).
6 For word came unto the king of Nineveh(Cepheus), and he arose from his throne, and he laid his robe from him, and covered him with (black Zodiac) sackcloth, and sat in (black zodiac) ashes.
7 And he caused it to be (red radius line) proclaimed and published through Nineveh by the decree of the (Cepheus) king and his (Gemini) nobles, saying, Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste any thing: let them not (red radius bar preventing solar) feed, nor (red radius bar preventing lunar) drink water:
8 But let man (Orion and Auriga) and beast (Taurus and Aries, etc.) be covered with (black Zodiac) sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their (Cetus, Perseus, Auriga) hands.
9 Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce (solar) anger, that we perish not?
10 And God saw their works, that they (red radius line) turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and he did it not.
4:1 But it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was very angry.
2 And he (lunar open mouth) prayed unto the Lord, and said, I pray thee, O Lord, was not this my saying, when I was yet in my country? Therefore I fled before unto Tarshish: for I knew that thou art a gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil.
3 Therefore now, O Lord, take, I beseech thee, my life from me; for it is better for me to die than to live.
4 Then said the Lord, Doest thou well to be angry?
5 So Jonah went out of the city, and (Auriga) sat on the east side of the city, and there made him a (red radius line) booth, and (Auriga) sat under it in the (black Zodiac) shadow, till he might see what would become of the city.
6 And the Lord God prepared a (lunar) gourd, and made it to come up over (Orion) Jonah, that it might be a (black lunar) shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the (black lunar) gourd.
7 But God prepared a (red radius) worm when the (solar) morning (red radius horizon) rose the next day, and it (red radius) smote the (black lunar) gourd that it withered.
8 And it came to pass, when the (solar) sun did arise, that God prepared a vehement (Milky Way) east wind; and the (solar) sun beat upon the head of (Orion) Jonah, that he (Orion) fainted, and wished in himself to die, and said, It is better for me to die than to live.
9 And God said to Jonah, Doest thou well to be angry for the (black lunar) gourd? And he (Orion) said, I do well to be angry, even unto death.
10 Then said the Lord, Thou hast had pity on the (black lunar) gourd, for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night, and perished in a night:
11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand (Gemini and Milky Way) persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and also much (Taurus) cattle?