Jeremiah Chapters 40-44 Star Chart: From when Johanan and "all the captains" (42:1) asked "that the Lord thy God may (red radius line) shew us (Gemini) the way wherein we may walk" (42:3) and Jeremiah (Orion) the prophet (red radius line) said unto them (Gemini), I have (lunar ear) heard you; behold, I will (red radius line) pray unto the Lord your God according to your (red radius line) words; and it shall come to pass, that whatsoever thing the Lord shall answer you, I will (red radius line) declare it unto you" (42:4) till "after TEN DAYS, that the word of the Lord (red radius line) came unto Jeremiah" (Orion) (42:7) and "Jeremiah (Orion) had made an end of speaking unto all the (Gemini) people all the words of the Lord their God" (43:1) is 10° days in circa 586 B.C.

But since a day is a year in Bible prophecy (Num. 14:34; Ez. 4:6), we believe the TEN YEARS are from 578 to 568 B.C. From when Pharaoh Hophra (Apries) heard that his subjects were rebelling and therefore "sent Amasis, one of his generals, to reduce them to their duty; but no sooner had Amasis begun to make his speech than they fixed a helmet on his head, and proclaimed him king. Amasis accepted the title, and confirmed the Egyptians in their rebellion; and the greater part of the nation declaring for him, Apries was obliged to retire into Upper Egypt" TILL "the country, being thus weakened by intestine war, was attacked and easily overcome by Nebuchadnezzar, who, on quitting it, left Amasis his viceroy. After Nebuchadnezzar’s departure, Apries marched against Amasis, but, being defeated at Memphis, was taken prisoner, carried to Sais, and strangled in his own palace" thus verifying this prophecy (Herodotus, lib. 2. cap. 169; Diodorus Siculus, lib. 1. p. 43. See also Rollin’s Ancient Hist., vol. 1., and Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, vol. 1. p. 362). Nebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt in 568 B.C. and led captive to Babylon the Jews that had fled to Egypt. A fragmentary inscription of Nebuchadnezzar states that he invaded Egypt in the 37th year of his reign (b.c. 568), and defeated king Amasis (b.c. 570–526) with slaughter of men and horses.

From when "they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the Lord: thus came they even to Tahpanhes" (43:7) till Jeremiah took "great (lunar) stones in thine hand, and hide them in the clay in the brickkiln, which is at the entry of Pharaoh's (red radius line) house in Tahpanhes, in the (red radius line) sight of the (Gemini) men of Judah; And (red radius line) say unto them, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will set his (Auriga) throne upon these (lunar) stones that I have (black) hid; and he shall spread his (red radius line) royal pavilion over them. And when he cometh, he shall (red radius line) smite the land of Egypt, and deliver such as are for death to death; and such as are for captivity to captivity; and such as are for the (red radius line) sword to the sword. And I will kindle a (solar) fire in the (red radius line) houses of the (Gemini) gods of Egypt; and he shall (solar) burn them, and (red radius line) carry them away captives: and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd putteth on his (red radius line) garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace. He shall break also the (red radius obelisk) images of Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the (Gemini) gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with (solar) fire" (43:9-13) is 10° years from 578 to 568 B.C.



Because You Have Not Walked in His Law

40:1 The word that came to Jeremiah from the Lord, after that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had let him go from Ramah, when he had taken him being bound in chains among all that were carried away captive of Jerusalem and Judah, which were carried away captive unto Babylon.

2 And the captain of the guard took Jeremiah, and said unto him, The Lord thy God hath pronounced this evil upon this place.

3 Now the Lord hath brought it, and done according as he hath said: because ye have sinned against the Lord, and have not obeyed his voice, therefore this thing is come upon you.

4 And now, behold, I loose thee this day from the chains which were upon thine hand. If it seem good unto thee to come with me into Babylon, come; and I will look well unto thee: but if it seem ill unto thee to come with me into Babylon, forbear: behold, all the land is before thee: whither it seemeth good and convenient for thee to go, thither go.

5 Now while he was not yet gone back, he said, Go back also to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, whom the king of Babylon hath made governor over the cities of Judah, and dwell with him among the people: or go wheresoever it seemeth convenient unto thee to go. So the captain of the guard gave him victuals and a reward, and let him go.

6 Then went Jeremiah unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and dwelt with him among the people that were left in the land.

7 Now when all the captains of the forces which were in the fields, even they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam governor in the land, and had committed unto him men, and women, and children, and of the poor of the land, of them that were not carried away captive to Babylon;

8 Then they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, even Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan and Jonathan the sons of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth, and the sons of Ephai the Netophathite, and Jezaniah the son of a Maachathite, they and their men.

9 And Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan sware unto them and to their men, saying, Fear not to serve the Chaldeans: dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you.

10 As for me, behold, I will dwell at Mizpah, to serve the Chaldeans, which will come unto us: but ye, gather ye wine, and summer fruits, and oil, and put them in your vessels, and dwell in your cities that ye have taken.

11 Likewise when all the Jews that were in Moab, and among the Ammonites, and in Edom, and that were in all the countries, heard that the king of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah, and that he had set over them Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan;

12 Even all the Jews returned out of all places whither they were driven, and came to the land of Judah, to Gedaliah, unto Mizpah, and gathered wine and summer fruits very much.

13 Moreover Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were in the fields, came to Gedaliah to Mizpah,

14 And said unto him, Dost thou certainly know that Baalis the king of the Ammonites hath sent Ishmael the son of Nethaniah to slay thee? But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam believed them not.

15 Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and no man shall know it: wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?

16 But Gedaliah the son of Ahikam said unto Johanan the son of Kareah, Thou shalt not do this thing: for thou speakest falsely of Ishmael.

41:1 Now it came to pass in the seventh month (Tishri -- Sept.), that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, and the princes of the king, even ten men with him, came unto Gedaliah the son of Ahikam to Mizpah; and there they did eat bread together in Mizpah.

2 Then arose Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and the ten men that were with him, and smote Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan with the sword, and slew him, whom the king of Babylon had made governor over the land.

3 Ishmael also slew all the Jews that were with him, even with Gedaliah, at Mizpah, and the Chaldeans that were found there, and the men of war.

4 And it came to pass the second day after he had slain Gedaliah, and no man knew it,

5 That there came certain from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria, even fourscore men, having their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring them to the house of the Lord.

6 And Ishmael the son of Nethaniah went forth from Mizpah to meet them, weeping all along as he went: and it came to pass, as he met them, he said unto them, Come to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam.

7 And it was so, when they came into the midst of the city, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah slew them, and cast them into the midst of the pit, he, and the men that were with him.

8 But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare, and slew them not among their brethren.

9 Now the pit wherein Ishmael had cast all the dead bodies of the men, whom he had slain because of Gedaliah, was it which Asa the king had made for fear of Baasha king of Israel: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah filled it with them that were slain.

10 Then Ishmael carried away captive all the residue of the people that were in Mizpah, even the king's daughters, and all the people that remained in Mizpah, whom Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had committed to Gedaliah the son of Ahikam: and Ishmael the son of Nethaniah carried them away captive, and departed to go over to the Ammonites.

11 But when Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, heard of all the evil that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had done,

12 Then they took all the men, and went to fight with Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and found him by the great waters that are in Gibeon.

13 Now it came to pass, that when all the people which were with Ishmael saw Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, then they were glad.

14 So all the people that Ishmael had carried away captive from Mizpah cast about and returned, and went unto Johanan the son of Kareah.

15 But Ishmael the son of Nethaniah escaped from Johanan with eight men, and went to the Ammonites.

16 Then took Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces that were with him, all the remnant of the people whom he had recovered from Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, from Mizpah, after that he had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, even mighty men of war, and the women, and the children, and the eunuchs, whom he had brought again from Gibeon:

17 And they departed, and dwelt in the habitation of Chimham, which is by Bethlehem, to go to enter into Egypt,

18 Because of the Chaldeans: for they were afraid of them, because Ishmael the son of Nethaniah had slain Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, whom the king of Babylon made governor in the land.

42:1 Then all the captains of the forces, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and Jezaniah the son of Hoshaiah, and all the people from the least even unto the greatest, came near,

2 And said unto Jeremiah the prophet, Let, we beseech thee, our supplication be accepted before thee, and pray for us unto the Lord thy God, even for all this remnant; (for we are left but a few of many, as thine eyes do behold us:)

3 That the Lord thy God may (red radius line) shew us the way wherein we may walk, and the thing that we may do.

4 Then Jeremiah (Orion) the prophet said unto them, I have (lunar ear) heard you; behold, I will pray unto the Lord your God according to your words; and it shall come to pass, that whatsoever thing the Lord shall answer you, I will declare it unto you; I will keep nothing back from you.

5 Then they said to Jeremiah, The Lord be a true and faithful witness between us, if we do not even according to all things for the which the Lord thy God shall send thee to us.

6 Whether it be good, or whether it be evil, we will obey the voice of the Lord our God, to whom we send thee; that it may be well with us, when we obey the voice of the Lord our God.

7 And it came to pass after ten days, that the word of the Lord came unto Jeremiah.

8 Then called he Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces which were with him, and all the (Gemini) people from the least even to the greatest,

9 And said unto them, Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, unto whom ye sent me to present your supplication before him;

10 If ye will still abide in this land, then will I build you, and not pull you down, and I will plant you, and not pluck you up: for I repent me of the evil that I have done unto you.

11 Be not afraid of the king of Babylon, of whom ye are afraid; be not afraid of him, saith the Lord: for I am with you to save you, and to deliver you from his hand.

12 And I will shew mercies unto you, that he may have mercy upon you, and cause you to return to your own land.

13 But if ye say, We will not dwell in this land, neither obey the voice of the Lord your God,

14 Saying, No; but we will (red radius line) go into the land of Egypt, where we shall see no (red radius line) war, nor (lunar ear) hear the sound of the (red radius line) trumpet, nor have hunger of (solar golden) bread; and there will we dwell:

15 And now therefore (lunar ear) hear the word of the Lord, ye (Gemini) remnant of Judah; Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; If ye wholly set your faces to enter into Egypt, and go to sojourn there;

16 Then it shall come to pass, that the (red radius line) sword, which ye feared, shall overtake you there in the land of Egypt, and the (lunar black) famine, whereof ye were afraid, shall follow close after you there in Egypt; and there ye shall die.

17 So shall it be with all the (Gemini) men that set their faces to go into Egypt to sojourn there; they shall die by the (red radius line) sword, by the (lunar black) famine, and by the pestilence: and none of them shall remain or escape from the evil that I will bring upon them.

18 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; As mine (solar) anger and my (solar) fury hath been poured forth upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem; so shall my (solar) fury be (red radius line) poured forth upon you, when ye shall enter into Egypt: and ye shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a curse, and a reproach; and ye shall see this place no more.

19 The Lord hath said concerning you, O ye (Gemini) remnant of Judah; Go ye not into Egypt: know certainly that I (Orion) have admonished you this day.

20 For ye dissembled (two faced sun) in your (Gemini) hearts, when ye sent me (Orion) unto the Lord your God, saying, Pray for us unto the Lord our God; and according unto all that the Lord our God shall say, so declare unto us, and we will do it.

21 And now I (Orion) have this day (red radius line) declared it to you; but ye (Gemini) have not obeyed the voice of the Lord your God, nor any thing for the which he hath sent me unto you.

22 Now therefore know certainly that ye (Gemini) shall die by the (red radius line) sword, by the (black lunar) famine, and by the pestilence, in the place whither ye desire to go and to sojourn.

43:1 And it came to pass, that when Jeremiah (Orion) had made an end of speaking unto all the (Gemini) people all the words of the Lord their God, for which the Lord their God had sent him to them, even all these words,

2 Then spake Azariah the son of Hoshaiah, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the proud men, saying unto Jeremiah, Thou speakest falsely: the Lord our God hath not sent thee to say, Go not into Egypt to sojourn there:

3 But Baruch the son of Neriah setteth thee on against us, for to deliver us into the hand of the Chaldeans, that they might (red radius line) put us to death, and carry us away captives into Babylon.

4 So Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, and all the people, obeyed not the voice of the Lord, to (solar) dwell in the land of Judah.

5 But Johanan the son of Kareah, and all the captains of the forces, took all the (Gemini) remnant of Judah, that were returned from all nations, whither they had been driven, to dwell in the land of Judah;

6 Even (Gemini) men, and women, and children, and the (Gemini) king's daughters, and every person that Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard had left with Gedaliah the son of Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Jeremiah the prophet, and Baruch the son of Neriah.

7 So they came into the land of Egypt: for they obeyed not the voice of the Lord: thus came they even to Tahpanhes.

8 Then came the word of the Lord unto Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, saying,

9 Take great (lunar) stones in thine hand, and hide them in the clay in the brickkiln, which is at the entry of Pharaoh's (red radius line) house in Tahpanhes, in the (red radius line) sight of the (Gemini) men of Judah;

10 And (red radius line) say unto them, Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will send and take Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, my servant, and will set his (Auriga) throne upon these (lunar) stones that I have (black) hid; and he shall spread his (red radius line) royal pavilion over them.

11 And when he cometh, he shall (red radius line) smite the land of Egypt, and deliver such as are for death to death; and such as are for captivity to captivity; and such as are for the (red radius line) sword to the sword.

12 And I will kindle a (solar) fire in the (red radius line) houses of the (Gemini) gods of Egypt; and he shall (solar) burn them, and (red radius line) carry them away captives: and he shall array himself with the land of Egypt, as a shepherd putteth on his (red radius line) garment; and he shall go forth from thence in peace.

13 He shall break also the (Gemini) images of Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the (Gemini) gods of the Egyptians shall he burn with (solar) fire.

A fragmentary inscription of Nebuchadnezzar states that he invaded Egypt in the 37th year of his reign (b.c. 568), and defeated king Amasis (b.c. 570–526) with slaughter of men and horses.

It is difficult to understand how the exiled prophet would be allowed to assemble the Jews in front of the main entrance of the palace, and hide "great stones" in the pavement. Possibly the palace was being repaired, or the stones might be inserted under the front or side of a raised platform, or possibly the symbolic act was only to be described and not performed. Mr. Flinders Petrie recently discovered at Tell Defenneh a large brickwork pavement, with great stones buried underneath, which he supposed might be those mentioned in our narrative. He also found there another possible relic of these Jewish emigres in the shape of the ruins of a large brick building of the twenty-sixth dynasty-to which Pharaoh Hophra belonged-still known as the "Palace of the Jew’s Daughter." It is a natural and attractive conjecture that this was the residence assigned to the Jewish princesses whom Johanan carried with him into Egypt.

13. images—statues or obelisks.
Beth-shemesh—that is, "the house of the sun," in Hebrew; called by the Greeks "Heliopolis"; by the Egyptians, "On" (Ge 41:45); east of the Nile, and a few miles north of Memphis. Ephraim Syrus says, the statue rose to the height of sixty cubits; the base was ten cubits. Above there was a miter of a thousand pounds weight. Hieroglyphics are traced around the only obelisk remaining in the present day, sixty or seventy feet high. On the fifth year after the overthrow of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar, leaving the siege of Tyre, undertook his expedition to Egypt [Josephus, Antiquities, 10.9,7]. The Egyptians, according to the Arabs, have a tradition that their land was devastated by Nebuchadnezzar in consequence of their king having received the Jews under his protection, and that it lay desolate forty years. But see on [965]Eze 29:2; Eze 29:13.

The account of Josephus (Ant. x. 9. 7), that Nebuchadnezzar, in the fifth year after the capture of Jerusalem, and the twenty-third year of his reign, invaded Egypt, killed the king (Hophra), put another in his place, and led captive to Babylon the Jews that had fled to Egypt,

The images of Beth-shemesh are above all the obelisks, of which there was an unlimited number in the city. Of the oldest, which however were not the largest (comp. Herod II., 111), one still remains in its place. Comp. HERZOG, R.-Enc., X., S. 610 sqq.

[The fulfilment of this prophecy is confirmed by JOSEPHUS (Ant. X., 9, 7). “It is also probable, that during the thirteen years in which some of Nebuchadnezzar’s forces were engaged in the blockade of Tyre, he extended his campaign into Egypt; and there is a confirmation of this opinion in the narrative of MEGASTHENES in STRABO, XVI., 687. JOSEPH.Ant. X., 11, 1; c. Apion. I., 20. ABULFEDA, Hist. Ante-islam, p. 102.” WORDSWORTH.—S. R. A.]

44:1 The word that came to Jeremiah concerning all the Jews which dwell in the land of Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Tahpanhes, and at Noph, and in the country of Pathros, saying,

2 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Ye have seen all the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, and upon all the cities of Judah; and, behold, this day they are a desolation, and no man dwelleth therein,

3 Because of their wickedness which they have committed to provoke me to anger, in that they went to (solar) burn (red radius stick) incense, and to serve other (Gemini) gods, whom they knew not, neither they, ye, nor your (Gemini) fathers.

4 Howbeit I sent unto you all my servants the (Gemini) prophets, (sunrise) rising early and sending them, saying, Oh, do not this abominable thing that I hate.

5 But they hearkened not, nor inclined their (lunar crescent) ear to turn from their wickedness, to (solar) burn no (red radius stick) incense unto other (Gemini) gods.

6 Wherefore my (solar) fury and mine (solar) anger was (red radius line) poured forth, and was kindled in the (orange and black dot) cities of Judah and in the (Milky Way) streets of Jerusalem; and they are wasted and desolate, as at this day.

7 Therefore now thus saith the Lord, the God of hosts, the God of Israel; Wherefore commit ye this great evil against your souls, to (red radius line) cut off from you man and woman, child and suckling, out of Judah, to leave you none to remain;

8 In that ye provoke me unto wrath with the works of your hands, (solar) burning (red radius stick) incense unto other (Gemini) gods in the land of Egypt, whither ye be gone to dwell, that ye might (red radius sword) cut yourselves off, and that ye might be a (lunar black) curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth?

9 Have ye forgotten the wickedness of your (Gemini) fathers, and the wickedness of the (Gemini) kings of Judah, and the wickedness of their (Gemini) wives, and your own (Gemini) wickedness, and the wickedness of your (Gemini) wives, which they have committed in the land of Judah, and in the (Milky Way) streets of Jerusalem?

10 They are not humbled even unto this day, neither have they feared, nor walked in my (red radius path) law, nor in my statutes, that I set before you and before your (Gemini) fathers.

11 Therefore thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; Behold, I will set my face against you for evil, and to (red radius sword) cut off all Judah.

12 And I will take the (Gemini) remnant of Judah, that have set their faces to go into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, and they shall all be (solar) consumed, and fall in the land of Egypt; they shall even be consumed by the (lunar) sword and by the (lunar black) famine: they shall die, from the least even unto the greatest, by the (lunar) sword and by the (black lunar) famine: and they shall be an execration, and an astonishment, and a (lunar) curse, and a (lunar) reproach.

13 For I will punish them that dwell in the land of Egypt, as I have punished Jerusalem, by the (lunar) sword, by the (lunar black) famine, and by the (lunar) pestilence:

14 So that none of the remnant of Judah, which are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall escape or remain, that they should return into the land of Judah, to the which they have a desire to return to dwell there: for none shall return but such as shall escape.

15 Then all the (Gemini) men which knew that their (Gemini) wives had (solar) burned (red radius stick) incense unto other (Gemini) gods, and all the (Gemini) women that stood by, a great (Milky Way) multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, in Pathros, answered Jeremiah, saying,

16 As for the (red radius) word that thou hast spoken unto us in the name of the Lord, we will not (lunar ear) hearken unto thee.

17 But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of our own mouth, to (solar) burn (red radius stick) incense unto the (Virgo) queen of heaven, and to (red radius line) pour out (solar) drink offerings unto her, as we have done, we, and our (Gemini) fathers, our (Gemini) kings, and our (Gemini) princes, in the (orange and black dot) cities of Judah, and in the (Milky Way) streets of Jerusalem: for then had we plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no evil.

18 But since we left off to (solar) burn (red radius stick) incense to the (Virgo) queen of heaven, and to (red radius) pour out (solar) drink offerings unto her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the (red radius) sword and by the (lunar black) famine.

19 And when we (solar) burned (red radius stick) incense to the (Virgo) queen of heaven, and (red radius line) poured out (solar) drink offerings unto her, did we make her (solar and lunar) cakes to worship her, and (red radius line) pour out drink offerings unto her, without our (Gemini) men?

20 Then Jeremiah (red radius line) said unto all the (Gemini) people, to the men, and to the women, and to all the people which had given him that answer, saying,

21 The (red radius stick) incense that ye (solar) burned in the (orange and black dot) cities of Judah, and in the (Milky Way) streets of Jerusalem, ye, and your (Gemini) fathers, your (Gemini) kings, and your (Gemini) princes, and the (Gemini) people of the land, did not the Lord remember them, and came it not into his mind?

22 So that the Lord could no longer bear, because of the evil of your doings, and because of the abominations which ye have committed; therefore is your land a (black Zodiac) desolation, and an astonishment, and a curse, without an inhabitant, as at this day.

23 Because ye have (solar) burned (red radius stick) incense, and because ye have sinned against the Lord, and have not obeyed the (red radius line) voice of the Lord, nor walked in his (red radius path) law, nor in his statutes, nor in his testimonies; therefore this evil is happened unto you, as at this day.

24 Moreover Jeremiah (red radius line) said unto all the (Gemini) people, and to all the (Gemini) women, (lunar ear) Hear the word of the Lord, all Judah that are in the land of Egypt:

25 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel, saying; Ye and your wives have both spoken with your mouths, and fulfilled with your hand, saying, We will surely perform our vows that we have vowed, to (solar) burn (red radius stick) incense to the (Virgo) queen of heaven, and to (red radius line) pour out (solar and lunar) drink offerings unto her: ye will surely accomplish your vows, and surely perform your vows.

26 Therefore (lunar ear) hear ye the (red radius line) word of the Lord, all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt; Behold, I have sworn by my great name, saith the Lord, that my name shall (black lunar) no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah in all the land of Egypt, saying, The Lord God liveth.

27 Behold, I will watch over them for evil, and not for good: and all the (Gemini) men of Judah that are in the land of Egypt shall be (red radius line) consumed by the sword and by the famine, until there be an end of them.

28 Yet a small number that escape the (lunar) sword shall return out of the land of Egypt into the land of Judah, and all the remnant of Judah, that are gone into the land of Egypt to sojourn there, shall know whose words shall stand, mine, or their's.

29 And this shall be a sign unto you, saith the Lord, that I will punish you in this place, that ye may know that my words shall surely stand against you for evil:

30 Thus saith the Lord; Behold, I will give Pharaohhophra king of Egypt into the hand of his enemies, and into the hand of them that seek his life; as I gave Zedekiah king of Judah into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, his enemy, and that sought his life (The pharaoh became a prisoner from 578 to 568 B.C.).

Behold I will give Pharaoh-hophra - That is, Pharaoh Apries. How this and the prophecies in the preceding chapter were fulfilled, we learn from ancient historians. The sum of such information is this: the subjects of Pharaoh Apries rebelling, he sent Amasis, one of his generals, to reduce them to their duty. But no sooner had Amasis begun to make his speech, than they fixed a helmet on his head, and proclaimed him king. Amasis accepted the title, and confirmed the Egyptians in their revolt; and the greater part of the nation declaring for him, Apries was obliged to retire into Upper Egypt; and the country being thus weakened by intestine war, was attacked and easily overcome by Nebuchadnezzar, who on quitting it left Amasis his viceroy. After Nebuchadnezzar's departure, Apries marched against Amasis; but, being defeated at Memphis, was taken prisoner, carried to Sais, and was strangled in his own palace, thus verifying this prophecy. See Herodotus in Euterpe.
Thus Nebuchadnezzar made an easy conquest of the land. He conquered it as easily as "a shepherd puts on his cloak: he went thence in peace," having clothed himself with its spoils; and left all quiet under a viceroy of his own choosing. The rebellion of Pharaoh's subjects was the "fire that God kindled in Egypt," Jeremiah 43:12. And thus was he "delivered into the hands of his enemies," his revolted people; and "into the hand of him who sought his life," i.e., Amasis his general. And thus the whole prophecy was literally fulfilled.

Pharaoh-Hophra came to the throne the year before Jerusalem was captured (587 B.C.). He reigned for 19 years, probably the last 10 years as a prisoner. See the notes at Jeremiah 37:5; notes at Jeremiah 46:12.

The predecessor of this king was called Pharaoh- nechoh, 2 Kings 23:29. This Pharaoh-hophra appears to have been the same that is called by profane authors Apries; and his unfortunate end, in exact conformity with this prediction, is particularly related by Herodotus, lib. 2. cap. 169, and by Diodorus Siculus, lib. 1. p. 43. “His subjects rebelling, he sent Amasis, one of his generals, to reduce them to their duty; but no sooner had Amasis begun to make his speech than they fixed a helmet on his head, and proclaimed him king. Amasis accepted the title, and confirmed the Egyptians in their rebellion; and the greater part of the nation declaring for him, Apries was obliged to retire into Upper Egypt; and the country, being thus weakened by intestine war, was attacked and easily overcome by Nebuchadnezzar, who, on quitting it, left Amasis his viceroy. After Nebuchadnezzar’s departure, Apries marched against Amasis, but, being defeated at Memphis, was taken prisoner, carried to Sais, and strangled in his own palace; thus verifying this prophecy.” See Rollin’s Ancient Hist., vol. 1., and Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, vol. 1. p. 362.

It has been inferred, but unnecessarily, from the close correspondence of these vv. with the above piece of history that these two verses are an interpolation made after the event. Pharaoh Hophra (the Greek Apries) reigned from b.c. 589 to c. 570, when he was overthrown by the troops whom he had sent against Cyrene, and who had mutinied (Herod. II. 152 ff.). Amasis succeeded him and handed him over to the Egyptians, who strangled him seven years later (Herod. II. 161–163, 169).



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