f "nothing is unclean of itself" (Rom.14:14), should we consume
canned RATTLESNAKE and FROG'SLEGS? If "every
creature of God is good, and nothing to be refused" (1 Tim.4:4),
shall we eat ESCARGOT (SNAILS) and WHALEBLUBBER?
Did Peter's vision (Acts 10) somehow cleanse CAVIAR, CLAMCHOWDER and chocolate covered ANTS? Were the prohibitions
on PIGS and RABBITS merely temporary, ceremonial rituals
until "the cross of Christ," or are there scientific, health principles involved in avoiding these unsanitary creatures?
Which Plants Are Edible?
Before we investigate the animal kingdom, the Bible has something to say about which plants are edible. "And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb BEARING SEED, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the FRUIT of a tree YIELDING SEED; to you it shall be for meat (food) ... I have given every GREEN herb for meat (food)" (Gen.1:29-30).
Thus, NUTS, FRUITS, GRAINS, and VEGETABLES are allowed. They are all GREEN at one time or another in their development and all have (or are) SEEDS. Furthermore, NUTS, FRUIT, GRAIN, and many vegetables could be considered "FRUIT" since fruit is defined as "The ripened ovary or ovaries of a seed-bearing plant, together with accessory parts ..." (American Heritage Dictionary).
But since the MUSHROOM is a fungus and reproduces by means of spores, it has no leaves, flowers, or GREEN color! Nor does it BEAR SEEDS! The MUSHROOM is forbidden as food! It is fascinating to learn the reasons why! From the book How To Stay Alive In The Woods by Bradford Angier, page 34, we read that "one should avoid whenever possible turning to mushrooms for emergency food. Mushrooms have very little general food value. If you are not already an expert, the incurred risks will be far out of proportion to the possible gain. No single practical test is recognized, unfortunately, by which all poisonous mushrooms can be detected." MUSHROOMS, and any other fungifor that matter, obtain their food, not by photosynthesis, but from other organic material, like manure and dead leaves and carcasses. In his article "Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens," Bruce N. Ames states that "Most hydrazines that have been tested are carcinogens and mutagens, and large amounts of carcinogenic hydrazines are present in edible mushrooms."
But someone is sure to mention the fact that YEAST, a leavening agent, is also a FUNGUS and yet leavened bread is permitted throughout the Bible except for seven days of the year (Lev.23:6; Ex.12:15) and is actually commanded in two rituals (Lev.7:13; 23:17) and is compared to the Kingdom of Heaven in one of Christ's parables (Matt.13:33). Yet, in all fairness, Genesis 1:29-30 is talking about VISIBLE HERBS and TREES, not MICROSCOPIC YEAST! Also, technically speaking, YEAST is not used for food but is only employed to make the dough rise. Actually the Bible doesn't even mention which leavening agents were used or sanctioned since YEAST, as such, is never mentioned. Creme of Tartar, Sodium Bicarbonate, Phosphate or Alum powders are other possible leavening agents which are not FUNGI! With the one POSSIBLE exception of Matthew 13:33, the Bible always associates leaven with MALICE and WICKEDNESS (1 Cor.5:8) and thereby confirms the fact that FUNGI is not fit to eat as FOOD in VISIBLE QUANTITIES like Brewer's Yeast Flakes or Blue and Rochfort Cheese Salad Dressing, "Quorn," and Tempee. Christ's parable wasn't even said in the context of what we should eat but instead was merely comparing the quickly expanding properties of both YEAST and the kingdom. Nutritional Brewer's Yeast has been known to give people headaches because of the Glutamic Acid content which, like monosodium Glutamate, is an excitotoxin and is why those who eat at Chinese restaurants often get headaches afterwards.
Before going on, note that this LAW concerning GREEN, SEED-BEARING plants existed from the beginning, long before the Old Covenant was ever established. Plants don't change their composition or molecular structure just because a covenant is ratified or abolished! This LAW is still in force!
Incidentally, notice that God designed different fruits, nuts and vegetables with shapes and colors that indicate their purpose.
CARROTS are good for the eyes and if you slice a CARROT, the cross-section looks like a human eye. Eating carrots won't give a nearsighted person 20/20 vision. But carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which the body converts to vitamin A -- a crucial nutrient for maintaining proper eyesight. Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness, says John Allred, a professor of nutrition at Ohio State University. An extreme deficiency can even cause blindness. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of blindness in the Third World. But if you're not deficient in vitamin A, your vision won't improve no matter how many carrots or other beta-carotene-rich fruits and vegetables you eat.
TOMATOES, like most red vegetables, are good for the blood. When you slice a TOMATO open, it has four chambers like the heart, the organ that pumps the blood. The lycopene in TOMATOES is an inhibitor to heart disease. There is also evidence that lycopene can reduce the risk of heart attacks ( New Scientist print edition, 23 December 2000).“Studies have found that because of the lycopene in tomatoes, there is a reduced risk for heart disease in men and women who eat them,” says Somer. And, she adds, if you mix them with a little fat, like olive oil or avocado, it will boost your body’s lycopene absorption nearly tenfold.
WALNUTS have convolutions or folds as well as two lobes that resemble the human brain. WALNUTS are excellent brain food because the contain high content of omega-3 fatty acids. These types of fats are necessary for many functions in the body, but are particularly critical for proper brain and nervous system performance. Brain cells exposed to adequate amounts of omega-3 are able to receive and transmit electrical signals to and from the nervous system better, thus the increase in brain function. Deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids has been linked to a myriad of cognitive problems in both children and adults including:-ADHD-Hyperactivity-Depression-Learning disabilities-Memory loss-Sleep disorders-Poor problem-solving skills. Evidence shows eating walnuts can be of great help to prevent and treat Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in the elderly. In addition to the omega-3's, walnuts are also rich in many antioxidants that help to prevent and repair brain damage due to free-radicals.
FIGS increase the motility of male sperm and increase the sperm count when men eat them. FIGS overcome male sterility. They have many seeds and hang in sets of two when they grow on trees -- just like testes.
CELERY comes in the shape of bones. CELERY is rich in silicon that is needed for healthy joints, bones, arteries, hair and nails. Celery also contains vitamin K, needed for good bone health. Bones are 23 percent sodium, and so is CELERY. BOK CHOY and RHUBARB also are similar in shape and nutrients to CELERY. If you don't have enough sodium in your diet, the body pulls it from the bones, thereby making them weak. These foods replenish the skeletal needs of the body.
AVOCADOS look like the womb and cervix of a female if you slice them open. Eating AVOCADOS provides nutrients for both the womb and cervix.The lightbulb shape of an avocado looks like a uterus, and it supports reproductive health as well. “Avocados are a good source of folic acid,” says Elizabeth Somer, registered dietician and author of Eat Your Way to Happiness. “Folate has been found to reduce the risk for cervical dysplasia, which is a precancerous condition.” One AVOCADO a week balances hormones, sheds unwanted birth weight and prevents cervical cancer. It takes exactly nine months to grow an AVOCADO from blossom to ripened fruit. PEARS and EGGPLANT are similar in shape.
GRAPEFRUIT -- The similarity between round citrus fruits––like lemons and grapefruit––and breasts may be more than coincidental. “Grapefruit contains substances called limonoids, which have been shown to inhibit the development of cancer in lab animals and in human breast cells,” says Dr. Moulavi.
GRAPES individually look like individual blood cells. RED WINE, which is rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, including powerful resveratrol, looks like blood. “When you drink it, you’re really loading up on the healthy stuff that protects against destructive things in the blood, like LDL cholesterol, which can cause heart disease,” says Somer. “There’s also a blood-thinning compound in red wine, so it reduces blood clots, which are associated with stroke and heart disease.”
GINGER Anyone who’s ever reached for a glass of ginger ale when they’ve had a stomachache knows about the antinausea effects of ginger. So it’s fitting that the herb somewhat resembles the digestive organ. According to Dr. Moulavi, “gingerol, which is the ingredient responsible for ginger’s pungent scent and taste, is listed in the USDA database of phytochemicals as having the ability to prevent nausea and vomiting.”
KIDNEY BEANS actually heal and help maintain kidney function and yes, they look exactly like the human kidneys.
ONIONS structurally imitate the eyes. Both produce tears which wash the epithelial layers of the eye.
SWEET POTATOES balance the glycemic index of diabetics and happen to look like the pancreas.
Now we come to Genesis 9:3-4 which states, "Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat (food) for you; even as the GREEN HERB have I given you all things. But flesh with the life thereof, which is the BLOOD thereof, ye shall not eat."
Notice again the emphasis on GREEN photosynthesizing herbs! It should be added here that many POISONOUS PLANTS are both GREEN and SEED-BEARING (Deadly Nightshade, Foxglove, Jimson Weed, Hemlock etc.) so the rule isn't all-inclusive, just exclusive. However, a good book on edible plants and wilderness survival should identify the specific plants which must be avoided. The Bible merely reveals knowledge that a person would not normally discover on his own. The rest is up to the individual. So when the Bible generalizes by saying "EVERY herb bearing seed," "EVERY tree" (1:29), "EVERY green herb" (1:30), "EVERY moving thing" and "ALL things" (9:3), it is of course speaking in a particular context using a figure of speech known as "synecdoche" (all for part or part for all).
Since Genesis 9:4 mentions BLOOD as being off limits, it would be appropriate, before we go on, to briefly examine the subject of why BLOOD is forbidden.
Why Is Blood Forbidden?
The prohibition on BLOOD is also found in Leviticus 3:17 where it is called a "perpetual (Heb. "olam") statute." (See also Lev. 17:10-13 & 1 Sam. 14:32-33) Leviticus 7:26-27 explains that this is a prohibition on "any manner of BLOOD" of "fowl" or "beast." The implication is that BLOOD of fish and grasshoppers is not prohibited.
But why avoid BLOOD at all? Deuteronomy 12:25 answers, "Thou shalt not eat it, that IT MAY GO WELL WITH THEE, AND WITH THY CHILDREN AFTER THEE, when thou shalt do that which is right in the sight of the Eternal." In order to better understand why eating BLOOD causes things to not go well, realize that one of the functions of BLOOD is to transport BODILY WASTES and POISONS to excretory ducts in the body. Another well known medical fact is that INFECTIOUS DISEASES can be TRANSMITTED to man by means of ingesting blood of diseased animals (e.g. tuberculosis)! In other words, BLOOD contains a concentrated amount of disease, wastes and poisons! The main reason for avoiding an animal which dies "of itself" (Lev.17:15) is because the BLOOD wasn't DRAINED OUT of the animal (v.13). Of course, another reason is that it may have died from a disease. Animals "torn with beasts" (v.15) should also be avoided because the throat wasn't cut to allow the BLOOD to DRAIN. In the U.K. a practice is to stun animals with electric shock before slaughter (p.92, The Bible: Medicine & Myth by Davies). This procedure also prevents the BLOOD from DRAINING. Stunning with anesthesia is not acceptable either. Ezekiel condemned those who "eat with the BLOOD" (Ez.33:25).
John S. Fox, in his book Today, Tomorrow and the Great Beyond, pages 353 to 354, says:
The harmful presence of blood in killed meat has of recent years been realized fully by modern scientists. It has been found that in meat insufficiently bled, PUTREFACTION SETS IN RAPIDLY, even though frozen; whereas meat which has been adequately bled will keep for long periods.... Science also shows that blood congeals in the flesh to such an extent after death that no amount of boiling can properly remove it.
A person should avoid "BLOOD PUDDING" (also called "BLOOD SAUSAGE") which is made from swine's blood and suet and sold in Germany and other nations. BLOOD SPOTS IN EGGS which have been fertilized should be removed before the eggs are eaten. Also a person should be careful to salt or roast even DRAINED meats to ensure that the BLOOD is extracted. There is even a spiritual danger in DRINKING BLOOD since credible sources couple this rite to the reception of demonic forces. The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, volume 2, page 716, mentions that "when the fresh blood of the victim is drunk ... The result is frequently seen in usual phenomena of POSSESSION."
This LAW forbidding BLOOD existed at least as early as the time of Noah (Gen.9:4), long before the Old Covenant was ratified. Blood hasn't changed its chemical composition or function at any time, so why should anyone think this prohibition was repealed in the New Testament era?
Why Is Fat Forbidden?
We already mentioned Leviticus 3:17 in regard to BLOOD, but the full verse states, "It shall be a PERPETUAL STATUTE (Heb."olam chuqqah") for your generations throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither FAT nor BLOOD." Therefore we know that Abraham also avoided FAT and BLOOD since "Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, MY STATUTES (Heb. "chuqqah"), and my laws" (Gen.26:5). Even before Abraham, Genesis 4:4 states, "And Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock AND OF THE FAT THEREOF. And the Eternal had respect unto Abel and to his offering." Now if Abel used FAT as an offering in Genesis, the same as we find in Leviticus 3:16 where "ALL the FAT is the Eternal's" and was to be burned upon the altar, then Abel would have had NONE left to eat. He would have BURNED IT ALL! So Abel must have avoided FAT too! God is consistent (Mal.3:6; Heb.13:8) and certainly FAT HASN'T CHANGED its chemical composition from one "dispensation" to another. These dietary statutes existed from the beginning and did not originate later with Moses or the Old Covenant!
Leviticus 7:23-24 says, "Ye shall eat no manner of FAT, of ox, or of sheep, or of goat. And the FAT of the beast that dieth of itself, and the FAT of that which is torn with beasts, may be used in any other use (Ivory soap is made from "beef and/or pork fat"); but ye shall in no wise eat of it." Leviticus 3:8-9 clearly shows that internal FATS of animals are included in this prohibition also.
Quoting from Prevention magazine, February 1980, page 134, we read, "In the case of heart disease, blame does not fall equally on all fats. Chemically, the fats in food come in several varieties. SATURATED FATS ... are most commonly found in meats. POLYUNSATURATED FATS ... are found more abundantly in vegetables, and in fish and fowl. A large body of research indicates that SATURATED FATS are the ones to watch, in keeping guard against heart disease. Where the diet is rich in these ANIMAL FATS, heart disease is generally a problem."
Isn't it proof of inspiration when the Bible says nothing forbidding FAT of fish or fowl, yet specifically enumerates the ox, sheep and goat FAT as forbidden? This is the SCIENTIFIC DIVISION between SATURATED and POLYUNSATURATED FATS! Incidentally, Nehemiah's command to "eat the FAT" (Neh.8:10) refers to the "fatted calf" (using "FAT" as an adjective) rather than the white, greasy trim on meat (using "FAT" as a noun). There is no contradiction!
Eating animal FAT (SATURATED FAT) causes a buildup of cholesterol in human arteries and veins. This in turn causes atherosclerosis. But vegetable oils (POLYUNSATURATED FATS) significantly reduce cholesterol (Prevention, Nov. 1982, p.79). But make no mistake! These vegetable oils are UNHYDROGENATED or only LIGHTLY HYDROGENATED! HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OILS are just as bad as SATURATED ANIMAL FATS (Hydrogenation, America's Deadliest Killer, by John H. Tobe, 1962)! Excess "ANIMAL FAT" has also been linked to Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancers (pp.224 & 228 of Diseases, Copyright 1983, 1981 by Springhouse Corp.). Animal poisons are stored and concentrated in the FAT!
Consumers should take warning and avoid LARD, SHORTENING, SUET, GREASE, HYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OILS, MARGARINE/OLEOMARGARINE, GLYCERIN/GLYCEROL, LECITHIN/4-MONO AMINO PHOSPHATIDE, MONOSODIUM PHOSPHATE, OLEIC ACID, POLY GLYCEROL ESTERS, ADIPOSE ACID and even EMULSIFIERS or MONO, DI and TRIGLYCERIDES which can be made from either vegetable or animals fats! Furthermore, GROUND BEEF and HAMBURGERS should be avoided not only because of their fat content, but because of possible PORK contamination due to an unsterilized meat grinder! MEXICAN and LATEINO foods like the BURRITO are notorious for their high FAT content! This is why people get stomach aches after eating them.
EGG YOLKS (Luke 11:12), WHOLE MILK (Deut.32:14; Pr.27:27), BUTTER (Deut.32:14; Pr.30:33), CHEESE (1 Sam.17:18; 2 Sam.17:29), NUTS (Gen.43:11), and AVOCADO are categorized as SATURATED FAT but the Bible allows all these foods. Why? Are there two different kinds of saturated fat? Yes, the Bible is trustworthy. These saturated fats are all WATER-SOLUABLE whereas the ANIMAL FATS are NOT!
A question is often asked, along these lines, whether internal organs such as LIVER and KIDNEYS are permitted as food. The Bible is silent on this issue, but since "the kidneys" and the "caul above the liver" (the lobe or flap of the liver according to Strong's Lexicon, number 3508) of clean animals were treated the same way as the FAT (Ex.29:13 & Lev. 3:15-16; 4:9; 8:16), it stands to reason that they are prohibited food items. Just because an organ comes from a clean animal doesn't mean the organ itself is clean. After all, BLOOD and FAT from any source are unclean. Some substances are inherently poisonous. Interestingly, both the LIVER and the KIDNEYS filter BLOOD! The KIDNEYS remove metabolic wastes from the BLOOD and make URINE! The LIVER manufactures BLOOD and stores FAT! These organs function as "scavengers." On page 21 of Edible and Hazardous Marine Life, we read, "for a variety of reasons, the LIVER, GONADS, BRAIN and associated VISCERAL ORGANS may be poisonous in otherwise edible species. Therefore, clean unfamiliar fish carefully to prevent any possible contamination of the edible fish with visceral toxins." From the book Dangerous Marine Animals by Bruce W. Halstead M.D., copyright 1980, we read on page 170 that "The viscera -- LIVER and INTESTINES -- of tropical marine fishes should never be eaten." Although COD LIVER OIL is considered a health food by many, it is possible to overdose on vitamin A (retinol) and get mercury poisoning from consuming it.
Clean And Unclean Meat Prior To The Old Covenant!
In addition to the laws concerning PLANTS, BLOOD, and FAT, the Bible also talks about "clean" and "unclean" meats. Laws pertaining to animals, fish, birds and creeping things that are permitted or prohibited as food. These laws were in existence from the very beginning of Genesis because such creatures didn't change their habits, nor was the composition of their flesh altered, when Christ died on the stake. It is, of course, true that eventually the lion will eat grass like the ox (Isa.11:7; 65:25) when the natures of animals are changed IN THE MILLENIUM. It may also be true that originally in the Garden of Eden the animals were not fearful of man (Gen.9:2), but NEITHER of these two conditions exist today and NEITHER condition makes unclean meat into clean meat.
Notice that "ABEL was a keeper of SHEEP" (Gen.4:2). Abel raised SHEEP for FOOD, just as his brother tilled the ground for food. Abel didn't keep a herd of SWINE because he knew only clean animals were to be eaten! Again notice that Abel "brought of the firstlings of HIS FLOCK" (v.4) an offering for the Eternal. Since it was from his FLOCK, it had to be an offering of SHEEP. He didn't offer a DOG or a HORSE on the altar because he knew that only clean animals could be offered as sacrifices (Lev.1 to 5; Isa.66:3).
NOAH also knew the difference between clean and unclean animals since God told him in Genesis 7:2, "Of every CLEAN beast thou shalt take to thee BY SEVENS, the male and his female; and of beasts that
are NOT CLEAN by two, the male and his female." Obviously Noah needed more of the CLEAN animals since these were used for food (Lev.11 & Deut.14) and "burnt offerings." Noah didn't sacrifice any UNCLEAN animals. Instead, he "took of every CLEAN beast, and of every CLEAN fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar" (Gen.8:20).
Furthermore, ABRAHAM knew about and obeyed the laws of clean and unclean meats since he too correctly offered "an HEIFER ... a SHE-GOAT ... a RAM ... a TURTLEDOVE ... a young PIGEON" (Gen.15:9) and "a LAMB" (Gen.22:8,13), all of which are clean animals! Also in Genesis 26:5 we read that Abraham "obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my LAWS (Heb. "torah"). In Leviticus 11:46, in regard to the dietary laws, the Eternal says, "This is the LAW (Heb. "torah") of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth; To make a difference between the UNCLEANand the CLEAN, and between the beast that MAY BE EATEN and the beast that MAY NOT BE EATEN." (See also Ez. 22:26) Notice that BOTH WORDS are IDENTICAL, so Abraham must have obeyed the laws of clean and unclean meats. If we are Abraham's children, as all Christians are (Gal.3:7,29), we will DO THE WORKS of Abraham (John 8:39).
We know that MOSES obeyed these laws since, of course, he was the human author of both Leviticus and Deuteronomy and gave these laws to Israel. Also, Moses "received the lively oracles (ten command
ments; statutes; judgments) to give unto us" (N.T. Christians) (Acts 7:37-38) so they aren't abolished. As Christ said, "Do not think that I will accuse you to the father: there is one that accuses you (of sin), even Moses, in whom ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?" (John 5:45-47). If we don't believe theTorah, we won't believe Jesus.
Also DANIEL "purposed in his heart that he would not DEFILE himself with the portion of the king's meat (food), nor with the wine which he drank; therefore, he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not DEFILE himself" (Dan.1:8).
EZEKIEL also said, "Ah, Lord God! Behold, my soul hath not been POLLUTED; for from my youth up even till now have I not eaten of that which dieth of itself, or is torn in pieces, neither came there ABOMINABLE (Heb. "PIGGUL") flesh into my mouth" (Ez.4:14).
The examples of obedience by ABEL, NOAH, ABRAHAM, MOSES, DANIEL and EZEKIEL to these laws of clean and unclean meats were "written for our learning" (Rom.15:4) and "these things (righteous acts) were our examples" (1 Cor.10:6,11). "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for DOCTRINE, for REPROOF, for CORRECTION, for INSTRUCTION in RIGHTEOUSNESS" (2 Tim.3:16) and the only "scripture" known to Timothy at that time was the "Old Testament."
Now since God doesn't change (Mal.3:6) and Jesus Christ is "the same yesterday, and today, and forever" (Heb.13:8) it is safe to say that these FOOD LAWS have always existed and continue to exist today. The laws of clean and unclean meats existed before the Old Covenant was ever instituted and so what the Old Covenant didn't bring in, it can't take away when it is abolished! The DIETARY LAWS are physical laws regulating health. It isn't a spiritual sin to accidentally break them (Mark 7:14-23), but the transgressor will suffer disease, sickness, and an early first, physical death. It becomes a spiritual sin when a man intentionally and wilfully eats unclean food and the penalty for violating spiritual laws (where intent and motive are involved) is the second, spiritual death (Rev.20:14).
The DIETARY LAWS are part of the eternal laws composing the Old Covenant (Deut.14). God promises to keep this covenant (the Book of Deuteronomy) with his people for 1000 generations (Ps.105:8; 1 Chr.16:15; Deut.7:9) and the Bible defines a "generation" as a "hundred" years (Gen.15:13-16). Therefore, from Moses to our day is only 34 generations. Both the covenant and the law are still in full force!
These food laws are not ritualistic, sacrificial types or symbols that foreshadow a more permanent reality in Christ or the Holy Spirit! Instead, they are laws which DETAIL and MAGNIFY the TEN COMMANDMENTS! Christ didn't come to destroy these laws (Matt.5:17;19:17-19). Just as the Holy Days further define the Sabbath Commandment (fourth), and Tithing further defines what stealing is (eighth commandment), so the Food Laws explain one way a person can commit murder against himself (sixth commandment). If a person DELIBERATELY defiles his body with unclean food, it is a SPIRITUAL SIN and God will destroy him (1 Cor.3:17).
Yet some misguided "Christians" are genuinely deceived and insist that because the laws of clean and unclean meats aren't specifically found in the Old Covenant or "book of the covenant" (Ex.19:5 to 24:8), they are not part of the eternal code of laws but are merely ritualistic laws added later.
Food Laws In "The Book Of The Law"
We just saw how the FOOD LAWS existed long before the temple, its priesthood, washings, incense, burnt offerings, sacrifices and "ministration of death" were ever heard of. These laws were all "added because of transgressions" (Gal.3:19) to an already existing Old Covenant (Ex.19:5 to 24:8). They were either non-existent or not commanded prior to that time (cp. Jer.7:22) but were temporary concepts (Gal.5:2; Heb.7; 9:10). Those permanent laws found between Exodus 19:5 and 24:8 are only a PARTIAL LIST ! However, even in this partial list there is a brief mention of ONE FOOD LAW which says, "neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the dogs" (Ex.22:31). Tithing, Feast of Trumpets and Day Of Atonement are some other significant omissions from the "book of the covenant" besides clean and unclean meats.
Actually "the book of the covenant" (Ex.24:7) is synonymous with the "book of the law" (Deut.31:24,26). By comparing 2 Kings 22:8 and 23:2 a person can see the two phrases are used interchangeably. But the "book of the covenant" is only about five chapters long whereas the "book of the law" is 34 chapters in length (Deut. 1 to 34). So the account in Deuteronomy is much more thorough!
The point is that the book of Deuteronomy DOES CONTAIN the laws of clean and unclean meats in chapter fourteen. But since the book of Leviticus, chapter eleven, has a more thorough account of the DIETARY LAWS, we will spend the majority of our time there.
Why Are Only Cloven-Hooved, Ruminating Animals Edible?
Leviticus 11:1-3 states, "And the Eternal spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying ... These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the
beasts that are on the earth. Whatsoever PARTETH the HOOF, and is CLOVEN FOOTED, and CHEWETH the CUD among the beasts, that shall ye eat," "the OX, the SHEEP, and the GOAT, The HART, and the ROEBUCK, and the FALLOW DEER, and the WILD GOAT, and the PYGARG, and the WILD OX, and the CHAMOIS" (Deut.14:4-5). A complete list should also include ANTELOPE, BUFFALO, COWS, DEER, ELK, GAZELLES, GIRAFFE, IBEX, STAGS and YAKS.
"Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: the CAMEL, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. And the CONEY (ROCK BADGER or HYRAX) because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you. And the HARE, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you" (11:4-6). Actually, neither the HARE nor the HYRAX are ruminants in the strictest sense. But "RABBITS re-ingest part of their feces bycontorting themselves so that the mouth touches the anus. They feed only on the soft matter that has passed through the tract but once. This trait of rabbits ... is called coprophagy or PSEUDO-RUMINATION. It serves an important nutritional function by supplying the animal with intestinally synthesized B-vitamins, and protein, and stability of the normal intestinal microflora may depend on normal coprophagy" (p.989, Merck Veterinary Manual). Some other grazing mammals eat their droppings also and the material passes through the gut a second time. The HYRAX may be one of these. The crosswise movement of both the HARE'S and CONEY'S jaws gives the impression of cud-chewing in the strict sense. Another example in this category is the LLAMA.
"And the SWINE, though he divide the hoof, and be cloven-footed, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcass ("dead carcass" -- Deut.14:8) shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you" (vv.7-8). Other examples are the HIPPOPOTAMUS and WILD BOAR.
The last category includes non-ruminating and non-cloven-hooved animals such as BEARS, CATS, DOGS, ELEPHANTS, GOPHERS, HORSES, LIONS, MONKEYS, RACCOONS and SQUIRRELS.
But why only cloven-hooved animals that chew their cuds? Why should they be edible and the rest not?
First of all, animals with HOOVES have certain distinct advantages over animals which merely have nails or claws. Hooves provide the animal with sharp, defensive WEAPONS. But more importantly, HOOVES PROTECT FEET from abrasion and injury which are the gateways for many germs, parasites and diseases to enter the body (cp. p.74, Horse Owner's Preventive Maintenance Handbook by E. Pascoe 1986). Parasites such as the HOOKWORMS and STRONGY-LOIDES are even able to penetrate unbroken skin of feet of cats, dogs, foxes and even barefoot humans walking in worm-contaminated soil (World Book Encyc., vol.9, 1985). The flesh of hooved animals is freer from diseases and parasites because it is protected by a non-living, keratin sheathe that ENCASES the toe or foot -- the point of the animal's anatomy most likely to come in contact with parasites!
But why not just have ONE hoof as the HORSE does? Certainly that does just as well in protecting the foot as a cloven-hoof. Why did God say that the hoof must be CLOVEN? In CLOVEN-HOOVED animals, "there are really two hooves, each covering a separate toe. The weight of the body spreads the two toes apart. This spread gives the foot a FIRM HOLD ON THE GROUND. It helps goats, for example, keep a firm and steady footing when they climb steep, rocky slopes" (p.82, vol.6, The New Book of Knowledge, Copyright 1984). This feature is also helpful in swampy and muddy soil where the cloven hoof spreads for support, but becomes a small peg when the time comes to pull it out unlike HORSES. But more importantly, "By the division of the hoof ... the animal is able so to order its steps as NOT to THROW UP the MUD
upon itself, as the HORSE does whose hoof is not cloven" (The Pulpit Commentary, 2:176). Thus germs and parasites cannot come into contact with the upper body. Cloven-hooved animals can't run as fast as horses or their small feet would shatter.
Regarding the process of cud-chewing rumination, page 1486 of the Merck Veterinary Manual (6th ed., 1986) states:
Where RUMINANTS differ significantly from other mammals is in the MICROBIAL PREDIGESTION of much of their oral intake in the forestomachs, chiefly in the rumen and reticulum.... The FORESTOMACH may be regarded as a FERMENTATION VAT in which symbiotic bacteria and protozoa act in a favorable environment TO REDUCE PLANT PRODUCTS, some of which (cellulose) would otherwise be INDIGESTIBLE, to forms that the ruminant can then USE. Sugars and starches are fermented rapidly, celluloses less so, the end products being chiefly volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, energy, and water.... the RUMINANT can UTILIZE a LARGER portion of plant material than can most monogastrics.... as with starches and lipids, conversion of PROTEIN by the microbes results in nutrients digested by the host animal. Additionally, B vitamins and vitamin K are synthesized by the microbes.
This digestive process is aided by "chewing the cud." Other grazing mammals, like RABBITS, have similar bacteria in their guts too, but they aren't cloven-hooved!An interesting consequence of the ruminant-type digestive process is the fact that ruminants aren't PREDATORY or CARNIVOROUS! They get ALL the nutrition they need from plants! This plant-eating nature results in LESS DISEASE, FEWER PARASITES, and HEALTHIER MEAT by far! A COW can break down the cottonseed poison "GOSSYPOL" also! Predatory and carnivorous animals consume FAT and BLOOD and many MORE PARASITIC ORGANISMS since the food chain is more complex. They also consume DISEASED animals which make easy prey! Add to this the fact that MOST unclean animals are SCAVENGERS eating DEAD and DECAYED flesh (often of other UNCLEAN animals) and it's more than enough to turn anybody's stomach!
And there's more. The book Diseases, page 426, mentions the specific causes for TRICHINOSIS* infections: "Transmission is through ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat that contains T. spiralis cysts. Such cysts are found primarily in SWINE, less often in DOGS, CATS, BEARS, FOXES, WOLVES, and MARINE ANIMALS." Also in RATS! (Notice that ALL these animals are UNCLEAN!) The "marine animals" probably refer to WALRUSES which have been known to become infected. There is NO specific TREATMENT or CURE for TRICHINOSIS* and it can be fatal! Diagnosing the disease in man is extremely difficult since the symptoms are mistaken for at least FORTY other diseases! Thus its EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS are hidden! And "there is no 'safe' temperature at which pork can be cooked to ensure that parasitic organisms are killed" (p.125, Leviticus, Tyndale O.T. Comm., R.K. Harrison).
A farmer from Williams, Iowa, John Johnson, states that the swine in Iowa are principally fed on corn, but "will eat anything we give them. If anything dies, we throw it to the hogs. I have actually seen hogs chewing at the cancer of other hogs and these hogs are shipped to market. Many times cattle are infected from the incurable diseases of the hog called the 'mad itch.' It is transmitted by the hog's saliva left on the corn which the cattle eat. The itching in the cattle becomes so intense they will run from stump to stump until they rub their skin from their mouths and soon die. When the saliva from the hog's mouth will poison cattle in this way, how can hogs be fit for man to eat?" (p.48, God's Key To Health And Happiness, Elmer A. Josephson). "If swine are raised in a feed lot with other animals such as the horse, the cow, etc., they will eat and drink the very refuse of these animals. This is a common occurrence on farms where the animals are not separated. " (p.49, ibid.)
It is interesting that the nation of Turkey doesn't eat unclean meats and has a very low incidence of cancer compared with America. Israel's parliament prohibits the "raising, keeping, or slaughtering" of swine in most areas of the country. Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion stated at the Jubilee celebration of Israel's Medical Association that, "Israel has the lowest death rate in the world" (i.e. the highest life expectancy). As God said, "If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes, I will put none of these diseases upon thee, which I have brought upon the Egyptians: for I am the Lord that healeth thee" (Ex.15:26). (p.52, Josephson, ibid.).
Along these same lines, because COWS have three stomachs, "it takes their clean vegetable food over twenty-four hours to be turned into flesh ... the SWINE'S anatomy ... has but one poorly constructed stomach arrangement, and very limited excretory organs generally. Consequently, in about four hours after the pig has eaten his polluted swill ... man may eat the same second-handed off the ribs of the pig" (p.46, God's Key To Health And Happiness by Elmer A. Josephson).
The consumption of HOGS in the form of HAM, BACON, PORK, HEAD CHEESE, PICKLED PIG'S FEET, SOUSE, TRIPE, GELATIN, OLEO, SAUSAGE and HOT DOGS can be linked to CANCER, HEART ATTACK, CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER and INFLUENZA (swine fever in human form). GELATIN is often obtained by boiling unclean animal parts with water. Vitamin capsules may contain vegetable or pork gelatin. There are over 42 diseases and parasites that humans can get from eating swine including ERYSIPELOID INFECTION, TAENIASIS, TOXOPLASMOSIS, SPARGANOSIS*, PORK TAPEWORM CYSTICERCOSIS* and SALMONELLOSIS! (See U.S. Dept. Of Agriculture Yearbook.) Pork meat quickly spoils in hot climates also.
People say, "I can't RIDE a pig like a horse, or MILK it like a cow, or use it to PROTECT my property like a dog, so it must have been created for FOOD." But the truth is that pigs were intended as PORTABLE TRASH CANS, eating up rattlesnakes, carcasses, rats and other undesirable elements in man's environment. Turn them loose on a snake nest! Pigs keep disease germs from spreading over the earth and killing off mankind.
The consumption of contaminated RABBIT and SQUIRREL meat causes the TULAREMIA infection. Ingestion of SQUIRREL meat can transmit RAT BITE FEVER.* But a greater danger comes from merely contacting these animals, or more correctly, coming into contact with the vermin on their fur skin or the disease organisms in their secretions and excretions. SQUIRRELS and RABBITS are the primary carriers of the mosquito that spreads CALIFORNIA ENCEPHALITIS* to man. In addition, both SQUIRRELS and RABBITS have been found with fleas carrying BUBONIC PLAGUE* (BLACK DEATH*). Even touching the DEAD carcass of one of these animals means risking being bitten by such a flea and dying. A person can also become infected with LASSA FEVER,* LOUPING ILL, LYME DISEASE or MELIOIDOSIS by touching the carcass of a SQUIRREL!
With this information, a person can begin to understand why it isn't only their FLESH we shouldn't EAT, but also "their CARCASS shall ye not TOUCH; they are unclean to you" (Lev.11:8; Deut.14:8). The Bible prohibits contact with DEAD animals -- not LIVE ones. Petting DOGS is not unbiblical in that sense! Also Jesus rode a young ASS into Jerusalem (John 12:14). But be aware that contact with unclean animals can cause all of the following diseases in man: ANTHRAX, BRUCELLOSIS, BUBONIC PLAGUE*, CAT-SCRATCH FEVER*, CHAGA'S DISEASE*, COLORADO TICK FEVER*, ERYSIPELOID, FOOT-AND-MOUTH, INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS*, INFLUENZA*, LASSA FEVER*, LISTERIOSIS, LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS*, MONKEYPOX*, RABIES*, RELAPSING FEVER, SALMONELLOSIS, SIMIAN HERPESVIRUS*, YELLOW FEVER*, etcetera. In Texas, it is not uncommon to hear stories of people who get LEPROSY from HANDLING ARMADILLOS (Cp. p.49, M.L. Davies). Also, "Sometimes parasitic worms can be acquired from nothing more sinister than CLOSE CONTACT with some animals, including PIGS. In this connection the latter are intermediate hosts of a small tapeworm, the Echinococcus Granulosus, which in a larval or cystic form results in small tumors in the brain, lungs and other organs" (p.126, R.K. Harrison). So whether or not the Bible specifically forbids TOUCHING unclean LIVING animals, it certainly can be UNHEALTHY. Each PRIMARY cause of UNCLEANNESS can also transmit SECONDARY UNCLEANNESS to another person by direct physical contact or by mutual contact of an intermediate object: "Whatever the UNCLEAN (person) touches shall be UNCLEAN; and the person who touches it shall be UNCLEAN" (Num. 19:22). Thus, petting dogs and playing with cats, and raising chickens, most likely makes a person unclean also.
But someone is sure to argue that TOUCHING and EATING biblically CLEAN animals can also transmit certain diseases to man. For instance, ANTHRAX can be contracted by touching GOATS and BEEF TAPEWORM CYSTICERCOSIS is caused by ingesting undercooked contaminated BEEF. But the difference between the diseases of unclean animals and the diseases of clean animals is SEVERITY and RARITY. Diseases of unclean animals are more harmful and more numerous. Furthermore, the diseases of clean animals are often also the diseases of unclean animals (as is the case with ANTHRAX) but diseases of unclean animals are often EXCLUSIVELY unclean animal diseases (indicated by asterisks*).
Incidentally, it is perfectly acceptable to clean the hides, pelts and fur of UNCLEAN animals and then to make clothing out of it. But PROTECT your hands with GLOVES! Remember that John the Baptist wore a garment of CAMEL'S hair (Matt.4:3). Another distinction between clean and unclean beasts is that the milk of unclean animals cannot be made into cheese but clean milk COAGULATES and DOES turn into cheese. The significance of this distinction is more marked when a person realizes that coagulated milk is more susceptible to digestion. In ruminants, the enzyme rennin aids in this coagulation, which is why the fourth stomach of any ruminant is called a "rennet stomach." Calves and other young ruminants digest milk with help from this rennet found in the inner lining of that fourth stomach. But unclean milk was never intended to be digested by humans. That's why it WON'T COAGULATE! (See pp.19-20, The Royal Table by Jacob Cohn, Feldheim Publishers, Copyright 1970).
Many cheese manufacturers are beginning to use a third type of enzyme (besides "Rennet" from CALVES and "Pepsin" from HOGS) derived from the growth of pure cultures of certain MOLDS, termed "microbial rennets." Microbial enzymes are derived and manufactured from microbiological plant cells, FUNGI, bacteria, and MOLD cultures.
"Do His will as if it were your own, so that He will do your will as if it were his. Nullify your own will before His so that he will nullify the will of others before you" (Pirke Avot 2:4).
Are Vaccines And Drugs Unclean?
"And Ahaziah ... was sick.... and said ... Go, inquire of Baalzebub ( "Lord of Flies"), the god of Ekron, whether I shall recover from this disease." (1 Ki. 1:2-3). This was the god of filth and dung, the patron deity of medicine. Snakes are the symbol of the god of medicine even today. "RX" is today the sign for "prescription" but it came from Egypt and originally referred to the "Eye of Horus" (The Body by A.E. Nourse, p.10) or to the pagan symbol for Jupiter. "And Asa ... was diseased in his feet ... yet in his disease he sought not the Eternal, but the physicians" (2 Chr. 16:12). Today men seek physicians who use DRUGS, ANTIBIOTICS and VACCINES. Are these substances unclean? The word translated "sorceries" in Revelation 9:21, 18:23, 21:8, and 22:15 is the Greek word pharmakeia or pharmakos. This is how we got our English word pharmacist, or druggist. Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon defines pharmakeia as "the use or the administering of drugs; poisoning; sorcery, magical arts." Galatians 5:20 translates it "witchcraft." (See Macbeth 4:1) Doctors have no qualms about using RATTLESNAKE VENOM for snakebite; injecting children with the MEASLES VIRUS to prevent that disease; prescribing bleomycin, an anticancer drug which is isolated from the MICROORGANISM Streptomyces verticillus; or penicillin which comes from MOLDS" (Better Nutrition, Jan. 1993, p.6). Insulin, which is used by millions of diabetics, comes from the pancreas of cattle and HOGS. Valium and morphine are ADDICTIVE, HALLUCINOGENIC and have serious SIDE EFFECTS. They suppress the immune system. However, aspirin comes from willow bark; digitalis, used to stimulate the heart, from the leaves of purple foxglove; and quinine from cinchona bark. The pain reliever morphine is taken from opium, from the juice of the opium poppy. About one-third of medical drugs are derived from plants. The Bible recommends "the LEAF thereof for MEDICINE" (Ez.47:12; Rev.22:2). Aureomycin is an antibiotic drug made from a FUNGUS which grows in graveyards (pp.62-63, Origin Of Medical Practice, McMichael). "Super bugs" resist current antibiotics, most of which come from the soil. Now scientists are looking at FROGS, TOADS, HAGFISH, SLUGS, ALGAE, SHARKS, and SEA WATER in an effort to replace them (CDA Press, 9-19-95, p.A9). "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God? ... If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy" (1 Cor.3:16). Hypodermic needles puncture the skin and we are not to "make any cuttings" in our flesh (Lev.19:28). Salk polio vaccine is made from the kidneys of rhesus MONKEYS. Rabies vaccine is made from the rabid brains of DOGS or RABBITS. DPT (diphtheria pertussis tetanus) vaccine is made from rotten HORSE'S BLOOD that has been injected with DIPHTHERIA, to which is added a poisonous MERCURY derivative Thimersol. Typhoid serum is made from decomposed FECAL MATTER from Typhoid patients (cp. Ez.4:12-14); Smallpox vaccine is made from GLYCERINE, PUS, LYMPH and BLOOD from a calf. Putrified duck eggs are used to manufacture measles, mumps and flu vaccines. GLYCERINE, PUS from a DEAD or DYING animal, CHLOROFORM, and FORMALDEHYDE are other ingredients (Immunizations: The Reality Behind the Myth, pp.10,72). But "Ye shall not eat of anything that dieth of itself" (Deut.14:21) and "flesh with the life (blood) thereof ... shall ye not eat" (Gen.9:4). Dr. E.J. Post said, "I have removed cancers from vaccinated arms exactly where the poison was injected." Such well-known diseases as cancer, leukemia, paralysis, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and SIDS are linked to immunizations (Physicians Desk Reference, 1980, p.1866).
Unclean Meat Digests In Only Three Hours!
The Biochemist, Dr. Carey Reams, discovered a urine/saliva test that analyzes the entire body chemistry. With this analysis, he was able to determine how far from normal a person's body chemistry had strayed. Then he was able to prepare an individualized diet designed to lead that person to better health."Dr. Reams first discovered that the CALORIES in beef, pork, fish or anything else per gram of lean meat are ALMOST THE SAME. There is very little difference here. Dr. Reams came upon this fact quite unexpectedly. He had a client who was told that he had less than a year to live. As an agricultural engineer, Dr. Reams serviced his orange grove and cattle farms. This client told Dr. Reams: You've got to help me. Medicine has failed. Dr. Reams gave him a gram scale and told him: I don't care what you eat. I want you to mark down exactly what you eat on the gram scale and come in for a saliva and urine test every day at 2 o'clock. Through his tests, he came up with the unusual information that every day his client ATE the UNCLEAN MEATS ... DOWN WENT the ENERGY LEVEL! And every day that he DID NOT EAT UNCLEAN MEATS ... the ENERGY LEVEL began to CLIMB. Dr. Reams began eliminating certain foods from his diet ... one by one ... and to Dr. Reams' knowledge this man is still living today!
"What Dr. Reams discovered is that such UNCLEAN MEATS as hogs, shellfish (like shrimp), lobsters, clams, oysters and catfish ... these among others produce VERY HIGH ENERGY LEVELS. But the problem is that they EXPEND these high energy levels very QUICKLY! Dr. Reams emphasizes: You've got a time limit on it. In other words, the UNCLEAN MEATS DIGEST in a period of THREE HOURS. The CLEAN MEATS require about 18 HOURS. What this means is that the energy in pork and other unclean meats is released in three hours instead of 18....It's like putting high test gasoline, such as aviation fuel, in a motor that's NOT BUILT FOR IT! With the way we live today such quick energy tends to BURN OUT OUR SYSTEM ... causing MANY PHYSICAL PROBLEMS. We may eat these high energy meats for years and appear seemingly healthy, but this continued ABUSE of our body one day surfaces into a serious or terminal disease! Dr. Reams ... states that even some people 30 and 35 years of age look like they are 70 or 75 because of indiscretionary eating habits.... We take these people OFF of the UNCLEAN MEATS, teach them what to eat and in 6 months they LOOK YOUNGER THAN THEIR YEARS. "(He) considers the following foods as unclean meats that should not be eaten: Hogs, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits, Muskrat, Snakes. The following fish should not be eaten: Catfish, Tuna fish, Lobsters, Oysters, Clams, Shrimp, Crabs and Scallops and shellfish of any kind. These unclean meats RELEASE ENERGY TOO QUICKLY for the body to make use of them. They digest so fast that you CANNOT USE THE PROTEINS, which turn into urea and dump into the bloodstream so fast that the kidneys CANNOT ELIMINATE THEM. A UREA BUILD-UP in the body ENSUES and excessive urea leads to MANY HEALTH PROBLEMS. Dr. Reams contends that the Old Testament food laws are still the wisest method of feeding our bodies for maximum health...." (pp.48-50, Health Guide For Survival by Salem Kirban; also see The Curse Causeless Shall Not Come, Nord Davis Jr.)
The "Germ Theory" Found In The Bible?
We are not to TOUCH "the UNCLEAN thing" (2 Cor.6:17). Rules regarding cleanliness and WASHING WITH WATER after contact with disease and possible sources of disease are found in many places (Lev.14:9; 15:7,13-19; 17:16; 22:6; Num.19:7-8; Jer.2:22). Dishwashers, clotheswashers, sinks, bathtubs and shower stalls are biblical. We are to use HYSSOP or SOAP (Lev.13:4) as well as BALM (Jer.51:8) and WINE (Luke 10:34) as ANTISEPTIC. The "FULLER'S SOAP" (Mal.3:2) was probably LYE (a caustic solution made by dissolving wood ash in water). Burning INCENSE produces phenol commonly called CARBOLIC ACID. In the operating room it acts as an ANTISEPTIC. Is this why INCENSE accompanied temple sacrifices (Ex.30:1)? Even laws concerning QUARANTINE (Lev.13:46) and USING A HANDKERCHIEF or FACE MASK over mouth and nose as doctors and dentists do (Lev.13:45) are present! It is a common practice in hospitals today to SHAVE OFF body and facial HAIR for more thorough cleaning just as the Bible says (Lev.13:33,45-46; 14:8-9). Doctors wash after AUTOPSIES (Num.19:16-18). Before germs were ever discovered, we find in Leviticus 11:34-35 and 38 that water was considered a channel or vehicle for germs. SPIT was regarded as an infective discharge (Lev.15:8). Sanitary paper TOILET SEAT COVERS are in obedience to Leviticus 15:4-6 as well as toilet paper and paper towels. Herpes and Gonorrhea both can be contracted from clothing, towels, and toilet seats (Time magazine, Aug.2 1982, p.66). UNGLAZED pottery, wood, cloth and hides retain germs (Lev.11:32). UNGLAZED pottery must be broken (v.33) if a diseased man touches it. This means that CHIPPED CHINA and CRACKED CERAMIC DINNERWARE should be discared! Germs can be DILUTED to the point they are not harmful (Lev.11:36). Cloths, fur, and wood can be purified of germs by water (Num.31:20-24). All metals can be STERILIZED of germs by fire (Num.31:22-24). It wasn't practical to BOIL water since fuel was scarce and metal containers were required. The reason objects were "unclean until the evening" even after being washed in water is that this is enough time for the infectious organisms to dissipate with the drying process and exposure to sunlight (p.131, R.K. Harrison). The sun's ultraviolet light kills bacteria and germs. Since they had NO REFRIGERATION, meat began to SPOIL after TWO DAYS so was commanded to be burned (Lev.7:15-17; 19:7; Num.9:12; Ex.12:10; 29:34). Dunghills were forbidden and no dead body was to remain unburied overnight. Excreta was to be buried (Deut.23:12-14). Their BURIAL of SEWAGE not only fertilized the crops, but also prevented it from seeping into water supplies or spreading to the food via flies.Typhoid fever and dysentery spread this way. Our modern sewer system mixes the sewage with water, pumps it for miles to a sewage treatment plant, and then finally pumps the water back out, purifies it, and leaves the dry fertilizer which is then sold back to the public! What a costly, inefficient method compared to the Bible! By using COMPOSTING TOILETS we can fertilize our own land free of charge and have no sewer bill. Modern science recognizes "RUNNING WATER" (Num.19:17; Lev.15:13) as better than STAGNANT pools of water because the sun's ultraviolet light can penetrate tiny water droplets killing bacteria and germs. WATERFALLS and FOUNTAINS (Lev.11:29-36) not only allow this penetration, but also AERATE the water allowing oxygen to attack any microorganisms present. Neither the sun nor the air can penetrate deeply into a STAGNANT pool. Air destroys the anaerobic Tetanus bacteria. Typhoid fever, cholera and bilharzia may be carried by infected water. BUBONIC PLAGUE is associated with MICE (1 Sam.6:4). Thomas A. Edison once said, "The doctor of the future will give no medicine but will interest his patient in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease."
Why Are Only Fish With Fins And Scales Edible?
Continuing in Leviticus 11:9, we read, "These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath FINS and SCALES in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat." Examples of this type of fish are ANCHOVY, ALBACORE, BASS, BLUEFISH, BONITOS, CARP, COD, CRAPPIE, FLOUNDER, GROUPERS, GRUNTS, HADDOCK, HAKE, HALIBUT, HERRING, KINGFISH, MACKEREL, MINNOW, PICKEREL, PIKE, PERCH, POLLACK, REDFISH, ROCKFISH, SALMON, SARDINE, SHAD, SMELT, SNAPPER, SOLE, TROUT, TUNA, WHITE FISH, WHITING, etcetera.
Now verses 10 and 11: "And all that have not FINS and SCALES in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the water, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination... ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcasses in abomination." Examples are ABALONE, CATFISH, CLAM, CRAB, CRAYFISH, CUTTLE FISH, DOLPHIN, EEL, JELLYFISH, LIMPET, LOBSTER, MARLIN, MUS-SEL, OCTOPUS, OTTER, OYSTER, PADDLEFISH, SCALLOP, SCULPINS, SEAL, SHARK, SHRIMP, STARFISH, STICKLEBACKS, STURGEON, SQUID, WALRUS, WHALE, etcetera.
Since true scales overlap, the SHARK and RAY are unclean since their "scales" are better described as rough, spiked skin. CAVIAR is unclean because it comes from STURGEON which lack true scales. LUNGFISH, although possessing both fins and scales, are unclean because they are considered "creeping things" rather than fish. Some "FISH OILS" are used in store-bought goods and a person should avoid the product unless the label specifies that a clean fish produced these oils. WHALE and SHARK OILS are not uncommon in commercial foods. The SWORDFISH is pronounced both clean and unclean depending upon whom you ask since the scales fall off as the fish is being caught. TUNA is also debatable.
"Scales provide BODY ARMOR for nearly all fishes" (7:79, 1985, Merit Students Encyc.). SCALES provide the fish with a coat of ARMOUR PLATING that protects them from abrasion, predators and parasites. Parasites and wounds predispose a fish to harmful bacterial diseases. Cycloidal and ctenoidal scales, because they overlap, cover the skin completely. But the spines and plates of GARS, SHARKS and STURGEON leave EXPOSED skin between one plate or spine and the next. Thus, parasites and bacteria can gain entry! Worm parasites of the skin have large and small HOOKS with which to hold on and many parasitic WORMS and LEECHES, which are blood-sucking and carnivorous, live in the ocean! Parasites can bore through the skin! Other unclean fish like the RAYS, SKATES, CATFISH and EELS have virtually no protective armour. Their entire body is EXPOSED to the bacteria-laden, worm-infested, environment!
A secondary purpose of SCALES might be to BRILLIANTLY REFLECT LIGHT. Since clean fish, virtually without exception, live near the surface in sunlit waters, their thin, translucent scales act like small, silver mirrors. This phenomenon is significant because certain unde-sirable organisms, including LEECHES and SCUDS, which host several parasites, SHUN LIGHT (Pond Life, pp.83,91)! But the bodies of unclean fish are not mirror-like. For a chart of where ocean fish live, see the World Book Encyclopedia, 1986, 7:145.
FINS, of course, allow the fish to steer, brake, balance and steady itself. But most importantly, the tail fin especially, provides the SPEED a fish needs to propel itself quickly through the water, thereby creating the necessary water-friction to blast HOOKING WORMS, and other parasites, loose from its body. "Infected fish show hyperactivity and erratic swimming, often flashing above the water surface or rubbing the sides of their bodies against an object in the aquarium to dislodge the worms" (p.926, Merck Veterinary Manual). The FINS also provide maneuvering ability to avoid and escape from these parasites in the first place. ''But WATER SNAKES and TURTLES , both of which have SCALES, and some EEL-like creatures, all of which LACK FINS, fail to provide this kind of friction or maneuvering ability.
The scientific world recognizes certain significant differences between clean and unclean fish. But instead of using the word "UNCLEAN," they say "CHONDRICHTHYES" (meaning CARTILAGINOUS fish) which includes RAYS, SHARKS, RAT-FISH, SKATES and other unclean varieties. (Also the word "Agnatha" is used for jawless LAMPREYS and HAGFISH.) In place of the word "CLEAN," they use the word "OSTEICHTHYES," (meaning BONY fish) which includes ALL the clean varieties of fish, and even some that are not clean.
One of the differences between these two classes, as we have already seen, are the TOOTH-LIKE SPINES of Chondrichthyes versus OVERLAPPING SCALES of Osteichthyes. Other differences are the LACK of a SWIM BLADDER in Chondrichthyes versus the PRESENCE of a SWIM BLADDER (almost always -- flounder and sole don't have swim bladders) in Osteichthyes. Another significant advantage of Osteichthyes is their possession of TRUE GILL COVERS, or OPERCULA, over the gill chamber! In Chondrichthyes, the GILL SLITS open DIRECTLY to the OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT. The significance of having GILL COVERS is that they provide added protection from WORM, PROTOZOAN, SPOROZOAN and COPEPOD PARASITES which all cause various gill diseases. BACTERIA, FUNGI, and VIRUSES can also infect the gills. Back flow of water is prevented by the GILL COVERS too. Other important differences between Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes are found in the DIGESTIVE TRACT! First of all, LAMPREYS and RATFISH have NO STOMACH, and unlike all other fish, LAMPREYS and HAGFISH lack JAWS! With only two exceptions (LUNGFISHES and RATFISHES), the upper jaw of Osteichthyes is MOVABLE which allows more efficient gathering of food. But in Chondrichthyes, the upper jaw is FUSED with the skull. Generally speaking, PERCH, BASS, and other Osteichthyes, have PYLORIC CAECA (fingerlike sacs increasing surface area for absorbtion) and LENGTHENED, FOLDED SMALL INTESTINE (more absorptive sur-face) whereas the Chondrichthyes have only a SPIRAL VALVE! No doubt all of these distinctions play a part in keeping clean fish clean. (11:290, Encyc. Americana, 1980)
Another interesting characteristic of clean fish is that none of them are SCAVENGERS. In fact, many clean fish are plankton feeders (HERRING, PILCHARD, SARDINE, MENHADEN, ANCHOVIES, SHAD) or fish eaters (SALMON, TUNA, MACKEREL, WHITING, HAKE). Some are mollusk eaters (COD, HADDOCK) and REDFISH eat shrimp. FLOUNDERS and HALIBUT eat most types of food (Encyclopedia Britannica, volume 9, page 352, Copyright 1973). But SHELLFISH get their food from dead and decayed plants and animals and waste from sewers, garbage and pollution. They live AT THE BOTTOM of oceans and rivers where all the refuse is! They are SCAVENGERS -- "GARBAGE CANS"!
"The dried FINS of SHARKS (and of RAYS) form in India and China an important article of trade, the Chinese preparing GELATIN from them, and using the better sort for CULINARY purposes" (Encyc. Brit. 11th, 24:809).
Also, because CLAMS and OYSTERS are eaten whole, guts and all, the danger is always present that a person will consume raw clam or oyster waste (feces), if the mollusk hasn't just eliminated, containing such maladies as the HEPATITIS VIRUS* (causing inflammation of the liver) and HUMAN FECAL BACTERIA and PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING* (due to ingestion by clams of Dinoflagellates) which can be fatal! In fact, "the only safe oyster is one which has been protected from contamination with fecal pathogens for at least SOME MONTHS prior to harvesting" (p.822, Preventive Medicine and Hygiene by M. Rosenau). "TYPHOID FEVER and other intestinal infections (DIARRHEA, etcetera) have been convincingly traced to infected OYSTERS.
They may be infected when dredged from sewage-polluted beds in which they live and grow" (p.823, ibid.). MUSSELS and CLAMS also carry TYPHOID bacteria. PARALYTIC MUSSEL POISONING* (same as PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING* above) can lead to death by respiratory failure. "Cooking is not preventive, boiling does not destroy the poison" (p.826, ibid.). MOLLUSKS are known to be frequent causes of URTICARIA and other neurotic skin affections" (p.20, The Royal Table by Jacob Cohn). One variety of bacteria produces the VIBRIOSIS DISEASE* that is transmitted to man by ingesting uncooked or undercooked contaminated shellfish, particularly CRABS and SHRIMP. (See p.338 of Diseases & p.1604 of Merck Veterinary Manual) SNAILS and STARFISH that consume mussels and clams accumulate within their bodies the poison of dinoflagellates (PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING*).Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NEUROTOXIC SHELLFISH POISONING*and AMNESIC SHELLFISH POISONING* are two other diseases exclusive to shellfish.
Furthermore, the meat of LOBSTER, OYSTERS, CLAMS, CATFISH and SHRIMP digests in a period of three hours as opposed to 18 for clean fish (See Health Guide for Survival by Salem Kirban). SHELLFISH don't even keep like other meats, but are very perishable and spoil quickly without refrigeration.
It is very interesting to note that the POISONOUS varieties of sea life are mostly all UNCLEAN biblically! For instance, PIKED DOGFISH, WEAVER FISH and STONEFISH have sharp spines, often connected with venom-producing glands! Some CATFISH and STINGRAYS also have poisonous spines! The ELECTRIC CATFISH and EELS, STARGAZERS and TORPEDO RAY can produce electric charges to paralyze their prey! JELLYFISH have stinging tentacles and some WATER SNAKES have venom-injecting fangs (WATER MOCCASIN). One of the very few POISONOUS CLEAN fish is the SCORPIONFISH.
If a chef's knife accidentally slipped and CUT into the VENOM SAC, or gastrointestinal tract containing a newly POISONED VICTIM, the poison would leak out and TAINT or CONTAMINATE the meat causing FOOD POISONING. That is one of the reasons why most poisonous varieties of living creatures are UNCLEAN.
What Is The Rule For Birds?
Continuing in Leviticus 11, we come to the bird category next. But the Bible gives no rule for distinguishing between the clean and unclean as it did in the two previous categories. Deuteronomy 14 is also silent in this regard. Furthermore, no clean birds are listed! All that the Bible gives us in these chapters are the names of about 24 unclean birds! But other scriptures reveal that the PIGEON and DOVE are both clean since they were used for sacrificing (Lev.1:14-17; Luke 2:24), and the QUAIL is clean since God provided it for food in Numbers 11:31-32, and the SPARROW is clean since it sold for food and Christ recognized this use (Luke 12:6), so it's possible to determine a rule based on these four birds, comparing them with the ones listed as unclean.
The result is SIX CHARACTERISTICS that all clean birds have. FIRST, they AREN'T BIRDS of PREY. SECOND, they catch food thrown to them in the air, but bring it to the ground, where they divide it with their beaks before consuming it, if this is possible. But unclean birds devour it in the air or press it with one foot to the ground and tear it with their bills. THIRD, they must have an elongated middle front toe and a hind toe. FOURTH, they spread their toes so that the hind toe is on one side of their perch, and the three front toes are on the other. FIFTH, they MUST have CRAWS or CROPS. SIXTH, they MUST have a GIZZARD with a DOUBLE LINING which can easily be separated. (Jewish Encyclopedia, vol.6, p.111). One or more of these characteristics is lacking in all unclean birds!
The Mishnah (the collection of Jewish oral interpretations of scripture which were compiled about 200 A.D.) gives a more concise rule. It states that, "a bird that seizes food in its claws is unclean; one which has an extra talon, a CRAW, and the SKIN of whose STOMACH can be PEELED, is clean" (Hul. 3:6). The Mishnah mentions that any one of these characteristics makes the bird clean. In other words, a bird doesn't have to possess them all to be edible (Hul. 61b-62a).
It is extremely interesting that clean birds have, in essence, THREE STOMACHS including the CROP and the GIZZARD and another THIRD SECTION of stomach between the two, reminding a person of clean ruminating beasts which all have FOUR STOMACHS! These extra digestive organs in clean birds and beasts may prevent poisons from being assimilated into the meat since the bird gets all its nutritional needs from harmless plants. To take the parallel further, some of the leaf-eating birds have BACTERIA in their intestines which break down CELLULOSE (P.76, Bird Behavior by Robert Burton, copyright 1985). "The only essentially leaf-eating birds are the SWANS, GEESE, GROUSE, some of the DUCKS and the KAKAPO. PIGEONS, COOTS, GAMEBIRDS and the OSTRICH and its allies are mainly leaf-eaters, but they supplement this diet with fair quantities of other plant and animal food" (p.76, ibid.) (Note that the only unclean birds in this list are the KAKAPO and OSTRICH). Remember that the RUMINATING beasts all used BACTERIA in their digestion of plants too! One more point of comparison is found in PIGEONS and DOVES, which use their crop to store, or partly digest, food taken too quickly for the stomach to handle. During breeding season, the crop produces "milk" from seeds eaten which is REGURGITATED for the young. This is one form of RUMINATION!
The Encyclopedia Judaica also reveals certain characteristics which are unique to unclean birds. Unclean brids are BIRDS of PREY (carnivorous) or birds that feed on CARRION (dead and decaying flesh, including FAT and BLOOD) like VULTURES or nocturnal BIRDS of PREY which have two toes pointing forward and two backward like the OWL, or waterfowl like the SEAGULL, STORK, BITTERN, HERON, CRANE and GULL or birds with hooked beaks and hooked talons like the BUZZARD, EAGLE, FALCON, HAWK, KESTREL, KITE, etcetera.
But some waterfowl are clean, including DUCKS, GEESE, TEAL and, yes, the SWAN! All these birds comply with the six requirements for clean birds. The Hebrew word translated "SWAN" should be rendered "IBIS," or "STORK," or "WATER HEN." As was mentioned above, swans are vegetarian!
Generally speaking, we could say that clean birds are predominantly vegetarian. The birds that eat nuts and seeds are CARDINALS, CROSS-BILLS, CROWS, FINCHES, JAYS, NUTCRACKERS, NUTHATCHES, PARROTS, QUELEAS, SPARROWS, TITMOUSES and WEAVERS.
The birds that eat fruit and nectar are ARACARIS, BARBETS, BELLBIRDS, BLACKBIRDS, CACIQUES, CASSOWARIES, COTINGAS, CROUSE, FINCHES, FRUIT PIGEONS, GULLS, HONEYCREEPERS, HORNBILLS, HUMMINGBIRDS, MANAKINS, MOUSEBIRDS, OILBIRDS, ORIOLES, OROPENDOLAS, PARROTS, ROBINS, SHOREBIRDS, SILKY FLYCATCHERS, SUNBIRDS, THRUSHES, TITMICE, TOUCANS, TOURACOS, TROGONS, WARBLERS, and WAXWINGS.
The birds that eat leaves are SWANS, GEESE, GROUSE, some of the DUCKS and the KAKAPO.
Unclean birds are CARNIVOROUS and/or SCAVENGERS. This, of course, means that unclean birds have more diseases and parasites.
OWLS eat rats, mice and other disease-carrying rodents almost exclusively! The EAGLE will eat "fish and refuse that is thrown up on the shore" and one kind of EAGLE is "able to take some birds as they fly, but a large part of its sustenance is the flesh of animals that die a natural death" (Encyc. Brit. 11th, 20:397 & 8:790). VAMPIRE BATS drink BLOOD and bats are vectors of the disease RABIES*! BAT SALIV ARY GLAND FEVER* can also infect man via bites and infection.
Starting in Leviticus 11:13, we read, "And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the EAGLE, and the OSSIFRAGE, and the OSPREY, And the VULTURE (KITE), and the KITE (FALCON) after its kind; Every RAVEN after its kind; And the OWL (OSTRICH), and the NIGHT HAWK, and the CUCKOW (SEA GULL), and the HAWK after its kind, AND the LITTLE (WHITE) OWL, and the CORMORANT, and the GREAT (HORNED) OWL, And the "SWAN" (IBIS, STORK, or WATER HEN), and the PELICAN, and the GIER (CARRION) EAGLE, and the STORK, the HERON after its kind, and the LAPWING (HOOPOE), and the BAT" (vv.13-19). Deuteronomy 14:13,16 and 17 mentions some additional birds: "And the GLEDE (BUZZARD) ... The LITTLE (SCREECH) OWL, and the GREAT OWL ... and the GIER EAGLE (CARRION VULTURE)." Other examples are the BITTERN, CRANE, CROW, KESTREL, PARROT, ROADRUNNER, SWIFT and WOODPECKER.
The list of clean birds and fowl must be the following: BLACKBIRD, BRAMBLING, BALDHEADED IBIS, CHAFFINCH, CHICKEN, CORN BUNTING, DOVE, DUCK, GOOSE, GROUSE, GARDEN WARBLER, GREENFINCH, GOLDEN PLOVER, GARGANAY, GUINEA FOWL, HEN, ITALIAN SPARROW, MEADOW PIPIT, ORTOLAN BUNTING, PHEASANT, PEACOCK, PARTRIDGE, PIGEON, QUAIL, REDSTART, ROCK BUNTING, ROBIN, ROOSTER, SPARROW, SONGBIRDS (including such beautiful singers as the thrushes, wrens, honeyeaters, cardinals, larks, mockingbirds, canaries, nightingales, butcherbirds, blackbirds and warblers), SONG THRUSH, SKYLARK, SNIPE, SWAN, TURTLE DOVE, TURKEY, WOOD COCK, WHEATEAR, WHITE WAGTAIL, YELLOWHAMMER, etcetera.
Incidentally, birds must have their blood drained in accordance with Leviticus 17:13 which says, "And whatsoever man there is ... who hunteth and catcheth any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall even pour out the BLOOD thereof, and cover it with dust." In order to obey this scripture, a hunter must use harmless nets and snares to catch his prey rather than birdshot which causes the BLOOD to COAGULATE in the FLESH.
Why Are Grasshoppers Edible?
Continuing in Leviticus 11 we read, "All fowls that creep (winged insects), going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you. Yet these may ye eat of every FLYING creeping thing (winged insect) that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, with which to LEAP upon the earth (They have six appendages but use four to walk and two to hop); Even these of them ye may eat: the LOCUST after its kind, and the BALD LOCUST after its kind, and the beetle (CRICKET) after its kind, and the GRASSHOPPER after its kind. But all other flying creeping things (winged insects), which have four feet (and two hands -- Pr. 30:28), shall be an abomination unto you" (Lev.11:20-23). "A Grasshopper has six legs.... The front legs hold food when the animal eats" (8:318, ibid.). (So they could be considered hands rather than legs). "Grasshoppers are active by day and if disturbed jump suddenly and powerfully, using their greatly enlarged hindlegs. They can crawl slowly by means of the other two pairs of legs" (They go "upon all fours" therefore, just as the Bible says) (Wildlife Encyc., 1980, 7:931).
The N.I.V. renders verse 22 this way, "Of these you may eat any kind of LOCUST, KATYDID (a green cricket-like insect), CRICKET or GRASSHOPPER." The T.E.V. says, "All WINGED insects are unclean, except those that hop. You may eat LOCUSTS, CRICKETS, or GRASSHOPPERS" (vv.20-22).
But a word of caution should be given since "MORMON CRICKETS, CAMEL (CAVE) CRICKETS, MOLE CRICKETS, and JERUSALEM CRICKETS are NOT considered TRUE crickets" (World Book Encyc., 1985, 4:908). The CAMEL (CAVE) CRICKET is a WINGLESS SCAVENGER! It cannot fly and consequently is unclean! The MORMON and JERUSALEM CRICKETS don't have any WINGS either, so are also unclean! MOLE CRICKETS have only VERY SHORT, STUBBY WINGS! Instead of LEAPING ON the earth, they BURROW UNDER it! Many CAVE and CAMEL CRICKETS are also SUBTERRANEAN. Also, some kinds of LOCUSTS and GRASSHOPPERS are WINGLESS (World Book Encyc., 1985, 8:317 & 4:908).
Leviticus 11:29-30 says, "These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon ther earth: the WEASEL, and the MOUSE, and the TORTOISE after its kind, And the FERRET, and the CHAMELEON, and the LIZARD, and the SNAIL, and the MOLE." "Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath many feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination" (11:41-42). Other members of this list include the ALLIGATOR, ASP, BOA CONSTRICTOR, CENTEPEDE, COBRA, CROCODILE, FROG, MILLIPEDE, RAT, RATTLESNAKE, SALAMANDER, SLUG, SPIDER, etcetera.
Most people have common sense enough to avoid the members of this group as food, yet even here the SNAIL is eaten as ESCARGOT, and CANNED RATTLESNAKE can be found in the delicacy section of some food stores. FROG'S LEG'S and HORSEMEAT are especially popular in France and MAGUEY BUTTER (made from yellow worms) is eaten in Mexico! TURTLE SOUP is available in some parts of the United States. The Chinese eat RATS! DOGFISH are eaten in Japan and SHARK-FIN SOUP in Hong Kong.
But why are grasshoppers permitted? Part of the answer undoubtedly lies in the fact that, "Except for mantids, which capture living insects, and some cockroaches, crickets and katydids, which are SCAVEN-GERS, OMNIVORES and occasionally PREDATORS, most ORTHOPTERA are HERBIVOROUS" (Encyc. Brit. 1973, 16:1129). From the eleventh edition of the Britannica, volume 12, page 377, article "Grasshoppers," we read that "ALL are VEGETABLE feeders." The large, Old World species of locusts are "PHYTOPHAGOUS" (plantfeeders) (volume 16, p.857, article "Locust"). Many of these Orthoptera insects are so selective in their eating habits that they consume the same foods as man -- vegetable gardens and grain fields! This is why swarms of LOCUSTS and GRASSHOPPERS, unlike all other insects, can be so detrimental to man! But at the same time, farmers who have read their Bibles can benefit from locust plagues at least in a small way by catching swarms of these insects in nets, drowning them in water, plucking off their wings, legs, and heads, and eating them. The viscera is attached to the head and will come out when the head is pulled off.
"While somewhat deficient in vitamin content, locusts contain upsalts and some calories.... John the Baptist could enjoy a reasonably balanced diet by eating locusts along with honey" (p.129, R.K. Harrison).
"Many people catch and eat the swarming locusts, especially in the Middle East and parts of Africa. They remove the wings and legs before eating the insects" (World Book Encyc., 1985, 8:318).
Interestingly, GRASSHOPPERS have a crop, gizzard, gastric caeca and a stomach, in that order, from front to back. Truly they could be classified as "clean birds" according to the Mishnah! Even the Bible itself seems to include winged insects in the bird category just as much as in the "creeping thing" category. They are called "fowls" (Lev.11:20-21) the same as all the birds we normally consider to be fowls (11:13-19). Of course, the word in Hebrew merely comes from a root meaning of "to cover" (with wings) which would apply equally to insects or feathered birds! But nobody can dispute the fact that verses 20 to 23 (discussing winged insects) come immediately after verses 13 to 19 (discussing feathered birds) rather than in verses 29 and 30 (discussing "creeping things").
Also like their clean counterparts in the beast category, they CHEW their food with two powerful grinding jaws called MANDIBLES. All of the insects that PIERCE and SUCK are unclean! A person can't help but compare their chewing mandibles with the BROAD, FLAT teeth of RUMINANTS that are constantly engaged in CHEWING vegetation! But unclean dogs GULP down their food! "Snakes swallow their food whole.... Sharp, pointed teeth, poorly adapted for chewing, generally characterize meat eaters such as SNAKES, DOGS, and CATS" (Encyc. Brit. 1974, 5:784).
Furthermore, the GRASSHOPPER uses its antennae to examine food, It even has fingerlike projections "on both sides of the mouth and on the lower lip. They contain the insect's 'taste buds.'" (World Book Encyc. 8:317).
But, in contrast, the unclean "creeping things" don't seem to care what they eat! They're CARNIVORES, PREDATORS, and SCAVENGERS! In addition to these undesirable characteristics, many of these unclean creatures are also poisonous. SPIDERS, TICKS, SCORPIONS, SNAKES, WASPS, BEES, ANTS, TOADS and FROGS all have their poisonous varieties that infect man via bite, sting, or just plain contact as is the case between the "warts" (poison glands) of TOADS and a person's mouth or cut hand! The skin of Fire-bellied TOADS is so poisonous that just "looking into a bag of freshly caught specimens causes fits of sneezing and watering of the eyes" (Encyclopedia of the Animal World 6:566).
Incidentally, even though BEES are unclean, the HONEY they produce is fit to eat since it is POLLEN from FLOWERS in another form and not actually from the BEES themselves. The shellac coating on many vitamin and mineral pills is secreted from the LAC beetle which sucks sap from the branches of certain trees and is kosher for the same reason as honey is from bees. The nose slowly sucks sap, known as Lac, which builds up and hardens over the Beetle to form a protective shell.
Other unclean "creeping things" are notorious disease-carriers! MOSQUITOS transmit MALARIA*, YELLOW FEVER*, DENGUE* and FILARIASIS. FLIES transmit TRYPANOSOME DISEASES*, TULAREMIA, PAPPATACI FEVER and LEISHMANIASIS*. "SNAILS convey FLUKES, but not by ingestion" (p.821, M. Rosenau). BILHARZIASIS (Urinary Schistosomiasis) is contracted through the eating of infected SNAILS (pp.126-127, R.K. Harrison). TICKS can transmit germs of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER*, Q FEVER, and other diseases. RATS host fleas which carry BUBONIC PLAGUE.* RAT-BITE FEVER* can be transmitted to man by the bite of an infected RAT or MOUSE. LASSA FEVER* is also transmitted to humans by contact with infected rodent urine, feces and saliva. INFECTIOUS JAUNDICE, ENDEMIC TYPHUS*, TRICHINOSIS*, and FOOD INFECTION can all be transmitted to man, one way or another, by RATS! RATS and MICE "may harbor eleven species of internal parasites which also occur in man" (p.278, M. Rosenau).
Finally, notice that these four categories of BEASTS, FISH, BIRDS and "CREEPING THINGS" are not based on modern-day classification criteria which use such categories as "Mammals," "Reptiles," "Invertebrates" and "Insects," but instead are based on the creature's environment and VISIBLE characteristics, making it easy to tell ON SIGHT whether or not the creature is edible. When buying packaged, processed foods, it is still possible to tell ON SIGHT whether or not the
food is edible, or "KOSHER." Just look for a "K" on the label. Sometimes, instead of a "K" for KOSHER, we find a "U" which stands for Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations. Incidentally, the word "PARVE" or "PAREVE" on a food package means it was prepared without meat, milk or their derivatives. Thus it may be eaten with meat or dairy dishes. This is Jewish tradition based on Ex.23:19, not a biblical command. Israelites also denied themselves the sinew of the hip (Gen.32:32) but this was mere tradition and not a law also!
Liberal "rabbis" regard the LIVER as kosher and have taken the initiative of labelling JELL-O Brand Gelatin and ROYAL Gelatin Desserts as being kosher when in fact the gelatin protein is extracted from collagen-bearing tissue found in hide trimmings and connective tissue of beef and PORK, and other animals. Supposedly, severe physical and chemical changes in the gelatin make it "kosher." The circled "U" is more trustworthy than the "K" in these instances.
Food Laws In The New Testament?
Beginning in chronological order, we know that JOHN THE BAPTIST ate "LOCUSTS and wild honey" (Matt.3:4) and Jesus said there was no greater human being than him up till that time (Matt.11:11). Obviously he obeyed the food laws! Why else would a person single out LOCUSTS as food?
Jesus Destroyed A Herd Of Swine -- Not The Law!
Next we come to JESUS CHRIST who warned his disciples, "except your RIGHTEOUSNESS shall EXCEED the RIGHTEOUSNESS of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven" (Matt.5:20). What was the RIGHTEOUSNESS of the scribes and Pharisees that we must SURPASS or GO BEYOND? He condemned them because they "strain at (or "out" -- A.S.V.) a GNAT, and swallow a CAMEL" (Matt.23:24). Therefore, we must not swallow either a GNAT or a CAMEL in order to surpass them and enter the kingdom. This is not just a figure of speech. The Pharisees really did STRAIN their wine, vinegar, etcetera through linen before drinking (p.370, Manners And Customs). Why would Christ use this particular figure of speech if he was intending to cleanse both the GNAT and the CAMEL and abolish such an "artificial" distinction? (see Matt.7:10 also) Obviously he had no intention of abolishing the clean/unclean food laws!
He even gave a parable that "the kingdom of heaven is like a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every KIND (of fish), Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good (CLEAN) into vessels, but cast the bad (UNCLEAN) away. So shall it be at the end of the world; the angels shall come forth, and sever (separate) the wicked from among the just (righteous), And shall cast them into the furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth" (Matt.13:47-50). Eating CLEAN fish does our bodies GOOD; and eating UNCLEAN fish does our bodies HARM.
Christ said, "NOT that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man, BUT that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man" (Matt.15:11). He was not abolishing the distinction between clean and unclean meat here. Instead he was using a "NOT ... BUT" contrast found so often in scriptures which means "NOT ONLY THIS ... BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY THAT ALSO" as some examples will make clear. Moses said "Your murmurings are NOT against us, BUT against the Eternal" (Ex.16:8) yet obviously they were murmuring against Moses also
(16:2). God says,"For I desire mercy, and NOT sacrifice" (Hos.6:6) yet we know he desires both. Christ said, "whosoever shall receive me, receiveth NOT me, BUT him that sent me" (Mark 9:37). People receive both. "Lay NOT up for yourselves treasures upon earth ... BUT lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven" (Matt.6:19-20). We must lay up treasure in both places. "Labor NOT for the food which perisheth, BUT for that food which endureth unto everlasting life" (John 6:27). We must labor for both kinds of food. "For he is NOT a Jew who is one outwardly ... BUT he is a Jew who is one inwardly" (Rom.2:28-29). Both are Jews. Joseph said, "So now it was NOT you that sent me here, BUT God" (Gen.45:8). Both sent him there. "And the Eternal said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee; for they have NOT rejected thee, BUT they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them" (1 Sam.8:7). They rejected both God and Samuel. "In like manner, also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel ... NOT with broided (braided) hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array ... BUT (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works" (1 Tim.2:9-10). Women should adorn themselves with both kinds of beauty. For many more examples, see Genesis 32:28, Proverbs 8:10, Joel 2:13, Matthew 9:13, 12:7, 16:17, 1 Pet.3:3-4, Luke 14:12-14, John 4:21-23,11:4, 12:44, Acts 5:4, 17:24,1 John 3:18 and 1 Corinthians 15:10.
Some argue that Christ actually said all foods were clean in Mark 7:19. Yes, the R.S.V. does read, "since it enters, not his heart but his stomach, and so passes on? (Thus he declared all foods clean.)" but this is a BLATANT MISTRANSLATION. Lamsa's Bible is clearer: "Because it does not enter into his heart, but into his stomach, and then is thrown out through the intestines, thereby purifying the food"or "purging all meats" (KJV) or "which eliminates all foods" (Fenton). The context is digestion, not dietary laws!
When Christ taught one verse earlier that "whatsoever goes into a man from outside cannot defile him," (RSV) he was, first of all, speaking spiritually, not physically. In the second place, he was referring to eating "bread with UNWASHED hands" (7:5) and with UNWASHED "pots and cups" (7:8), not to eating ARSENIC or CYANIDE or TRICHINAE in pork! Furthermore, the washing spoken of here refers only to CEREMONIAL washing, not SANITARY, HYGIENIC cleansing with water! "The water was poured on both hands, which must be free of anything covering them, such as gravel, mortar, &c. The hands were lifted up, so as to make the water run to the wrist, in order to ensure that the whole hand was washed, and that the water polluted by the hand did not again run down the fingers. Similarly, each hand was rubbed with the other (the fist), provided the hand that rubbed had been affused: otherwise the rubbing might be done against the head, or even against a wall." (vol.2, page 11, Life and Times of Jesus The Messiah) This ritual purification was done before and after meals and was repeated if the hands were 'defiled' (p.12, ibid.). The water-pots were used in washing the vessels used for eating (vol.1, page 357, ibid.). If this washing wasn't done, the food was considered contaminated in the opinion of the Pharisees!
Even in Christ's day, many Jews misunderstood his teaching and thought he permitted the drinking of BLOOD and eating of HUMAN FLESH! This is the reason "many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him" (John 6:66). They didn't understand that he was speaking spiritually when he said, "He who eateth my FLESH, and drinketh my BLOOD, hath eternal life ... For my FLESH is meat indeed, and my BLOOD is drink indeed" (6:54-55). His disciples thought he taught CANNIBALISM!
But Jesus Christ believed so firmly in the laws of clean and unclean meats that he destroyed a whole herd of SWINE being raised for food, in violation of God's law, by commanding many demons to "Go" (Matt.8:32) into them. Christ knew the demons would drive the animals down into the sea where they would drown!
In Luke 10:8 Christ told his disciples, "Into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, EAT SUCH THINGS as are SET BEFORE YOU." Critics charge that Christ gave us permission to eat ANY KIND of food we are served in this verse! But which cities did they enter into? Not Gentile cities, but Israelite cities! Christ said, "Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter not (Missionaries disobey this order!); But go, rather, to the lost sheep of the house of Israel." Christ's disciples were sent to those who already knew about the "kosher laws" and obeyed them (cp. Luke 10:1 with Matt.15:24).
Christ said that if Christians "drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them" (Mark 16:18) but we are not to tempt God (Matt.4:7) by deliberately eating or drinking poisons. This only applies to accidental poisoning (Acts 28:1-6).
Christ said that man shall live "by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God" (Matt.4:4) and the OLD TESTAMENT scriptures were the only written word of God at this time (2 Tim.3:15-16; 1 Cor.10:11). Christ also said, "the scriptures cannot be broken" (John 10:35) -- meaning the OLD TESTAMENT isn't abolished. Later he said "Thy word is truth" (John 17:17). The OLD TESTAMENT is true! Christ stated, "Think not that I am come to destroy the LAW, or the PROPHETS; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill" (Matt.5:17). Fulfill what? Christ answers, "All things must be fulfilled, which were written in the LAW of Moses, and in the PROPHETS, and in the PSALMS CONCERNING ME" (Luke 24:44; see also vv.25-27; Luke 18:31-34 & Acts 13:27-33). These are the three divisions of the OLD TESTAMENT!
Christ fulfilled the ritualistic types and sacrificial shadows in the law as well as the prophecies in the prophets. But Christ didn't come to destroy the laws against murder, adultery, idolatry or blasphemy. These laws serve a practical purpose and are not mere shadows or types. They aren't prophecies of Christ's death or types of the Holy Spirit. They are part of the moral law that reveals God's character which doesn't change (Mal.3:6; Heb.13:8). It's true that Christ also fulfilled the moral law, but in a different way. He magnified the law and made it honorable (Isa.42:21) by adding the full spirit and intent to the mere letter of the law (Matt.5:21-44).
Jesus Christ was a "JEW" (John 4:9; Heb.7:14). He was considered by many to be a "RABBI" -- a teacher authorized to interpret Jewish law (John 1:38,49; 3:2; 6:25; 20:16). Nowhere in the entire New Testament do we find anybody accusing him of EATING UNCLEAN MEAT. This is especially significant in light of the fact that CHRIST ATE MEALS together WITH PHARISEES (Luke 7:36-39; 11:37-38; 14:1). To even be called "RABBI" implied that Christ AVOIDED UNCLEAN MEAT! Nicodemus was a ruling Pharisee and said to Christ, "Rabbi, we (Pharisees) know that thou art a teacher come from God" (John 3:2). Certainly this implies that CHRIST OBEYED the FOOD LAWS.
"Jesus Christ the RIGHTEOUS" (1 John 2:1) knew that "all thy commandments (including FOOD LAWS) are RIGHTEOUSNESS" (Ps.119:172). Jesus Christ "WHO DID NO SIN" (1 Pet.2:22) knew that "SIN is the TRANSGRESSION of the LAW" and one of those LAWS is AVOIDING UNCLEAN MEAT (1 John 3:4).
But most significant of all is the fact that Christians should FOLLOW the EXAMPLE that CHRIST SET. First Peter 2:21 says that Christ left us an example, "that ye should follow his steps." First John 2:6 states, "He that saith he abideth in him (Christ) ought himself also so to walk,
even as he walked." He walked as an observant JEWISH RABBI!
But did Christ ever COMMAND any of his disciples to AVOID UNCLEAN FOOD? Jesus said to Philip, "FOLLOW ME" (John 1:43) and to Peter and Andrew, "FOLLOW ME, and I will make you fishers of men" (Matt.4:19). If we FOLLOW HIM, we will AVOID UNCLEAN MEAT too, because he AVOIDED IT (see also Matt.9:9). Christ "COMMANDED" his disciples when he "opened his mouth, and taught them, saying ... except your righteousness shall EXCEED the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven" (Matt.5:2,20). The scribes and Pharisees STRAINED OUT A GNAT (Matt.23:23). In Matthew 28:19-20, Christ commanded his disciples, "Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations ... Teaching them to observe ALL THINGS whatsoever I have COMMANDED you."
What Did Peter's Vision Mean?
Next we come to SIMON PETER who saw a vision of a sheet containing clean animals made common by their contact with unclean animals on the same sheet. About ten years after the crucifixion, he declared, "I have never eaten anything that is COMMON or UNCLEAN" (Acts 10:14). UNCLEAN refers to inherently contaminated animals (Lev.11;Deut.14). COMMON refers to acquired contamination of originally clean animals due to contact with unclean animals or improper draining of the blood of clean animals since they died a natural death or were strangled, etcetera (See also Mark 7:2). Such meat was called "COMMON" because it could be sold to aliens if they wanted it. They were the COMMON, polluted gentiles (Deut.14:21). Peter knew the vision he'd seen didn't somehow cleanse unclean animals. Instead, Peter "doubted in himself" what the vision should mean. In Acts 10:28 Peter interprets the vision: "God hath shown me that I should not call any man COMMON or UNCLEAN." It was considered "unlawful" (10:28; 11:3) to keep company with gentiles according to the eighteen edicts of Shammaite oral law since, generally speaking, they didn't obey God's laws and consequently a Jew could become "contaminated" by associating with them.
But just as Peter heard the voice say, "What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common" (10:15) THREE times, so also there were THREE
gentiles who came to take Peter to Cornelius. The vision was only an analogy! Cornelius himself already avoided unclean meats because he was "a JUST man, and ONE THAT FEARETH GOD, and of GOOD REPORT among all the nation of the JEWS" (Acts 10:22). It was impossible for a man to be of a "GOOD" report among observant Jews unless he OBEYED the FOOD LAWS. The phrase "ONE THAT FEARETH GOD" or "GOD-FEARER" was a religious classification that ranked Cornelius above a pagan gentile but below a proselyte or gentile convert to Judaism. A "GOD-FEARER" was a step in between -- a gentile who understood and OBEYED the LAW, but only occasionally attended synagogue. James Told Us To Avoid Blood!
About 50 A.D., nineteen years after the crucifixion, the food laws were still in full force because we read that JAMES, the Lord's brother, required that gentiles must "abstain from MEATS OFFERED TO IDOLS, and from BLOOD, and from THINGS STRANGLED, and from FORNICATION" (Acts 15:29).
The MINIMUM requirements of strangers "to sojourn among" Israelites was that they not offer sacrifices to demon idols (Lev. 17:7-9) or eat blood (Lev. 17:10-11) or eat animals that had been strangled preventing the blood from draining (Lev. 17:12-16) and that they avoid any sexual misconduct (Lev. 18:1-26). This we find summarized in Acts 15:20 , 29 and 21:25. There were other laws specifically addressed to the stranger such as avoiding blasphemy (Lev. 24:16), fasting, resting on Yom Kippur (Lev. 16:29) and getting rid of leaven on the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 12:19) but as Yebamoth 47a explains, the rabbis "do not ... tell him (the proselyte) TOO MUCH, or enter into TOO MANY DETAILS" upon initial conversion. But the very next verse of Acts shows that converts were expected to attend synagogues "every Sabbath day" where Moses is read (Acts 15:21). As Exodus 20:10 says, "the stranger that is within thy gates" "shalt not do any work" on the Sabbath. Attending with Jews shows that the SAME DOCTRINAL OBEDIENCE was expected of both. As Numbers 9:14 says, "You shall have ONE LAW both for the stranger and the native." As Leviticus 19:34 says, "The stranger that dwells with you shall be unto you AS ONE BORN AMONG YOU and thou shalt love him as thyself." As Jesus said in Matthew 28:19-20, "Teach all nations to OBSERVE ALL THINGS whatsoever I have commanded you."
Paul Said Don't Touch Unclean Things!
About 57 A.D., twenty-six years after the crucifixion, PAUL, the apostle to the gentiles, told gentiles "Ye are the temple of the living God ... touch not the UNCLEAN thing" (2 Cor.6:17). He may have also been speaking SPIRITUALLY (Eph.5:5; 1 Cor.7:14), but his remark certainly applies PHYSICALLY since he was quoting from Isaiah 52:11 and Leviticus 11:8 and God does dwell inside our physical bodies. As he said two verses later "let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the FLESH and SPIRIT" (7:1). The Bible defines itself! In the absence of any New Testament scriptures, his audience had only the Old Testament scriptures from which to take the context. People argue that Paul did away with the food laws when he said, "I know and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus that there is nothing UNCLEAN of itself; but to him
that esteemeth anything to be UNCLEAN, to him it is UNCLEAN" (Rom.14:14). Actually this verse is mistranslated in the K.J.V. Wherever the word "UNCLEAN" appears, the actual Greek should be translated "COMMON" as in Acts 10:14. Even the context of Romans 14 shows that the controversy is between meat-eaters and vegetarians (14:2), not between clean and unclean meat-eaters! Furthermore, it appears from 1 Corinthians 8:7-8 and 10:25-28 that the reason why some of the Roman Christians were vegetarians is because they were reluctant to consume any food offered to idols, even if the BLOOD had been properly drained, simply because they felt the idol itself contaminated the meat. Since virtually all the meat sold in the gentile meat-markets was suspect, they avoided meat altogether! Thus Paul explains that nothing is COMMON of itself (simply by being associated with an idol).
Paul makes it very clear in Ephesians 5:5 that "No ... UNCLEAN (#169 "akathartos") person ... hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God." The Bible defines itself because this same Greek word "akathartos" is used in Acts 10:14,28,11:8, 2 Corinthians 6:17, Revelation 16:13 and 18:2 all of which clearly refer to the unclean animals mentioned in the Old Testament. Also Leviticus 11:43 defines "UN-CLEAN" people as those who have eaten unclean creatures! Paul even said he believed "all things which are written in the LAW and in the PROPHETS" (Acts 24:14). Does that remark sound like he was doing away with the FOOD LAWS?
In Philippians 4:9 Paul said, "Those things which ye have both LEARNED, and RECEIVED, and HEARD, and SEEN in me, DO." In 1Corinthians 11:1 Paul stated, "Be ye FOLLOWERS of me, even AS I also am of Christ." These Corinthians were gentiles (1 Cor.12:2). Paul must have AVOIDED UNCLEAN MEAT since he was a PHARISEE (Acts 23:6; 26:5; Phil.3:4-5) and he did that very thing long after Christ was crucified since he was able to boast around 60 A.D. in his letter to the Philippians that he was "BLAMELESS" concerning the law (Phil.3:4-6).
In another epistle of Paul, we again find a scripture "hard to be understood" (2 Pet.3:16). In 1 Timothy 4:3-5, Paul mentions two demonic doctrines: "Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from MEATS, which God hath CREATED TO BE RECEIVED with thanksgiving by them who believe and know the TRUTH. For every creature OF GOD is good, and nothing is to be refused, if it is received with thanksgiving; For it is SANCTIFIED BY THE WORD OF GOD and prayer."
Vegetarianism is therefore not required by the Bible. However, many of the world's best have been vegetarians: Plato, Ovid, Seneca, Buddah, Leonardo Da Vinci, John Wesley, Swedenborg, Shelley, Thoreau, Benjamin Franklin, Tolstoy, Gandhi, George Bernard Shaw, etcetera.
First of all, commas and other punctuation marks were completely unknown when the Bible was originally written. Aldus Manutious invented them in the 16th century! There should be no comma after "meats" in verse 3. Some meats were definitely NOT created by God to be received. Furthermore, those "who believe and know the TRUTH" must believe and know "thy word" (the Bible) since Christ said, "thy word is TRUTH" (John 17:17). They believe and know that the Bible forbids certain "meats." Last of all, the creatures "SANCTIFIED BY THE WORD OF GOD" are those listed as "CLEAN" in Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14! The others are NOT "creatures of Gods," but are "evil beasts" (Ez.34:25). They're everywhere compared to demons and even Satan himself!
John Condemned The "Abominable"!
For instance, the apostle JOHN compares Satan to an "old SERPENT" (Rev.12:9) and "three UNCLEAN spirits" to "FROGS" (16:13). He even mentions that Babylon "is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every UNCLEAN and HATEFUL BIRD" (18:2). Throughout the New Testament, demons are referred to as "UNCLEAN spirits." The word translated "UNCLEAN" in both Acts10:14 and 2 Corinthians 6:17 (describing unclean animals) is IDENTICAL to the word describing demons! Why would John, writing about 95 A.D., sixty-four years after the crucifixion, even think to call some birds "UNCLEAN" if this distinction was abolished at the "cross of Christ" or even later when the temple was destroyed (70 A.D.)? And why did he compare "UNCLEAN" spirits to FROGS of all things, unless FROGS were still "UNCLEAN" in 95 A.D.?
John is equally clear in Revelation 21:8 which says, "The fearful, and unbelieving, and the ABOMINABLE (#948 "bdelusso") and murderers, and whoremongers, sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death." And in Revelation 21:27 he says"there shall in no wise enter into it anything that defileth, neither he that worketh ABOMINATION (#946 "bdelugma")." And in Revelation 17:4 we find a woman "arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand, full of ABOMINATIONS (#946 "bdelugma") and filthiness of her fornication." Paul also condemned the "ABOMINABLE"(#947 "bdeluktos") in Titus 1:16. The Bible defines itself because this same Greek word is used in Matthew 24:15 and Mark 13:14 (#946 bdelugma) to refer to the PIG sacrificed by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) in 165 B.C. He forced the people of God "to set up altars and groves and chapels of idols, and sacrifice SWINE'S flesh and UNCLEAN beasts ... Yet many in Israel stood firm and resolved ... not to eat what was unclean" (1 Macc.1:47,62). Also Leviticus 20:25 states, "Ye shall therefore put difference between clean beasts and unclean, and between unclean fowls and clean; and ye shall not make your souls ABOMINABLE by beast, or by fowl, or by any manner of living thing that creepeth on the ground, which I have separated from you as unclean." (See also Lev.11:43)
So if JOHN THE BAPTIST, JESUS CHRIST, SIMON PETER, JAMES, PAUL and even JOHN THE APOSTLE all believed in, and obeyed, these food laws, why don't more Christians follow their example?
Ezekiel prophesied of our day by saying, "Her priests have violated my law (Heb. "torah"), and have profaned mine holy things; they have put no difference between the holy and the profane, neither have they shown difference between the UNCLEAN and the CLEAN, and have hidden their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am profaned among them" (Ez.22:26).
Food Laws In The Millenium?
Zechariah 9:7 states, "And I will take away his BLOOD out of his mouth, and his ABOMINATIONS from between his teeth."
Ezekiel 44:23 says, "And they (Levite priests) shall teach my people the difference between the holy and profane, and cause them to discern between the UNCLEAN and the CLEAN."
Yes, in the near future, as Isaiah 66:15-17 prophesies, "the Eternal will come with fire, and with his chariots like a whirlwind, to render his anger with fury, and his rebuke with flames of fire.... They that sanctify themselves, and purify themselves in the gardens behind one tree in the midst (or "in the sacred groves one behind the other"), eating SWINE'S FLESH, and the ABOMINATION, and the MOUSE, shall be consumed together, saith the Eternal." Also, the "BROTH of ABOMI-NABLE (Heb. "PIGGUL") THINGS is in their vessels" (65:4), which could refer to CLAM chowder or even MUSHROOM soup! The Eternal is angry with those who violate these FOOD LAWS because they are hurting themselves and others by doing so! Yes, these FOOD LAWS are SCIENTIFIC, HEALTH principles!
A Scientific Experiment
In 1953 a study was conducted in which Dr. David Macht of Johns Hopkins University reported the toxic effects of animal flesh on a controlled growth culture (David Macht, M.D., "An Experimental Pharmacological Appreciation of Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14," Bulletin of Historical Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 47:1 (April 1953): 444-450). A substance was classified as toxic if it slowed the culture's growth rate below 75 percent. His results show that the lower the growth percentage of the culture, the more toxic the flesh. The differences between clean and unclean animals appear to be related to their primary food source and to their digestive systems. Scavengers that eat anything and everything are unclean. Clean animals primarily eat grasses and grains.
BEASTS: Clean: calf 82%, deer 98%, goat 90%, ox 91% and sheep 94%. Unclean: black bear 59%, camel 41%, cat 62%, coney (guinea pig) 46%, dog 62%, fox (silver) 58%, grizzly bear 55%, ground hog 53%, hamster 46%, horse 39%, opossum 53%, rabbit 49%, rat 55%, rhinoceros 60%, squirrel 43%, and swine 54%.
We believe mushrooms are not "GREEN"
and therefore should be avoided since God said, "I have given every
GREEN herb for meat (food)" (Gen.1:29-30). They are a FUNGUS
and many are POISONOUS. BLOOD should be avoided also (Lev.3:17).
"Thou shalt not eat it, that it may go well with thee" (Deut.12:25).
Why? Because BLOOD transports BODILYWASTES and POISONS
to excretory ducts in the body. Infectious DISEASES can be transmitted
to man by ingesting BLOOD of diseased animals (e.g. tuberculosis).
Ezekiel condemned those who "eat with the BLOOD" (Ez.33:25).
We must also avoid FAT (Lev. 7:23-24). Why? Because "where
the diet is rich in these ANIMALFATS, heart disease is
generally a problem" (Prevention, 1980, p.134). Saturated
FAT causes a buildup of cholesterol in human arteries and veins.
This in turn causes atherosclerosis. Excess animal FAT has been
linked to Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancers (Diseases, 1983, pp.224,228).
Avoid HAMBURGERS! Regarding PORK, HAM and BACON,
God said, "the SWINE, though he divide the hoof, and be cloven-footed,
yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall
ye not eat, and their carcass shall ye not touch"(Lev.11:7-8).
Ezekiel said, "Ah, Lord God! Behold, my soul hath not been
POLLUTED; for from my youth up even till now have I not eaten of
that which dieth of itself, or is torn in pieces, neither came there ABOMINABLE
(Hebrew: "PIGGUL") flesh into my mouth" (Ez.4:14).
An interesting consequence of the runinant-type digestive process is the
fact that ruminants aren't PREDATORY or CARNIVOROUS! They
get all the nutrition they need from PLANTS! This PLANT-EATING
nature results in LESS DISEASE and FEWER PARASITES. But
the PIG is a SCAVENGER eating DEAD and DECAYED
flesh (often of other UNCLEAN animals). TRICHINOSIS is caused
by "ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat that contains T. spiralis
cysts. Such cysts are found primarily in SWINE" (Diseases,
p.426). There is no specific treatment or cure for TRICHINOSIS
and the disease can be fatal. Diagnosing the disease in man is extremely
difficult since the symptoms are mistaken for at least FORTY other
diseases. Thus its EPIDEMIC PROPORTIONS are hidden from Americans!
And "there is no 'safe' temperature at which pork can be cooked to
ensure that parasitic organisms are killed" (Leviticus, p.125).
PORK and HAM digest in a period of THREEHOURS
whereas CLEAN MEATS require 18 HOURS to digest (pp.48-50,
HealthGuideForSurvival). It is interesting
that the nation of Turkey avoids eating PIGS or any other unclean
meat and has a very low incidence of cancer compared to America. Israel's
parliament prohibits the "raising, keeping, or slaughtering"
of swine in most areas of the country. Former Prime Minister David BenGurion
stated at the Jubilee celebration of Israel's Medical Association that,
"Israel has the lowest death rate In the world" (i.e. the highest
life expectancy). As God said, "If thou wilt diligently hearken to
the voice of the Lord thy God, and wilt do that which is right in his
sight, and wilt give ear to his commandments, and keep all his statutes,
I will put none of these diseases upon thee" (Ex.15:26).
But doesn't the New Testament abolish these Kosher laws? Of course
not! Jesus destroyed a herd of PIGS -- not the Kosher laws (Matt.
8:32). James told gentiles to avoid BLOOD (Acts 15:29). Paul said
to "touch not the UNCLEAN thing" (2 Cor.6:17) and stated
that "No... UNCLEAN person... hath any inheritance in the
kingdom" (Eph.5:5). Leviticus 11:43 defines UNCLEAN people
as those who have eaten UNCLEAN creatures. Romans 14:14 and 1 Timothy
4:4 refer to the controversy between meat-eaters and vegetarians. Nothing
else. In the near future, "the Eternal will come with fire, and with
his chariots... They that sanctify themselves ... eating SWINE'S FLESH
... shall be consumed together, saith the Eternal" (Isa.66:15-17).
is not one human disease that is not caused or accentuated by a lack of
a mineral or vitamin" -- Professor Linus Pauling, California, Nobel
Prize Laureate. .Some common problems with vitamins, supplements and additives
are as follows: B vitamins can be derived from PORK liver, zinc
from liver or SHELLFISH, and vitamins A and D often come from SHARK
OIL. Royal Jelly is a queen BEE SECRETION. Pancreatic Enzymes
such as Alpha Amylase are derived from a HOG pancreas. Ambergris,
used for flavoring, comes from a WHALE'S intestines. Magnesium
Stearate is a NON-KOSHER ANIMAL derivative. Glucosamine is derived
from Chitin -- the exoskeleton of SHRIMP, LOBSTERS and CRABS.
Glucosamine Sulfate cartilage extracts are derived from SEA CUCUMBER,
green liped MUSSEL and SHARK cartilage. Calcium is often
derived from OYSTER shells. Most of the above ingredients also
have a vegetable source. Neither poisonous METHANOL (wood alcohol)
nor ACETONE (paint remover) is usually identified as a natural
component of coffee on the label, but both are present. Carmine (Cochineal)
is a red pigment derived from a Mexican scale INSECT (coccus cacti)
used to color Maraschino cherries and spices. Castoreum comes from BEAVER
glands. Civet Absolute is a flavoring derived from CATS. L Cysteine
is derived from HORSES. Emulsifiers and Shortening are often ANIMAL
FAT. Glycine is often an ANIMAL gelatin and Glycerine is often
from BEEF FAT. Magnesium Stearate and Stearic Acid can both be
from ANIMAL FAT. Polysorbate 60, 65, and 80 come from Stearic Acid
and are therefore also ANIMAL FAT. Lysine and Albumin both come
from BLOOD. Mono- and Diglycerides can come from NON-KOSHER
ANIMAL sources. Oleic Acid can come from ANIMALS FATS. Pepsin
is an enzyme from HOG stomachs used as a coagulant in cheese. Polyglycerol
Esters of Fatty Acids can be derived from ANIMAL FATS. Propylene
Glycol (Alginate) is ANTI-FREEZE. The Resinous Glaze (Shellac)
used to coat pills and candies comes from INSECT secretions. Marshmallows
are made from NON-KOSHER ANIMAL gelatin.
If you want to cut down on
cholesterol, avoid SHELLFISH (clams, crabs, lobsters, scallops
and shrimp). SHELLFISH are rich in cholesterol. Eat regular fish
instead. LARD and other FATS of animal origin also contain
high amounts of cholesterol and should be replaced with vegetable oils.